The study of cells, their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Mechanism of Octoxynol-10 as a preservative in vaccines

I noticed that the Fluarix Quad flu shot this season contains Octoxynol-10 rather than Thimerosal as a preservative. I am not expert in this area, so I did a Google search of "Octoxynol-10", and ...
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34 views

How do human cells respond to mechanical pressure such as heel contact during walking?

Basically, I'd like to do a full accounting (inventory, assets, liabilities) of a human cell under mechanical pressure. For example, if in steady-state, does the cell consume more or less energy ...
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15 views

Heteroplasmy in different tissues

I have only started reading the substantial body of research on heteroplasmy. I was curious if anyone knew of attempts to measure the somatic cell mtDNA mutation rate, to see if it differed from the ...
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32 views

What does high CD4 level means?

I was going through this webpage and I found the following lines: We hypothesised that despite unimodal distribution of CD4 co-receptor on naïve CD4 T cells they are not homogenous in their ...
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29 views

UACC-462 cell culture

UACC-462 is a pancreatic cell line established in the University of Arizona Cancer Center (UACC). The cells are available from ATCC and there is the instruction for culturing UACC-462. M-41 medium. ...
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20 views

What is the significance of 9+2 arrangement in flagella?

Why eukaryotic flagella have 9+2 arrangement .? What is the significance? a 9+0 flagella should have worked the same way .
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1answer
81 views

Why do eggs lack an endoplasmic reticulum?

Trueman's Elementary Biology book I found says that the endoplasmic reticulum is absent in eggs, but no reason is given. Why is it absent?
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2answers
225 views

Does soap kill human cells?

I see many products, particularly hand soap and cleaning products, that claim to kill 99.9% or more of bacteria. This makes me wonder, if the chemicals are potent enough to break down bacterial cell ...
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2answers
140 views

Blebbistatin effect on vesicles

Blebbistatin is a drug that specifically inhibits the assembly of myosin in the cytoskeleton. What effect would you expect blebbistatin to have on intracellular vesicles? ...
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1answer
43 views

Can mexican salamander regenerate any organ?

Mexican salamander or few other species of salamander can regenerate limbs, tail etc. Do they have HOX genes for vital organs like liver, heart, brain, kidney? If brain is damaged, can salamander ...
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1answer
109 views

How do lipid-soluble substances diffuse through the cell membrane?

It’s said that water-soluble substances can diffuse through cell membrane with less ease than lipid-soluble substances because the former encounters impedance in the hydrophobic region of the ...
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1answer
128 views

Why is chromatin not condensed during interphase but is in prophase [closed]

Cell cycle goes through three processes: Interphase Mitosis Cytokinesis Why are chromatins not condensed during interphase but instead condensed at prophase of mitosis? What makes them condense ...
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2answers
96 views

Permeability of Plasma Membrane

I’m having trouble grasping why small polar molecules can cross the hydrophobic region of the membrane and not ions. Won’t the polar molecules be attracted to the watery extracellular medium and not ...
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29 views

What's the purpose of Cdk activity having more than one method of becoming inactive?

Cdk becomes partially active once its bound to cyclin and then gets phosphorylated and fully active once a Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) phosphorylates the partially active Cdk. This fully activated Cdk ...
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12 views

Do you know of any scratch assay video databases?

It would be of great help for a statistical work we have been asked to carry out at our University. Thank you very much in advance.
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1answer
170 views

Why do animal cells lack a contractile vacuole?

I was asked why animal cells do not have contractile vacuoles. Other than the lack of need, I don't know what else to say.
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1answer
29 views

Can specific B-cells be created in a lab? [closed]

Instead of creating protein sequences, could that stepped be skipped and just have B-cells created to manufacture a particular type of immunity?
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1answer
45 views

Determining the osmolarity and tonicity of a cell

Consider a cell with urea concentration inside being 2mmol/L and outside being 2.5mmol/L. The cell itself is permeable to both urea and water. Ignoring the effect of other osmolytes, A) Urea flows ...
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1answer
25 views

Gene silencing in C. elegans

I am trying to silence the tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase) gene in C. elegans using the pLT63 plasmid to check if that particular gene has anything to do with the pharyneal pumping or not. Am I using ...
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1answer
32 views

How does the drug MBC effect the depolymerization of microtubules in eukaryotic cells?

I have tried to look for the mechanism of how methyl benzimidazol-2-yl-carbamate affects microtubules in eukaryotes, but what I found wasn't very useful: Quilan et al 1980 assert that it acts by ...
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4answers
143 views

Can general soap kill bacteria?

I have read that general soap can kill bacteria by opening holes in the bacterial membrane. http://questions.sci-toys.com/node/90 However, I found some articles as well saying that it cannot. ...
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1answer
63 views

Is there any possible way to take a DNA test without using blood in humans?

Is there any possible way to take a DNA test without the need to draw blood in humans? Any information will be useful for me.
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1answer
38 views

How can rapid growth cancer get nutrients in vivo?

When I was little, before I get into biological studying, I read a news talking about cancer would be totally cured after decades. I still remember that researchers had a theory to claim if they could ...
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44 views

yeast colonies pulsing out soft fringes against the light

I have no idea about this part of the following text "pulsing out soft fringes against the light". Can anybody explain about it and provide some images, please? Does it mean that these colonies ...
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1answer
56 views

Common genes and enzymes involved in pathogen entry into host

Many microbes like Salmonella, E.coli, Legionella pneumophila etc. enter host cells via cystoskeleton remodeling of the host cell. Do all microbes follow the same path or there are any other ways for ...
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1answer
64 views

How can E. coli affect C. elegans expression?

Plasmids can be transferred to E. coli. These transformed E. coli can be fed to C. elegans to silence its gene expression by RNAi. How can E.coli release RNAi to C. elegans? Even if we assume E. ...
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1answer
59 views

Purpose of antibody wash

It is common practice after surface staining cells for flow cytometry analysis to wash the antibody out of solution before analyzing a sample. I have tried analysis with and without washing the ...
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1answer
252 views

Are mitochondria alive? [duplicate]

I'm working on an assignment for my IB biology class and some assistance would be highly appreciated. I've read several articles and I still haven't quite gotten the answer I'm looking for. I have to ...
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1answer
62 views

Why is it important to have a restriction point? (G1-S phase control)

Why have eukaryotes evolved to control G1-S phase? Surely if you could control G2-M phase very well, you will not get an excessive proliferation? Thanks for your help.
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2answers
138 views

Is there a database of cell images?

We're working on an algorithm for processing images of cells, similar to but much more basic than Cell Profiler, and we are looking for a large database of cell images to test our software. Can anyone ...
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0answers
32 views

how often do the various organ cells regenerate? [closed]

Is there an Internet source that states how often human organ cells (eyes, kidneys, liver, heart, pancreas, skin, etc.) regenerate? I'm seeking specific data for every human organ.
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1answer
69 views

which organelle produce glycogen phosphorylase and why

I know that Glycogen phosphorylase doesn't produce from rough endoplasmic reticulum in liver cell. But almost every proteins such as insulin receptor, serum albumin, and lysosomal enzyme have to ...
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16 views

Growth of Yeast in Different pH Mediums

Will yeast grow better in acidic, basic or neutral mediums? Why? Will the medium affect the growth of yeast? (Yeast cell membrane is semi-permeable).
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333 views

Why do some white blood cells have lobed nuclei?

Several types of white blood cells (eg Neutrophils) have lobed nuclei. Is this for a functional reason? I have seen people refer to structural differences in the lobes as indicative of problems, but ...
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5answers
4k views

Why are there no known animals with an odd number of legs?

In my 6th grade science book it is said that there are no three legged animals, and that no animal with an odd number of limbs exists. I checked Wikipedia and could confirm this: There are no ...
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1answer
160 views

Membrane Permeability to Pyruvate

Pyruvate seems to pass easily through the outer membrane of the mitochondrion but has difficulty entering the inner membrane (and gets in by H+ symport). I have two questions: (1) what property of ...
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0answers
52 views

What are the sizes of the cells that make up human hair?

The question is in the title, but I'll explain why the question arose. I'm curious about the rates that various cells in the body divide, and have found various information relating to this, but ...
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1answer
275 views

How can a polar molecule pass through polar channels of proteins in the cell membrane?

To transport a polar molecule through the nonpolar cell membrane, a protein with a polar channel is needed to allow it to diffuse. However, if the molecule is polar and the channel is polar, wouldn't ...
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0answers
33 views

How is flagellar movement controlled?

How does a cell control the movement of flagella? Both the rotatory movements and sideways movements helps the cell to move. How are these flagellar movements controlled ? It is through the regulation ...
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0answers
36 views

How to use DRAQ5 and MitoTracker CMXros dyes to stain turtle erythrocytes?

I am working on turtle species and want to use DRAQ5 and MitoTracker CMXRos to stain turtle nucleated erythrocytes. Can anyone suggest me a protocol to carry this stain out? Would the two stains ...
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1answer
53 views

Do snRNAs exit the nucleus or not?

In Molecular Biology of The Cell (Alberts, et al., 2015), it lists the various RNAs that are trafficked through the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) into the cytoplasm. The list includes snRNAs, but I ...
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1answer
68 views

Introductory book to cell biology

I am studying the human circulatory and respiratory systems to develop tools for automated diagnosis of disease. During the past year, I have read basic books about respiratory physiology, ...
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3answers
798 views

Do we consume dna, proteins of other organisms?

When we eat raw meat, e.g. chicken or fish, we are actually consuming the DNA, proteins etc. which are present in their cells. Wouldn't this affect our cell functions as this DNA might enter our ...
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1answer
72 views

Why do cells not spread on soft substrates?

I recently read a paper discussing how cells (primary mouse embryo fibroblasts) fail to spread and proliferate properly when plated on a soft substrate (i.e. soft PDMS pillars with stiffness k = 2.3 ...
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74 views

What is the essence of difference of how different chemicals affect the same receptor?

It is known that various chemicals can bind to the same receptor type, producing different effects. Be these chemicals agonists or antagonists, there are more variations in how they influence the ...
2
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1answer
254 views

How to understand certain protein names

I am looking for a reference to help me understand what is meant by acronyms such as : H3K9me1, H3K9me2, and H3K9Ac. I know that these are all histone proteins, but is there a general nomenclature ...
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44 views

Self assembly of Golgi Apparatus

Self assembly is not a new phenomenon to biology. Many things self assembled to provide full fledged functional unit. There are two conflicting theories about formation of Golgi Apparatus, Template ...
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1answer
132 views

What is a mechanical cue?

I was attending a talk related to neurogenesis. So one professor was asking a question related to biochemical cues and mechanical cues (related to signaling pathways I believe). Cue as far as I ...
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1answer
119 views

Catenation and decatenation by DNA Gyrase

Decatenation is done for the replication of DNA and why is Catenation done and is it related to Crossing over
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1answer
139 views

How will changing the concentration of a Tris buffer affect amylase enzyme activity?

For instance if you increase the amount of Tris but pH still does not change then will the enzyme activity still proceed normally? If it does change the pH will it change enzyme structure and why?