The study of cells: their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Are mature RBCs prokaryotic?

Mature mammalian RBCs have all the characteristics of a eukaryotic cell except that they don't have a nucleus, they don't have any cell organelles. Does this mean that RBCs are classified as ...
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84 views

Why can't cell division happen the other way around?

Mitosis in eukaryotes happen in this order: DNA replicates and then the cell divides. Why doesn't it happen in reverse order (i.e., cell divides and then replicates the DNA)? I am talking about ...
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58 views

Is forced cell growth related to apoptosis?

Could an instance of forced cellular growth cause some cells to have their self-destruct mechanisms to malfunction or 'turn off'thus preventing apoptosis?
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333 views

How is the mRNA transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum?

In eukaryotes the nuclear envelope is continuous with the ER, so what helps it out of that?
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44 views

Domains in cell membrane

How is movement of proteins and lipids between different domains of cell membrane prevented? Why is the noncytosolic layer not able to do lateral movements between domains but cytosolic layer is able ...
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226 views

What is 'calcium conductance'?

What is the meaning of calcium conductance in ion channels. I encountered this in the following text: It was established that the µ and δ opioid receptors open potassium channels, which results ...
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46 views

Function of ER in reviewing mutated proteins

At least in the case of Cystic Fibrosis it happens that a mutant protein (which could actually function!) is held in the ER because the ER detects it as misfolded. Does this happen in every type of ...
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1answer
58 views

Why are fibroblast used so commonly in cell biology?

Fibroblasts are some of the most commonly used cells in cell biology. What are the properties of those cells which makes them commonly used ?
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106 views

Why are centrioles aligned at 90 degree with each other?

The centrioles are aligned at 90 degree with each other. What is the function of this?
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3k views

How do plant cell divide without centrioles?

Most plants do not have centrioles , so who does their function ?
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why is AUG the initiation codon?

Is there any reason why AUG is the initiation codon ? Why is there a need for an initiation codon ? Can't translation start with different codons?
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75 views

Do mitochondrial DNA have repair enzymes?

Mitochondria are considered endosymbionts originated from a prokaryote. So, do they have a DNA repair mechanism ?
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40 views

Generic Abbreviation for Immunopanning?

This is actually something I've been wondering for a while. I've seen all kinds of short hand used outside of papers (IPn most commonly), but in publications I've not seen an abbreviation for ...
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116 views

Suggestions for an experiment? [closed]

I would appreciate suggestions for my year-long AP Biology project. Such a project would consists of a standard experiment, to be done over the period of a year, so it would have >to be fairly ...
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55 views

Missing cells from immunopanning

Why do I not have any cells left in my positive panning plate after transferring from the negative panning plate during immunopanning? I am trying to purify retinal ganglion cells from postnatal rats ...
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132 views

Characteristics of life

If all of the characteristics of life are required for something to be defined as living, how can we account people or other life that can not reproduce?
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48 views

Method to inject genes into cells

The famous Hershey and Chase Experiment uses phages to inject genes into cells. In the beginning, Professor Yamanaka injected 24 types of genes into cells to figure out which genes turn a cell into ...
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2answers
166 views

Why did Fair Meiosis evolve?

How and why did Fair Meiosis evolve? I can hardly think that it provided a fitness advantage to the individual carrying the mutation. Why would it? Or did it evolve through lineage selection? Or was ...
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80 views

Randomness in living systems

The point of my question is not to talk about events that are uncontrolled by living organisms. My question is about controlled randomness, or I'd like to say adaptive random process. Process that are ...
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54 views

Cell state and cell function

I have read many papers that refer to cell type, cell state and cell function, but I haven't found an explicit definition for each of these terms. For example this paper (Brown et al. 1994. J General ...
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1answer
70 views

Botulinum Toxin

I asked on the cooking site, but was directed here. This is my original question http://cooking.stackexchange.com/questions/35726/botulinum-toxin-in-home-canned-green-beans The reading is quite ...
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2answers
60 views

The role of antibodies interacting with cancer

I'm learning about antibodies. As I understand it, antibodies detect stranger cells/bacterial/viruses by the molecules present in their membranes. In cancer cells, the cancer cell have produce some ...
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177 views

which exact mechanism triggers the first cell differentiation after n divisions?

I would like to understand which mechanism triggers the first cell differentiation after n divisions. I read previous articles on SE and Wikipedia articles on cellular differentiation and ...
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3answers
2k views

Why do cell membranes have a lipid bilayer?

Many cells have a cell membrane composed of two layers of lipids, why is it two layers and not just one? What purpose do the membranes serve?
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303 views

Beginning with centrifuge experiment

This is the first time I do a centrifuge experiment with my own centrifuge machine, it's just simple made by a rotor that can rotate the tube at high speed. As I know a centrifuge machine can be using ...
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1answer
127 views

Improving transformation efficiencies- induce supercoiling?

From my limited knowledge of science, I know transformation can be one of the hardest step in cloning, and that a large amount of research/trial and error has been done to improve on this step. I've ...
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468 views

How does ubiquitin recognize misfolded proteins?

Misfolded proteins are tagged by ubiquitin and then are destroyed by proteasomes. How does ubiquitin know which protein to tag?
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172 views

How can I create a microcapillary for manipulation of single cells?

i'm working as a diy bio. I'm finding a way to create a micro glass capillary for picking up single cells. I see this video on youtube and would like to know what is the minimum I/O diameter if I pull ...
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3answers
104 views

What do cells do when they aren't creating proteins?

I've always thought that the majority of the "work" in a cell is protein production, until I read the following. The Wikipedia article on the central dogma of molecular biology states this: 80% ...
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88 views

Coiling of chromatids during cell division

What is exactly coiling of chromosomes? I just heard about the names i.e paranemic, plectonemic, orthostichious, anorthospiral. I have ecaxtly no idea of what phenomenon is this. Also what type of ...
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812 views

fibroblast cells and fibers

I am interested in fibroblast cells in human arteries. Here are the things that I am not clear at the moment and I could not find any answer from the literature: What are the dimensions of these ...
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138 views

Can someone explain the color-changing unit (CCU) to me?

I've been physically carrying out serial tenfold dilutions on samples of Ureaplasma to work out the color-changing units (CCU). As a definition, the CCU is the highest dilution at which there is a ...
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1answer
50 views

Is every cell competent?

I would like to know if every cell is competent or if there are any cells that are not competent.
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1answer
67 views

Autophagy in eukaryotic cells

What is autophagy? How and under which circumstances is it used by the cell? I believe The reason for autophagy is some kind of recycling, am I right? But why does it occur in infections?
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55 views

Intracellular lipid transport

I know that lipids are carried around the body in the blood either as micelles or by lipid-binding proteins which allow them to be solved. Lipids can't always be integrated in a membrane though, the ...
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1answer
105 views

How do different tissue culture matrices affect background in fluorescent microscopy?

In response to my previous question, I've been reading up a little bit on poly-D-lysine, Collagen I, Collagen IV, laminin, and other tissue culture coatings that promote cell adhesion. I've always ...
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2answers
626 views

How to convince suspension cells to adhere more tightly?

I'm developing a cell-based assay in 96-well plates that requires adherent cells, as they need to be washed at least twice during the protocol. I'm using in-house strains of HT1080 cells (some ...
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1answer
161 views

Reason behind formation of different shapes of cell

I have always wondered how cells are modified to give them a specific shape. On what specific part of a cell does gene regulation act for giving the shape ?
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33 views

Transplantation of stem cells

During the autologous transplantation of stems cells from bone marrow to produce new blood cells why all the other stem cells other than the one obtained are destroyed?
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415 views

Can proteins move outside cells?

I am trying to learn about basic cell biology, and have what is probably an extremely simple question. So this is how I understand it so far: Proteins are made from amino acids. This process is ...
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48 views

How to use mechanical microstrainer to extract tissue proteins from human?

Background: There are many methods to extract proteins form human tissues out there. The majority of them use an extraction buffer containing variable concentrations of detergents and protease ...
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1answer
1k views

Why aren't organelles considered alive?

I'm taking a 3-week Bio I summer course, and my textbook says the cell is the smallest/basic unit of life. I asked my professor why organelles aren't a living unit, and her reply was that they aren't ...
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1answer
236 views

Will lipid molecules 'flip-flop' over a membrane without the use of an enzyme?

All of the references to this I can find refer to enzymes like Flippase making it 'easier' or 'more likely' that the translocation will occur, rather than actually make it possible. The following is ...
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2k views

Why is saltatory conduction faster than continuous conduction?

How does spacing apart sodium and potassium channels allow the action potential to travel faster down the axon? This is the reason always cited for saltatory conduction and myelination, but my mental ...
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1answer
148 views

Why are certain aneuploidies more common?

Certain aneuploidies such as trisomy-21 (Downs syndrome), trisomy-18 (Edward syndrome), Turner syndrome (XO) etc are more common than others. I had a vague thought that it is related to chromosome ...
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37 views

Example(s) of reduced rate of mitotic progression?

Most species complete mitosis, and in particular the process of chromosome condensation, rather quickly, in a matter of minutes. Are there any known species that undergo mitoses with substantially ...
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3answers
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What is the distinction between chemokines, cytokines, interferons and interleukins?

They all seem to describe molecules of similar function and many people seem to use them interchangeably. Also please include any other similar molecules if I've forgotten any in the list above.
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2answers
130 views

Up to date B cell review

Where would I find an up to date (last 6-7 years max) review on B cells? I've tried searching through pubmed with filters, cochrane library, medline and various other resources including searching old ...
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1answer
588 views

How does sugar enter neurons if they don't use insulin?

I heard somewhere that as opposed to other cells, neurons do not use insulin to get their sugar supply. Why is that? What is the alternative mechanism? I assume sugar can't just enter the cell ...
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1answer
135 views

What molecular processes are involved in pseudopodial extension?

I am curious as to the processes and mechanisms involved in the extension of pseudopodia in amoeba. How does the cell know and control the direction and extent of pseudopodia formation at a molecular ...