The study of cells: their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Membrane potential in gram negative bacteria

Does the membrane potential usually quoted for gram negative bacteria (e.g. E. coli) refer to the potential across both membranes? - If yes, then does the potential fall more over the inner or outer ...
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T7 Tagging Next to Met

Will a T7 tag still work if it is placed next to a start codon? Meaning, will it still work with a Met attached to it in the amino acid sequence? Thank you!
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T7 Tagging in Synthetic Biology

What is a T7 tag and can if be used to purify synthesized proteins? Is it charge based like a His tag?
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42 views

Are fish roe unicellular?

Are roe (fish eggs, caviar, etc.) single cells? I have tried looking this up on google (sadly, to no avail), and I am guessing they might be multicellular (like bird eggs) or consist of one cell plus ...
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66 views

What is the mechanism by which lamins regulate gene expression?

The heterochromatin is generally localized at the nuclear periphery (also near nuclear lamina), whereas active genes are preferentially found in the nuclear interior. Children with ...
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299 views

Which of the cell types commonly found in mammals has the greatest number of mitochondria?

This is basically a fun question, inspired by this answer on scifi.se. So, which cell type will have the greatest number of mitochondria? Obviously, I am talking about wild type, healthy individuals ...
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57 views

Contact Inhibition of Cell Division: Signaling Pathway

The following article refers to contact inhibition of cell division in epithelial cells, specifically MDCK cells: Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition. In their review ...
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29 views

What metabolically happens when an egg fuses with the nucleus of a somatic cell

In stem cell biology, it is recognized that embryonic stem cells are transcriptionally inactive for the first 3 days of development. However, during somatic cell nuclear transfer, the nucleus is ...
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87 views

How to prevent e coli from clumping (for FACS)?

I'm performing FACS on e coli, but the cells are clumping together so each event is multiple cells. I ran a control where I had one flask of e coli expressing GFP, and one flask expressing RFP. Run ...
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46 views

What were the first neural systems like?

I'm curious about the origin of the neural network. I'm thinking perhaps once life evolved beyond the single cell organism, it needed a simple neural network to coordinate those cells, and cell ...
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38 views

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue?

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue? Looking at this picture... , I would tend to think that there are few hundreds cells in the meristem tissue. But I guess this is a ...
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223 views

Can someone explain the color-changing unit (CCU) to me?

I've been physically carrying out serial tenfold dilutions on samples of Ureaplasma to work out the color-changing units (CCU). As a definition, the CCU is the highest dilution at which there is a ...
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30 views

A program for cell motility assessment with a batch process function?

Cell motility assessment is a branch of experimental biology or medical science. One example could be an assessment of treatment effects on sperm motility of an animal. The standard procedure involves ...
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Microscopy Book Suggestions

I've learned programming through great book recommendations, many from the Stack Exchange series of sites. I'm hoping to take this approach to gaining a fundamental understanding of how fluorescence ...
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Why do flagella form a bundle only when they rotate counterclockwise during chemotaxis?

During Chemotaxis in bacteria with flagella, the flagellar rotation dictates how the cell moves. If the flagella rotate counterclockwise, then they form a bundle at one end of the cell (---O) and ...
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31 views

What is NK-cell compartments?

with respect to the paper: Adaptive reconfiguration of the human NK-cell compartment in response to cytomegalovirus: A different perspective of the host-pathogen interaction What is meant by ...
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61 views

How long can a human neuron cell live outside the body in a controlled environment?

Have there any experiments been to keep neurons alive (stationary) without preserving methods such as freezing? If yes, for how long?
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How do I get recombinant proteins into the nucleus of mammal cells?

I know that there are Nuclear Localisation Sequencenes (NLS). They can be taken from endogenous or viral proteins and fused to the N or C terminus of my recombinant protein. Which is the best one? ...
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62 views

What proportion of salt in water would make it not dehydrate nor hydrate someone?

Drinking sea water can be deadly as it contains too much salt, basically de-hydrating the body. Normal tap water contains little salt and is good for re-hydration. My question: How much salt needs to ...
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151 views

MTT assay normalization

Since the precise amount of cells in each well of an MTT assay varies, how can I normalize the results by cell number/concentration? How can I take into account the number of cells that have already ...
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249 views

Image Processing Suite for bacterial microscopy: Schnitzcells or MicrobeTracker?

I am looking to start doing some work tracking the size and growth of individual bacterial cells in the microscope. In order to analyze the images I need software that can segment the cells, ...
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62 views

Critical pO2 threshold for cell division?

I'm a physicist asking questions on an aspect of cellular metabolism, so excuse my biological ignorance! Hypoxia is a frequent complication of certain tumour types, and has quite an implication for ...
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38 views

Example(s) of reduced rate of mitotic progression?

Most species complete mitosis, and in particular the process of chromosome condensation, rather quickly, in a matter of minutes. Are there any known species that undergo mitoses with substantially ...
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50 views

Onset of Autophagy

Fasting and Intermittent Fasting (IF) have been proven to start autophagy (cellular self-digestion). How long does the average man and woman have to wait for autophagy to begin? Does diet prior to ...
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Question about cytoskeleton coordination

I am trying to study for a biology and I am having some confusion over the following topic. Can anyone help explain/ shed some light on the concepts of Rho family GTPases. Is it true that we have Rho ...
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What kind of experiments could you do to see which end of a microtubule is most dynamic?

I'm stuck between two ideas. Not sure which one of them would be best. Do a FRAP on the middle of a MT. If it grows from the + end, that section will remain dark. If it grows from the - end, ...
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32 views

Why do restriction-modification systems work?

Some RM systems (restriction-modification systems) are plasmid-borne and are transferred through bacterial conjugation. As you all know, there are two genes in an RM system, the gene that codes for ...
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Slicing cell cultures frozen in vitrified ice with a laser for CryoEM

Could a cell culture frozen in vitrified ice for CryoEM be effectively sliced into thin planes and resolved images produced? I was thinking if this could be done to get images from inside a cell.
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Alkaline Phosphatase

What is the predominant purpose of Alkaline Phosphatase in skeletal muscle fibers and liver cells. I know that it is a hydrolase enzyme that speeds up the degredation of proteins, lipids, starch and ...
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23 views

MAPK signalling pathway initial conditions

I would like to know the initial conditions and locations of the chemical reagents in the MAPK cascasde. I'm going to plug this information into a reaction diffusion simulation. From reading ...
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23 views

Why are embryonic germ cells considered stem cells?

In a class that I'm taking we were presented 3 types of stem cells. Adult stem cells which come from bone marrow Embryonic stem cells which come from embryos Embryonic germ cells which come from ...
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206 views

Microtiter Dish Biofilm Formation Assay- Pseudomonas and Crystal Violet

If Pseudomonas is a gram negative bacteria, it does not retain crystal violet but why is it that so many people are using crystal violet staining in theri Microtiter Dish Biofilm Formation Assay?
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22 views

What is a “NuMA protein”?

I just got out of a lecture on mitosis and this part was incredibly confusing. After searching my textbook it doesn't cover it that well either. The professor mentioned a NUMA protein that is ...
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11 views

Differences in Karr cell model and E-Cell

Recently Karr et al. published in Cell their model of Mycoplasma genitalium and published the complete code. Also, the E-Cell project allows to simulate a complete cell. Can anyone comment on ...