The study of cells: their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Solubility of Forskolin in ethanol

I am interested in using forskolin in cell culture medium. Does anyone know how to make solution of 10 microM forskolin in 5% ethanol or less. I would like to avoid using DMSO as a solvent. Thank you. ...
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34 views

Why doesn't the cytosol dissolve the polar structures?

we know that cytoplasm of cells are filled with water molecules and other hydrophilic molecules so my question is why the water of cytosol doesn't dissolve the ionic part of the lipid bilayer or why ...
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31 views

How would the human body adjust to sleep times if we were to live in a place with different day lengths?

You sleep at night and are active during the day that's how things work for humans, but theoretically if a human whose parents lived on earth were to be born in another planet resembling earth but the ...
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27 views

Advantage of cup-like shape of blood cells, spores?

Mold spores sometimes have the same shape as platelets in blood. If I were designing a spore it would probably be spherical. Is there any advantage to this cup-like shape? Maybe there is some ...
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10 views

How much of the jejunum is bypassed during gastric bypass?

There is both long and short limb bypass surgeries. I want to know how much of the jejunum is bypassed with each procedure.
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0answers
111 views

Image Processing Suite for bacterial microscopy: Schnitzcells or MicrobeTracker?

I am looking to start doing some work tracking the size and growth of individual bacterial cells in the microscope. In order to analyze the images I need software that can segment the cells, ...
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41 views

Punnett square and hybrid cross [on hold]

A plant breeder crossed two plants, one with red flowers, and the other with white flowers. Red is dominant. Calculate the phenotype and genotype ratios of the F2 generation of this cross. Is this a ...
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25 views

Cells and their characteristic properties

Could a culture of cells of a certain type be 'forced' to attain certain properties in successive generations that would have been harmful to the cell culture as they are now?
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56 views

Can I force evolution in a group of cells by removing all the smaller cells?

I actually have algae growing in water in a container. I was thinking if it was possible to filter the water so that all the small cells will be filtered out and only the bigger ones will remain to ...
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17 views

How is bacterial plasma membrane made?

Eukaryotes have ER which manufactures plasma membrane of cells. How is prokaryotic plasma membrane made ? What is the pathway and which enzymes are involved ?
3
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1answer
38 views

Why mosquito bite is confined to a certain shape?

I think this problem should be asked in a physiology forum rather than biology@ stackex but I'll give it a try. So my question is simple - why a mosquito bite is usually confined to a certain shape ...
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1answer
44 views

Missing 4$H_2O$s (per glucose) in Cellular Respiration… Where can they be?

I having trouble understanding the equation of the cellular respiration. The thing that bothers me is the number of $H_2O$ molecules. Generally, cellular respiration is written thus : $C_6H_{12}O_6 + ...
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1answer
25 views

how many chemcial species on average in a typical plant and animal cell

I want to know what sort of range there is on the number of different chemical species in a typical plant and animal cell. Failing that, some specific examples (with sources please) Thanks
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Does pheomelanin have a useful biological function?

Melanin is a natural pigment that is categorized into two main forms, eumelanin and pheomelanin. It's well documented in the science literature that increased eumelanin levels reduces the risk of ...
2
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1answer
47 views

Are cell lines potentially dangerous?

More specifically, if a human subject was exposed to, say, a human cancerous cell line (via intravenous injection or through an open wound, for example), is it possible that they would develop any ...
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1answer
38 views

How do nutrients get to the cells they need to get to?

I understand the basics of digestion. I know that nutrients get absorbed by the microvilli, enter the bloodstream and travel to the liver but after all that, what is the biological mechanism that ...
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1answer
73 views

What does it mean for a chemical pathway to be conserved?

In many papers the MAPK pathway, (along with many others) is referred to as being conserved: Example: "The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are ubiquitous in eukaryotic signal ...
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1answer
43 views

Exotic Cell Shapes

As far as I know, plant cell shapes are a difficult thing to pin down. However plant cells have cell walls and so can be very rigid. However the only plant cells I've seen have been either block ...
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1answer
37 views

Significance of lipids in biological membranes…?

Membranes are specifically designed by lipids to maintain internal hydrophilic environment in narrow range.There are hydrophobic amino acids among naturally occurring 20 amino acids and as well as ...
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1answer
42 views

Bilayer synthesis? [closed]

If we want to design a bilayer from Myristic acid (14 carbon fatty acid). The average bond length between C-C is 1.5 A. What will be average thickness of the membrane? Edited to include the OP ...
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2answers
49 views

What would be the reaction to the flesh?

If an acid, salt, and alcohol solution were formed into a gel, what would be the reaction if injected into flesh and what would be the effect on the skin say for rough and cracked feet, acne, newly ...
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2answers
37 views

Functioning of EDTA

I know that EDTA chelates metal ions. It weakens bacterial cell wall and inactivates the DNases. What is the reason why it can do so ? I guess it can inactivate DNases by altering the ...
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1answer
30 views

Consequence of touching Formaldehyde

I accidently touched formaldehyde some days ago. Skin on my hand got dehydrated as if I had placed it in salt solution. I washed it with water and it returned to normal state after 5 minutes. But now ...
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1answer
77 views

What causes Paresthesia (Pins and Needles) at a cellular level?

I've looked it up in plenty of places like the Wikipedia page and such, and it is clear that the most common cause of Paresthesia is either a fair amount of pressure on a specific patch of skin ...
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1answer
35 views

Structure of biological membranes?

Integral membrane proteins have functional asymmetry i.e. they have two different domains of proteins performing different functions. these proteins have Tyr and Trp amino acid residues at the ...
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1answer
32 views

Sodium-Potassium Pump

From my understanding, in the sodium-potassium pump we have Na+ inside the cell and K+ outside the cell, thus forming a so called "salted banana." After reading my textbook I found many statements ...
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13 views

What are conditions for a membrane to be settled ? (centrifugation)

The cell membranes have 60% of proteins and 40% of lipids. And we know that medium density of proteins is 1,2 g/cm3 and the medium density of lipids is 0.92 g/cm3. How can we calculate the medium ...
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What type of cell do you start with in Meiosis?

Okay, I was learning about mitosis and meiosis in school and had a question. I know in Mitosis you first start off with a Diploid (2N) cell and then end up with two ...
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1answer
52 views

Why are fibroblast used so commonly in cell biology?

Fibroblasts are some of the most commonly used cells in cell biology. What are the properties of those cells which makes them commonly used ?
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6answers
791 views

Online Molecular and Cellular Biology Video Lectures?

I am looking for video lectures to go through to guide my reading in intro molecular and cellular biology. I've had intro bio and I study evolutionary theory, but my molecule- and cell-level knowledge ...
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2answers
1k views

Is there an advantage to linear chromosomes?

The DNA copying enzymes have a hard time working to the end of a chromosome. For circular chromosomes this is not a problem, since there is not a sharp 'end'. However, for a linear chromosome, without ...
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1answer
40 views

What kind of a microscope do I need to see cell organelles?

I would like to study cells and looking for a microscope that would allow me to see: groups of cells individual cell cells organelles I would like to target insects and mammal tissue. I would be ...
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0answers
23 views

What can thrombosis lead to?

I am thinking this question. Thrombosis can result in organisation of thrombus, sepsis thromboembolism, fibrinoid swelling adiposity. I fibrinoid swelling (edema) (4) can occur. Also, I think (3) ...
3
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1answer
30 views

How do mosquitoes maintain telomere length?

While the vast majority of eukaryotic organisms maintain their chromosome ends (telomeres) via telomerase, an enzyme system that generates short, tandem repeats on the ends of chromosomes, other ...
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30 views

MTT assay normalization

Since the precise amount of cells in each well of an MTT assay varies, how can I normalize the results by cell number/concentration? How can I take into account the number of cells that have already ...
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20 views

Nearly Exhaustive List for Cholesterol Pathways

I have run across an interesting case that is similar to only two others I've encountered. What makes it interesting is the combination of undetectable (under normal testing conditions, can elaborate ...
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1answer
54 views

Gap junction turnover

Gap junction proteins, connexins, are known to form intercellular hemichannels, between two adjacent cells. These junctions are maintained cell adhesion proteins (cadherins), yet the turnover of ...
6
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1answer
140 views

Primary cilia: what cell types have non-motile cilia that migrate?

My understanding is that there are two broad categories of cilia: motile and non-motile (also called primary. Examples of the former include sperm flagella and the cilia of epithelial cells that ...
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1answer
51 views

Diffusion of FAD+

Why is NAD+ free to diffuse within the mitochondrion whereas FAD+ is not ? What biochemical properties cause this difference ?
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1answer
48 views

how cells make other macro molecules?

We know that the nucleus of the cell is the White House of the cell and its DNA is the president and it commands to make protein. So my question when DNA only codes for protein and enzymes,after the ...
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1answer
19 views

What are the effect of microtubule or microfilament inhibition on yeast expression profile?

I was wondering whether anyone has looked at what are the expression changes in yeast when the microtubule or the microfilament polymerization is inhibited? Have there been whole-genome studies?
3
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1answer
65 views

Benefits of CLARITY?

What are the benefits of CLARITY over this technique that was published more than a year earlier? Of course the second technique needs a fancier microscope that is likely more expensive and requires ...
2
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2answers
66 views

Explanation of the terms “downstream signaling” and “upstream signaling”

In molecular biology, what's the meaning of the terms "downstream signaling" and "upstream signaling"? What's the difference between them?
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2answers
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Why is succinate dehydrogenase attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane?

Succinate dehydrogenase is attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane.All the other enzymes of the Krebs cycle are located in the matrix of mitochondria. What is the biochemical reason behind ...
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72 views

Microtiter Dish Biofilm Formation Assay- Pseudomonas and Crystal Violet

If Pseudomonas is a gram negative bacteria, it does not retain crystal violet but why is it that so many people are using crystal violet staining in theri Microtiter Dish Biofilm Formation Assay?
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2answers
40 views

Smoking, cancer, correlation between quitting smoking and increased immediate risk

There is "proof" out there today that suggests smoking is directly linked to cancer. I cannot argue against that, for the evidence in favor appears strong, and the evidence against is lacking. I'll ...
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0answers
19 views

Macrophage death by toxin. Little balls inside cell? What type of death?

After I treated J774 cells ( a mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line ) with Clostridium difficile Toxin B (1 ng/ml for 44 hours), I noticed several small circles inside of a seemingly dead cell. I'm ...
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1answer
19 views

What is splice junction pairs?

Splicing is a modification of pre mRNA when all introns are removed and exons are joined. What is a splice junction pair? It is two exons which connected together?
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1answer
25 views

Dinuclei cellular mechanism

I am no biologist, but I have this question buzzing in my mind. It's a matter of curiosity What happens when two nuclei occupy the same cell? Would we expect the embryo (if it lives) to have complex ...
16
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1answer
265 views

Natural examples of XOR functions at the cellular level

We can often think of cells as a sort of circuit on macromolecules, and can show that they can accurately and robustly implement functions like $\text{MAJ}(x_1,...,x_n)$ (return $1$ if more than half ...