The study of cells: their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Coiling of chromatids during cell division

What is exactly coiling of chromosomes? I just heard about the names i.e paranemic, plectonemic, orthostichious, anorthospiral. I have ecaxtly no idea of what phenomenon is this. Also what type of ...
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694 views

fibroblast cells and fibers

I am interested in fibroblast cells in human arteries. Here are the things that I am not clear at the moment and I could not find any answer from the literature: What are the dimensions of these ...
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Can someone explain the color-changing unit (CCU) to me?

I've been physically carrying out serial tenfold dilutions on samples of Ureaplasma to work out the color-changing units (CCU). As a definition, the CCU is the highest dilution at which there is a ...
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48 views

Is every cell competent?

I would like to know if every cell is competent or if there are any cells that are not competent.
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66 views

Autophagy in eukaryotic cells

What is autophagy? How and under which circumstances is it used by the cell? I believe The reason for autophagy is some kind of recycling, am I right? But why does it occur in infections?
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54 views

Intracellular lipid transport

I know that lipids are carried around the body in the blood either as micelles or by lipid-binding proteins which allow them to be solved. Lipids can't always be integrated in a membrane though, the ...
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102 views

How do different tissue culture matrices affect background in fluorescent microscopy?

In response to my previous question, I've been reading up a little bit on poly-D-lysine, Collagen I, Collagen IV, laminin, and other tissue culture coatings that promote cell adhesion. I've always ...
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588 views

How to convince suspension cells to adhere more tightly?

I'm developing a cell-based assay in 96-well plates that requires adherent cells, as they need to be washed at least twice during the protocol. I'm using in-house strains of HT1080 cells (some ...
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1answer
156 views

Reason behind formation of different shapes of cell

I have always wondered how cells are modified to give them a specific shape. On what specific part of a cell does gene regulation act for giving the shape ?
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33 views

Transplantation of stem cells

During the autologous transplantation of stems cells from bone marrow to produce new blood cells why all the other stem cells other than the one obtained are destroyed?
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369 views

Can proteins move outside cells?

I am trying to learn about basic cell biology, and have what is probably an extremely simple question. So this is how I understand it so far: Proteins are made from amino acids. This process is ...
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How to use mechanical microstrainer to extract tissue proteins from human?

Background: There are many methods to extract proteins form human tissues out there. The majority of them use an extraction buffer containing variable concentrations of detergents and protease ...
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Why aren't organelles considered alive?

I'm taking a 3-week Bio I summer course, and my textbook says the cell is the smallest/basic unit of life. I asked my professor why organelles aren't a living unit, and her reply was that they aren't ...
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220 views

Will lipid molecules 'flip-flop' over a membrane without the use of an enzyme?

All of the references to this I can find refer to enzymes like Flippase making it 'easier' or 'more likely' that the translocation will occur, rather than actually make it possible. The following is ...
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Why is saltatory conduction faster than continuous conduction?

How does spacing apart sodium and potassium channels allow the action potential to travel faster down the axon? This is the reason always cited for saltatory conduction and myelination, but my mental ...
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1answer
145 views

Why are certain aneuploidies more common?

Certain aneuploidies such as trisomy-21 (Downs syndrome), trisomy-18 (Edward syndrome), Turner syndrome (XO) etc are more common than others. I had a vague thought that it is related to chromosome ...
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37 views

Example(s) of reduced rate of mitotic progression?

Most species complete mitosis, and in particular the process of chromosome condensation, rather quickly, in a matter of minutes. Are there any known species that undergo mitoses with substantially ...
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What is the distinction between chemokines, cytokines, interferons and interleukins?

They all seem to describe molecules of similar function and many people seem to use them interchangeably. Also please include any other similar molecules if I've forgotten any in the list above.
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123 views

Up to date B cell review

Where would I find an up to date (last 6-7 years max) review on B cells? I've tried searching through pubmed with filters, cochrane library, medline and various other resources including searching old ...
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503 views

How does sugar enter neurons if they don't use insulin?

I heard somewhere that as opposed to other cells, neurons do not use insulin to get their sugar supply. Why is that? What is the alternative mechanism? I assume sugar can't just enter the cell ...
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131 views

What molecular processes are involved in pseudopodial extension?

I am curious as to the processes and mechanisms involved in the extension of pseudopodia in amoeba. How does the cell know and control the direction and extent of pseudopodia formation at a molecular ...
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287 views

How exactly does marijuana damage brain cells?

I've heard that THC can cause permanent damage to brain cells. I've also heard this reffered to anti drug propaganda. Another theory i've read is that temporary effects reduce intelligence but long ...
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104 views

What is range of the number of individual organelles in cells

What is the range of the number of individual organelles in a cell? I am not a biologist but I understand that there's one nucleus and sometimes lots of mitochondria, so I am after the total number. ...
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46 views

Onset of Autophagy

Fasting and Intermittent Fasting (IF) have been proven to start autophagy (cellular self-digestion). How long does the average man and woman have to wait for autophagy to begin? Does diet prior to ...
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25 views

A program for cell motility assessment with a batch process function?

Cell motility assessment is a branch of experimental biology or medical science. One example could be an assessment of treatment effects on sperm motility of an animal. The standard procedure involves ...
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86 views

What is background binding?

I'm reading a journal article about mitochondrial protein import and it mentions that one of the mutant proteins tested showed background binding with another protein. What the heck is background ...
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1k views

What is the appropriate blender speed to maximize nutrition and digestion of fruits and vegetables?

Blender companies state that a blender for smoothies should have speeds of at least 30000 rpm. They argue that only at 30000 rpm are cells of fruits and vegetables sheared enough to maximize nutrition ...
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82 views

What in soy are people allergic to and will these allergens be passed along if an animal that has eaten soy is consumed?

I have two related questions about soy allergies and possible reactions. What is it that are humans who have soy allergies actually allergic to? What is the allergen? If an animal eats soy, are ...
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157 views

How was the first ribosome theorized to have been made?

Seeing as ribosomes are what help perform the act of translation itself, and the blueprints for they themselves are in nucleotide sequences, how was the first ribosome theorized to have been made? ...
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177 views

Primary cilia: what cell types have non-motile cilia that migrate?

My understanding is that there are two broad categories of cilia: motile and non-motile (also called primary. Examples of the former include sperm flagella and the cilia of epithelial cells that ...
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301 views

What plastic eating organisms are there to help with plastic in landfills problem?

I see some popular science articles on the plastic eating bacteria and fungi appearing on the web since 2009. Most of the articles praise discoveries, because such organisms promise to break down ...
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71 views

Cell Respiration and Oxidative Phosphorylation

Why and how does the proton travelling through the stalked particle in the inner mitochondrial membrane, cause a conformational change in the ATPase?
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1answer
74 views

Is it possible to give a person an allergic reaction in a very specific place?

Can I give a person an allergic reaction at a very specific spot in a tissue? And if so, how accurate can i get?
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204 views

Does GTP-γS (GTP gamma S) bind all GTP-binding proteins?

I've just read an article Rab10 GTPase regulates ER dynamics and morphology - Nature Cell Biology 15, 169–178 (2013) doi:10.1038/ncb2647. In this paper, to identify Rab proteins in ER, first they ...
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146 views

Does an allergic reaction kill body cells?

I have wondered what actually happens in an allergic reaction that causes the symptoms such as pain, rash etc. Is it possible that the human body actually kills its own cells in the process?
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Simple diffusion of lipid-soluble molecules through phospholipid bilayer — does anything get “stuck” in transit?

It's a pretty elementary concept, and when I first learned of it I don't think I had the foundations to even think of such a question, but I found myself the other day thinking about the amphipathic ...
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144 views

What is the biochemical reason for mental fatigue?

Is it known exactly why the brain needs sleep? What's dropping low / going high when we experience mental fatigue? I can see why low glucose could result in mental fatigue, are other reasons known?
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How does skin healing work?

I stacked my bike and split my head right open. About three weeks later the scab falls off and the skin is sealed over, like magic! How does it all work? How does the brain know that part of the ...
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1answer
656 views

Can you consider a human as alive, or is it the cells on the body that are alive?

Sorry if this question seems strange, but in the recent time I have been interested in the question of what life is and how you can define life. My question: How long can individual cells live on a ...
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64 views

Microscopy Book Suggestions

I've learned programming through great book recommendations, many from the Stack Exchange series of sites. I'm hoping to take this approach to gaining a fundamental understanding of how fluorescence ...
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128 views

Can in the case of multiple sclerosis (MS), a too high osmotic pressure in the nerve, lead to a high intracellular concentration of potassium?

Can in the case of multiple sclerosis (MS), a too high osmotic pressure in the nerve, lead to a high intracellular concentration of potassium, and also lead to 'pumping up' of nerve cells, which then ...
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2k views

Why do red blood cells contain haemoglobin and not myoglobin?

So I am reading about muscles and I come across myoglobin. It has a much higher affinity for oxygen than haemoglobin. So why have animals evolved to have haemoglobin in red blood cells, rather than ...
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91 views

Connect the inner and outer space of cell with a wire, will there be electricity?

There is a potential difference, but ions can not go through wires, right? Though there is a electric field, but there is no electron source, I am thinking the answer is no, or will there be some ...
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254 views

Effects of exercise on the brain

I am well aware of the phenomenon of neurogenesis induced by exercise, as well as the dopamine release that results from exercise. I am really interested in neuropsychology and the effects of exercise ...
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3answers
6k views

What type of cell do you start with in Meiosis?

Okay, I was learning about mitosis and meiosis in school and had a question. I know in Mitosis you first start off with a Diploid (2N) cell and then end up with two ...
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Cell cycle selection

Is it possible to select from colonies only cells which are at a certain stage in the cell cycle? E.g. if I was trying to analyse expression of a number of genes during different stages of the cell ...
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11k views

Do animal cells have vacuoles?

I overheard a rather heated argument about whether or not animal cells have vacuoles. One person said that they do, but they're much smaller than vacuoles in plant cells. The other person said they ...
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3answers
84 views

Simulating Cell differentiation

I'm a computer programmer deeply interested in Biology. I wish to write a computer simulation for cell differentiation. I understand there will be seemingly impossible challenges in doing this. But ...
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1answer
263 views

Are there records of monozygotic twins in which one experiences androgen insensitivity syndrome

I have given my high school biology students the thought experiment of "What would happen if a researcher induced twinning of a female zygote and then replaced one of the X Chromosomes with a copy of ...
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109 views

Are there oligocellular organisms in nature and, if so, what are they like?

I'd think protozoans can be oligocellular, but I haven't found any examples, and I'm curious to know what is the minimum number of cells an organism can have other than a single cell.