The study of cells: their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Number of genes required to sustain life

Are there estimates of the minimum number of genes required to sustain life? In what I mean by life here, I don't include viruses.
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Fusion of neuron with a S phase cell

There was some experiment in which a S phase cell was fused with other cell and the other cell also began to replicate DNA. Would the same happen if fused with nerve cell ? Why or why not?
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Critical pO2 threshold for cell division?

I'm a physicist asking questions on an aspect of cellular metabolism, so excuse my biological ignorance! Hypoxia is a frequent complication of certain tumour types, and has quite an implication for ...
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35 views

Why must abortive transcription repeat itself a number of times?

Why must abortive transcription repeat itself a number of times before a stable DNA:RNA hybrid containing a transcript of 11 ribonucleotides is formed?
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How is it that the WI-38 cell line isolated by Hayflick in 1962 is still very much around and not affected by the 'Hayflick Limit'?

I have searched the net and I have not been able to come up with an clear answer. Edit: Here is the para quoted from Nature http://www.nature.com/news/medical-research-cell-division-1.13273 "So began ...
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Which human cells have the longest and shortest lifespan?

Which cells in a human have the longest lifespan? Which cell has the shortest lifespan?
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538 views

How does formaldehyde/PBS or methanol fixation of cells affect lysosomal pH?

The question is fairly simple - does formaldehyde or methanol fixation in preparation for immunocytochemistry/immunofluorescent staining affect the pH of the lysosomes? Some background: I'm trying to ...
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How did viruses learn to utilize the workings of a cell?

This is my first post here, so excuse me for its simplicity. Viruses can infiltrate a cell, overtake it and multiply. It has projecting fibers whose ends are shaped as kind of a "key" to a mobile ...
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523 views

Are mature RBCs prokaryotic?

Mature mammalian RBCs have all the characteristics of a eukaryotic cell except that they don't have a nucleus, they don't have any cell organelles. Does this mean that RBCs are classified as ...
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83 views

Why can't cell division happen the other way around?

Mitosis in eukaryotes happen in this order: DNA replicates and then the cell divides. Why doesn't it happen in reverse order (i.e., cell divides and then replicates the DNA)? I am talking about ...
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57 views

Is forced cell growth related to apoptosis?

Could an instance of forced cellular growth cause some cells to have their self-destruct mechanisms to malfunction or 'turn off'thus preventing apoptosis?
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310 views

How is the mRNA transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum?

In eukaryotes the nuclear envelope is continuous with the ER, so what helps it out of that?
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Domains in cell membrane

How is movement of proteins and lipids between different domains of cell membrane prevented? Why is the noncytosolic layer not able to do lateral movements between domains but cytosolic layer is able ...
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175 views

What is 'calcium conductance'?

What is the meaning of calcium conductance in ion channels. I encountered this in the following text: It was established that the µ and δ opioid receptors open potassium channels, which results ...
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46 views

Function of ER in reviewing mutated proteins

At least in the case of Cystic Fibrosis it happens that a mutant protein (which could actually function!) is held in the ER because the ER detects it as misfolded. Does this happen in every type of ...
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56 views

Why are fibroblast used so commonly in cell biology?

Fibroblasts are some of the most commonly used cells in cell biology. What are the properties of those cells which makes them commonly used ?
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95 views

Why are centrioles aligned at 90 degree with each other?

The centrioles are aligned at 90 degree with each other. What is the function of this?
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How do plant cell divide without centrioles?

Most plants do not have centrioles , so who does their function ?
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why is AUG the initiation codon?

Is there any reason why AUG is the initiation codon ? Why is there a need for an initiation codon ? Can't translation start with different codons?
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Do mitochondrial DNA have repair enzymes?

Mitochondria are considered endosymbionts originated from a prokaryote. So, do they have a DNA repair mechanism ?
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39 views

Generic Abbreviation for Immunopanning?

This is actually something I've been wondering for a while. I've seen all kinds of short hand used outside of papers (IPn most commonly), but in publications I've not seen an abbreviation for ...
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110 views

Suggestions for an experiment? [closed]

I would appreciate suggestions for my year-long AP Biology project. Such a project would consists of a standard experiment, to be done over the period of a year, so it would have >to be fairly ...
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Missing cells from immunopanning

Why do I not have any cells left in my positive panning plate after transferring from the negative panning plate during immunopanning? I am trying to purify retinal ganglion cells from postnatal rats ...
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117 views

Characteristics of life

If all of the characteristics of life are required for something to be defined as living, how can we account people or other life that can not reproduce?
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44 views

Method to inject genes into cells

The famous Hershey and Chase Experiment uses phages to inject genes into cells. In the beginning, Professor Yamanaka injected 24 types of genes into cells to figure out which genes turn a cell into ...
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155 views

Why did Fair Meiosis evolve?

How and why did Fair Meiosis evolve? I can hardly think that it provided a fitness advantage to the individual carrying the mutation. Why would it? Or did it evolve through lineage selection? Or was ...
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73 views

Randomness in living systems

The point of my question is not to talk about events that are uncontrolled by living organisms. My question is about controlled randomness, or I'd like to say adaptive random process. Process that are ...
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54 views

Cell state and cell function

I have read many papers that refer to cell type, cell state and cell function, but I haven't found an explicit definition for each of these terms. For example this paper (Brown et al. 1994. J General ...
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67 views

Botulinum Toxin

I asked on the cooking site, but was directed here. This is my original question http://cooking.stackexchange.com/questions/35726/botulinum-toxin-in-home-canned-green-beans The reading is quite ...
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The role of antibodies interacting with cancer

I'm learning about antibodies. As I understand it, antibodies detect stranger cells/bacterial/viruses by the molecules present in their membranes. In cancer cells, the cancer cell have produce some ...