The study of cells, their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (2)

4
votes
1answer
326 views

Why are transmembrane proteins difficult to crystallise?

I know that in vivo there are a lot fewer transmembranous proteins in general, and that they are produced at a lower rate than their free counterparts. This is mainly because transmembrane proteins ...
4
votes
2answers
4k views

Why does alcohol cause the hemolysis of RBC in a large proportion?

I had today an experiment that we put 95% alcohol to the blood which made it completely transparent so hemolysis must have occurred. I started to think about the reasons. I think that this is because ...
4
votes
1answer
60 views

Why MHC class I antigen presentation exist in normal cells?

The book "Kuby Immunology" states that normal infected cells might present antigenic peptides on their surface via MHC class I, but these can't activate naive CD8 cells. Only infected professional ...
4
votes
1answer
65 views

NADH shuttles - Why cytosol?

Why is the malate-aspartate and the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttles located in the cytosol and intermembrane space? The krebs cycle happens in the matrix so why wouldn't they push electrons from the ...
4
votes
1answer
131 views

What effects does being cryogenically frozen have on a person's body? [closed]

I'm wondering what effects are known to happen to a person's cells when a person is cryogenically frozen, especially those that need to be overcome in order to "bring them back to life." From a ...
4
votes
2answers
999 views

What's the difference between naive and memory B cells?

I understand that when naive B cells are exposed to antigens, they become memory B cells, but what is the functional difference between the two? I've looked at the quite a few article on B cells, but ...
4
votes
2answers
835 views

which exact mechanism triggers the first cell differentiation after n divisions?

I would like to understand which mechanism triggers the first cell differentiation after n divisions. I read previous articles on SE and Wikipedia articles on cellular differentiation and ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

How does ubiquitin recognize misfolded proteins?

Misfolded proteins are tagged by ubiquitin and then are destroyed by proteasomes. How does ubiquitin know which protein to tag?
4
votes
1answer
457 views

What plastic eating organisms are there to help with plastic in landfills problem?

I see some popular science articles on the plastic eating bacteria and fungi appearing on the web since 2009. Most of the articles praise discoveries, because such organisms promise to break down ...
4
votes
1answer
123 views

When should endocytosis inhibitors be used in cell binding assays?

I'm beginning to do some cell-binding assays and I would like for my proteins to not be endocytosed by my mammalian cells. Typical suggestions are for the cells to be kept on ice and that the binding ...
4
votes
1answer
50 views

Is HSV-vector-mediated miRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia stable?

My question is on the following article: "Reduction of voltage gated sodium channel protein in DRG by vector mediated miRNA reduces pain in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy" My question is, do ...
4
votes
1answer
87 views

How much of the jejunum is bypassed during gastric bypass?

There is both long and short limb gastric bypass surgeries (along with several other variations on intestinal bypass procedures). How much of the jejunum is bypassed with a long-limb and short-limb ...
4
votes
2answers
213 views

Randomness in living systems

The point of my question is not to talk about events that are uncontrolled by living organisms. My question is about controlled randomness, or I'd like to say adaptive random process. Process that are ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

How to convince suspension cells to adhere more tightly?

I'm developing a cell-based assay in 96-well plates that requires adherent cells, as they need to be washed at least twice during the protocol. I'm using in-house strains of HT1080 cells (some ...
4
votes
1answer
281 views

Reason behind formation of different shapes of cell

I have always wondered how cells are modified to give them a specific shape. On what specific part of a cell does gene regulation act for giving the shape ?
4
votes
1answer
280 views

Does an allergic reaction kill body cells?

I have wondered what actually happens in an allergic reaction that causes the symptoms such as pain, rash etc. Is it possible that the human body actually kills its own cells in the process?
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Simple diffusion of lipid-soluble molecules through phospholipid bilayer — does anything get “stuck” in transit?

It's a pretty elementary concept, and when I first learned of it I don't think I had the foundations to even think of such a question, but I found myself the other day thinking about the amphipathic ...
4
votes
1answer
822 views

Lifespan of connective tissue cells

This post is regarding a follow up on my initial post on "Properties and life cycle of chondrocytes and tenocytes". I am elaborating on my question on the lifespan of tenocytes and chondrocytes. ...
4
votes
1answer
49 views

Proline Iminopeptidase v Proline Aminopeptidase

We're an undergraduate independent research team and we are having trouble purchasing commercial proline iminopeptidase as it is unavailable on Sigma Aldrich and very expensive on other websites. We ...
4
votes
1answer
65 views

Are stem cell lines cryogenically preserved or commercially available like HeLa cells are?

There are HeLa cells, which were taken from sick cancer patient and now is growing worldwide in different laboratories for experiments. HeLa cells can be kept because they are immortal and so they are ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Are nucleic acids found in cell membranes?

I've found various results online and I was recently marked in on an important test as wrong when I made the assumption they were not found in the cell membrane. Does anyone know what the correct ...
4
votes
1answer
104 views

Do cell membranes have more phospholipids in one layer than in the other?

Assuming the cell membrane to have a spherical shape, geometry tells us that the area of the inner leaflet is smaller than the area of the outer due to the difference in radius between them. Does this ...
4
votes
2answers
463 views

Does increased physical activity increase the rate of cell division?

Ever since learning that the shortening of telomeres is linked to aging I've tried to figure out what causes cells to divide, and if it's possible to slow down the rate of cell division through life ...
4
votes
1answer
291 views

Why mosquito bite is confined to a certain shape?

I think this problem should be asked in a physiology forum rather than biology@ stackex but I'll give it a try. So my question is simple - why a mosquito bite is usually confined to a certain shape ...
4
votes
1answer
200 views

Regarding TIMP and MMP enzymes

Are there substances that can promote TIMP enzyme production, or MMP enzyme production or supression in tendons? Are there medical tests that measure quantities of MMP and TIMP enzymes in tendons?
4
votes
1answer
1k views

What's the distinction between a tetrad and a synaptonemal complex in meiosis?

What's the distinction between a tetrad and a synaptonemal complex in meiosis? Are they synonyms? I ask because the concepts seem very closely related, but it seems like there may be a subtle ...
4
votes
1answer
55 views

How was gene therapy able to cure diseases through the transformation of actively dividing cells?

I thought that gene therapy, when performed on target cells that regenerate themselves constantly, can be effective for a limited time only. I.e., the effect gradually wears off after a while, ...
4
votes
1answer
293 views

How can a polar molecule pass through polar channels of proteins in the cell membrane?

To transport a polar molecule through the nonpolar cell membrane, a protein with a polar channel is needed to allow it to diffuse. However, if the molecule is polar and the channel is polar, wouldn't ...
4
votes
2answers
693 views

Does trypsin strip flask coating?

Mammalian cell/tissue cultures sometimes require flasks coated with proteins. My uneducated guess is that these proteins mimic the ECM, perhaps the basal lamina, so finicky contact-dependent cells can ...
4
votes
2answers
291 views

How to visualize the ECM?

Specifically, I'd like to look at changes in HA (hyaluronic acid) production. Most often you only see people staining the cell surface or removing cells from culture for fixation and then imaging. ...
4
votes
2answers
171 views

Database of Multicellular and Unicellular organisms?

I'm trying to annotate a list of organisms taken from NCBI for cellularity (unicellular or multicellular). Does any of you ever found a database with association between an organisms' name or taxa and ...
4
votes
1answer
42 views

What are the effect of microtubule or microfilament inhibition on yeast expression profile?

I was wondering whether anyone has looked at what are the expression changes in yeast when the microtubule or the microfilament polymerization is inhibited? Have there been whole-genome studies?
4
votes
1answer
508 views

How much does the Hayflick limit/telomere length vary across taxa and within humans?

Since they seem to be quite connected, I'm curious if anyone knows of research comparing the Hayflick limit (and presumably by extension telomere length) between different taxa. I've heard the ...
4
votes
1answer
88 views

Missing cells from immunopanning

Why do I not have any cells left in my positive panning plate after transferring from the negative panning plate during immunopanning? I am trying to purify retinal ganglion cells from postnatal rats ...
4
votes
2answers
358 views

Effects of exercise on the brain

I am well aware of the phenomenon of neurogenesis induced by exercise, as well as the dopamine release that results from exercise. I am really interested in neuropsychology and the effects of exercise ...
4
votes
2answers
60 views

Cell cycle selection

Is it possible to select from colonies only cells which are at a certain stage in the cell cycle? E.g. if I was trying to analyse expression of a number of genes during different stages of the cell ...
4
votes
0answers
38 views

Does depolymerisation take place at the minus end of microtubule?

Wikipedia says that Dynamic instability refers to the coexistence of assembly and disassembly at the 'ends' of a microtubule. but Karp's Cell Biology, 7th edition says Dynamic instability ...
4
votes
0answers
14 views

Why do kupffer cells not attack sporozoites of malaria?

During malaria, why don't kuppfer cells (hepatic macrophages) attack the plasmodium and stop schizogony, thus saving us from the disease?
4
votes
0answers
77 views

What is the essence of difference of how different chemicals affect the same receptor?

It is known that various chemicals can bind to the same receptor type, producing different effects. Be these chemicals agonists or antagonists, there are more variations in how they influence the ...
4
votes
0answers
36 views

Procedure for doing western blot [closed]

I am writing a step by step guide for doing a western blot for a class. It is intended for any one with basic Biology lab skills. I am hoping people will review my draft and give feedback on how to ...
4
votes
0answers
278 views

Coiling of chromatids during cell division [closed]

What is exactly coiling of chromosomes? I just heard about the names i.e paranemic, plectonemic, orthostichious, anorthospiral. I have ecaxtly no idea of what phenomenon is this. Also what type of ...
4
votes
0answers
39 views

What metabolically happens when an egg fuses with the nucleus of a somatic cell

In stem cell biology, it is recognized that embryonic stem cells are transcriptionally inactive for the first 3 days of development. However, during somatic cell nuclear transfer, the nucleus is ...
3
votes
3answers
237 views

Can/Have cancer cells be/been used in stem cell culture lines?

Since Cancer cells have unlimited growth potential, can they be induced towards totipotency and pluripotency? If so, can cancer cells be used in stem cell culture because of similar properties of ...
3
votes
3answers
11k views

DNA is charged negative. Where is all the positive charge in my body?

DNA is charged negative because of its phosphate backbone. Since charges need to be balanced (so that there are no charges building up somewhere), what is the positive charge which neutralizes this ...
3
votes
3answers
344 views

Stardust or the elements in our bodies

How do we know we are made of stardust? As our cells divide, are our atoms repurposed from existing materials or spontaneously generated? Do we consume materials after we are born that contain ...
3
votes
4answers
504 views

Why is too much glucose harmful?

I learned the citric acid cycle in biotechnology school and how cells work; about ADP and ATP and how the Cellular respiration (C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2+6H2O) works. I am interested in understanding why ...
3
votes
3answers
399 views

why do some cells in the body prefer necrosis to apoptosis as a means of cell death?

There are many programmed cell death pathways, but some cells show a greater preference for some over the other. I'm wondering as to why if necrosis is an inflammatory response that causes damage to ...
3
votes
1answer
311 views

What happens to the precursor protein's signal sequence after it is cleaved?

Where does this signal sequence "go" after it has been cleaved by signal peptidase and what is its next function?
3
votes
1answer
220 views

Reason for the source of fetal bovine serum

What is the reason that perhaps the most commonly used serum in labs is fetal bovine derived? Is there something about fetal serum that is particularly useful over say serum just harvested ...
3
votes
3answers
315 views

How do we look inside the cell?

My sister is in 9th grade biology and her teacher avoided answering the question of how we actually study the inside of a cell. I haven't taken biology in a while but I'd like to give her an answer. ...