The study of cells, their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Have people in Africa already started evolving resistance to AIDS?

Are people in Africa who have sex with somebody with AIDS noticeably less likely to die from it than they once were because some of the people without genes that give them resistance already died off? ...
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15 views

What kind of detergent should I use in cell culture laboratory for cleaning purposes?

I work on establish a cell culture laboratory in the company where I work. All equipment are new and I want to clean lab before I start to work with cells. Is there any special detergent for cleaning ...
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3answers
69 views

Cell cycle selection

Is it possible to select from colonies only cells which are at a certain stage in the cell cycle? E.g. if I was trying to analyse expression of a number of genes during different stages of the cell ...
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28 views

Barcode exchange between neighbouring cells

I am currently interested in equipping animal cells in a tissue with individual barcodes. These barcodes should get amplified in the cells (not to a cell degrading extent, of course), and also ...
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0answers
11 views

Affinity species between plant by protein [on hold]

How determination Affinity species between plant by protein electrophoresis?
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1answer
74 views

How does a protein reach its substrate within the cell?

After a protein has been synthesized and its the final tertiary/quartenary adopted, how does it reach its substrate within the cell and what causes it to interact with it? The transcription factors ...
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88 views

How do T-cells determine which cells they've already inspected?

From what I understand, T-cells are constantly traveling in the body, inspecting cells by looking for antigens. If they're self antigens, then the T-cell doesn't attack, whereas if they're non-self, ...
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1answer
62 views

Cell biology books

I'd like to know, what is the best list of books for non-biologist to understand, how signalling between organels is organized inside of eukaryotic cells. I really want to get how cell as separate ...
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2answers
832 views

What determines the fate of a cell with respect to differentiation?

I have been reading about Townes and Holtfreter's work in 1955, in which cells are dissociated from a blastocyst in an alkaline solution then mixed together and spontaneously reaggregates based on ...
34
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1answer
652 views

How does a cell sense its size?

Cells come in all sorts of sizes. How do they regulate their cell size to the point where similar cell types have a fairly mono-disperse size distribution? Reasked from ...
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51 views

Maintenance of Diploid chromosome number at mitosis

I'm just not understanding this: A regular human cell is diploid - because it has 46 chromosomes, in 23 pairs. So that means that when the cell undergoes mitosis, it will still have the full ...
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41 views

How do cell organelles maintain their unique membrane composition?

Describe some of the ways that membranous organelles can maintain their unique compositions despite the continuous traffic of membranes and materials moving through them. This question is from Gerald ...
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2answers
54 views

Cellular specific mass (in grams-dry-weight per pico liter)?

What is the cellular specific mass, in units of pgDW (pico-gram dry-weight) per pL (pico liter)? I suspect there is some variability between cell types, but this variability must be limited. Perhaps ...
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25 views

Is there a difference in traits between sperm cells that carry a Y chromosome and cells which carry X chromosome? [closed]

They say that a Y carrier is smaller, therefore more sensitive to acidic environment, and quicker. While the X carrier is larger, slower, and less sensitive to acid. have sex prior to the ovulation ...
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2answers
172 views

Do chromosomes uncoil in interphase II?

During interphase II, there is no S phase in which DNA replicates. However, in this stage, do the chromosomes remain wound? Or have they unwound into chromatin form, and recondense during prophase II? ...
4
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1answer
448 views

Why is DNA double stranded and RNA single stranded? [closed]

Why is DNA present as a double helix structure and RNA as a single helix? What causes the difference between them? What are the practical physiological differences between dsDNA and ssRNA? How are the ...
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1answer
35 views

Why must DNA be packed into chromosomes during mitotic phase?

Why does DNA have to be packed into chromosomes? Why can't DNA just divide itself evenly?
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38 views

Does depolymerisation take place at the minus end of microtubule?

Wikipedia says that Dynamic instability refers to the coexistence of assembly and disassembly at the 'ends' of a microtubule. but Karp's Cell Biology, 7th edition says Dynamic instability ...
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2answers
143 views

Blebbistatin effect on vesicles

Blebbistatin is a drug that specifically inhibits the assembly of myosin in the cytoskeleton. What effect would you expect blebbistatin to have on intracellular vesicles? ...
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1answer
30 views

What information do bipolar cells encode?

Short version: I don't see what information on-centre bipolar cells are actually capturing. Longer: Actually, the question could be extended to on-centre retinal cells as well, but I'll focus on ...
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1answer
48 views

Do bacteria grow on pure dry glucose?

I've accidentally touched pure glucose with my bare hands (fingers to be specific), which was intended for cell-culture. I'm worried that bacteria from my skin may start to grow on the glucose and ...
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1answer
38 views

Are ribosomes assembled in rough ER and Golgi body, or in the nucleolus?

I mean all the components, such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are synthesized in the nucleolus, but is the whole ribosome structure assembled in the nucleolus or is it also done in the rough endoplasmic ...
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1answer
105 views

Is metastatic cancer always lethal if uncured?

Can matastases spread in different parts of the body of an animal suffering from cancer grow in a limited way, such as not to cause much more harm that a benignant tumor in those parts of the body ...
4
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2answers
179 views

Are Gram negative bacteria classified as such because of their negative membrane potential?

Does the membrane potential usually quoted for Gram negative bacteria (e.g., E. coli) refer to the potential across both membranes? - If yes, then does the potential fall more over the inner or outer ...
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508 views

What is the difference between organelle membranes?

Cells and organelles are contained in lipid bilayers. I'm particularly interested in eukaryotic organelle bilayers and the biophysicochemical differences between them. Many papers assume a ...
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1answer
36 views

Can you replace glucose with glycerol in cell media?

In order to feed an animal cell in process called Respiration, can I replace Glucose with Glycerol? The Equation bellow: Glycerol + Oxygen -> Water + Carbon Oxide
2
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1answer
27 views

Question about Enzyme Inhibition in relation to Aspirin

I've been trying to learn a bit more about pharmacology, so bear with my ignorance. In short, I see that aspirin (in part) works by inhibiting cycloxygenase isoenzymes and that this inhibiting is ...
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1answer
74 views

Which are the last cells of the human body to die?

When somebody dies, which are the last surviving cells of his/her body? Those of hair, nails, or some other obscure but resilient cells? Shedding light on why and how they are so vital might boost ...
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27 views

What a cell needs to survive? [closed]

I'm looking specifically at animal cells. I'm not sure if it needs only Glucose and Oxygen for Aerobic respiration.
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2answers
231 views

Why do mitochondria fuse together?

Contrary to all of the textbook images of mitochondria that I have seen over the years, I had just learned that the mitochondria within a cell form a dynamic branching network along microtubule ...
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0answers
29 views

How do cells grow (ie. gain mass)? [closed]

I have some basic knowledge of the cell cycle. However, I don't understand how cells grow in the Gap phases. How do cells grow? And how does consumed food transfer mass to cells?
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1answer
69 views

How are ions 'pumped' across a membrane during electron transport?

A number of sites (including this one) that provide descriptions of photosynthesis state that high energy electrons 'pump' ions across a membrane. What is the actual 'pumping' mechanism? I've looked ...
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1answer
64 views

Why are considered to be exceptions to the cell theory? [closed]

If I am not mistaken, the cell theory states that: All living organisms are made up of one or more cells Cells are the smallest units of life Cells arise from pre-existing cells Aseptate fungal ...
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0answers
17 views

DNA. mRNA, tRNA [closed]

Can someone explain to me how transcription and translation works, especially the part about codes. And does amino acids has code or is it the tRNA?
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2answers
213 views

Randomness in living systems

The point of my question is not to talk about events that are uncontrolled by living organisms. My question is about controlled randomness, or I'd like to say adaptive random process. Process that are ...
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0answers
16 views

If spore possesses 10 chromosomes with 20 picogram DNA then calculate the amount of DNA in prophase II?

Options : a) 20 b) 10 c) 40 According to me, it should be 20 because a cell in prophase II is haploid after completing meiosis I reduction division. Also, spores are haploid, so amount of DNA should ...
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19 views

Production of energy in the form of ATP is concerned with?

Following are the options : a) Mitochondria b) Elaioplast c) Chloroplast d) Preoxisome e) Golgi Bodies Answer 1 - a) and b) Answer 2 - a) , c) and d) According to me , the answer is 2 because due ...
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0answers
19 views

Synthetic biology: examples of cell orientation driven by genes or genetic modification

First of all, forgive for the naive question. I know that genes can drive the shape of cells, as the sickle-shaped red blood cells. On the spirit of synthetic biology or tissue engineering, does ...
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1answer
54 views

Electron Transport Chain in Mitochondria [closed]

I was researching cellular respiration, and this is a rather confusing part. I need help understanding the purpose of Complex II and how the ATP Synthase generates the energy to turn ADP to ATP.
7
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1answer
346 views

Is this a grass cell?

I found this picture online claiming it was a grass cell. Clearly it is a cross section image but I was hoping you could tell me if this is actually grass, or something else if anything.
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58 views

What Chemical Trigger Causes Ectomycorrhiza To Change From Asexual To Sexual?

I want to know the trigger behind the change of asexual to sexual ectomycorrhiza when symbiosis with a tree root is formed. As ectomycorrhiza attaches itself to a root, it forms a relationship wherein ...
5
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1answer
39 views

Are there differing organelle to cytoplasm ratio in animal cells?

Could anyone provide me with examples of cells with high organelle to cytoplasm ratios (heavily packed), and examples of cells with low organelle to cytoplasm ratios (sparsely packed)?
3
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1answer
128 views

How do lipid-soluble substances diffuse through the cell membrane?

It’s said that water-soluble substances can diffuse through cell membrane with less ease than lipid-soluble substances because the former encounters impedance in the hydrophobic region of the ...
0
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1answer
69 views

What are golgi blobs? [closed]

From a general google search I have come to know that golgi 'blobs'(also referred to as "golgi haze") are tubular vesicles formed during the interphase of mitosis. I would like to be reassured and ...
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1answer
57 views

How can I accurately measure glucose concentration in culture media?

I am trying to identify the best way to measure glucose concentration in culture media with E. coli. Now, I imagine I can use those glucose meters that diabetic people use, but unfortunately can't ...
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3answers
75 views

How are chemical reactions organized in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

I realized I only have a vague understanding based on what remember from high school and I don't know if they ever really broke it down for us but: In general how do both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ...
0
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1answer
17 views

How is receptor production (recycling) regulated?

My understanding of receptor downregulation is that when activated, a receptor then gets absorbed into its cell, as shown in this weird video. It then gets either recycled or degraded. Tolerance ...
3
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1answer
55 views

How can neurons divide without centrioles?

I have read in my studies that neurons lack centrioles. If that is so, then how is it possible that new neurons are added to our brain? Does this have anything to do with memory loss?
14
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1answer
273 views

Why do specifically bananas go brown quicker in the fridge?

Perhaps the title should be: Why don't all fruits containing phenol residues go brown quickly when left in the fridge? Bananas go brown over time because of the oxidation of phenol residues. ...
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1answer
30 views

Thickness / size / volume of a macrophage

What is the thickness of a macrophage? From some available literature it looks like a macrophage has a 'circular' shape of radius ~10 microns. But I need the thickness to calculate its volume.