Tagged Questions

The study of cells: their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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1answer
76 views

What is the H+ gradient in mitochondria?

I would like to understand what the term H+ Gradient means. I googled this question and found terms such as chemiosmosis and ion gradient being tossed around. I am very new to biology and I do not ...
0
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1answer
31 views

How do the quantities of ATP formed during aerobic and anaerobic respiration compare? [on hold]

How do the quantities of ATP formed during aerobic and anaerobic respiration compare?
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1answer
57 views

Can a human cell live indefinetely in a controlled environment?

How long can a human cell live in a controlled environment, given all necessary nutrients, temperatures, mechanisms for waste removal, and other requirements are provided for? Put differently: Can a ...
3
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2answers
37 views

Does trypsin strip flask coating?

Mammalian cell/tissue cultures sometimes require flasks coated with proteins. My uneducated guess is that these proteins mimic the ECM, perhaps the basal lamina, so finicky contact-dependent cells can ...
4
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1answer
62 views

Are all functions of a human cell known? [closed]

Please bear with me as I'm intruding into your world from a computer science background. In programming, once you have created a program, you know all functions of that program. Thus, 100% knowledge ...
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0answers
30 views

Alkaline Phosphatase

What is the predominant purpose of Alkaline Phosphatase in skeletal muscle fibers and liver cells. I know that it is a hydrolase enzyme that speeds up the degredation of proteins, lipids, starch and ...
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0answers
32 views

How to visualize the ECM?

Specifically, I'd like to look at changes in HA (hyaluronic acid) production. Most often you only see people staining the cell surface or removing cells from culture for fixation and then imaging. ...
5
votes
2answers
41 views

Alternatives to trypsin for cell detachment?

I have ran out of trypsin and need to passage my cells (immortalized chondrocytes, C28/I2) today or tomorrow. I have been out of town and forgot to order more trypsin. I was wondering if there are ...
2
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0answers
11 views

How many cells in apical meristem

How many cells are there in the apical meristematic tissue? Looking at this picture... I would tend to think that there are few hundreds (maybe only a hundred) cells in the meristem tissue. But I ...
0
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1answer
29 views

Book-recommendation: Biochemistry

I need to have a book which covers following topics two may also be fine: (a) Structure and role of carbohydrates, fats, fatty acids and cholesterol, proteins and amino-acids, nucleic acids. ...
5
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2answers
44 views

Problems understanding membrane potential

I understand that membrane potential is the difference of the extracellular and intracellular ionic charges, due to their concentrations. We say that the extracellular space has a charge of 0 and then ...
2
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2answers
24 views

Localization of Protein Kinase-A

Is protein kinase-A located in the cytosol/cytoplasm of cells or in the plasma membrane? Also, is it considered a receptor molecule since it is dependent on cAMP? Any and all help is appreciated. ...
2
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0answers
21 views

What do we know about the cellular structure, processes, environment, and immediate ancestors of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA)?

I am up for all scientifically sound speculations, and sources are highly welcome. I've looked into this quite a bit myself via scholar.google, the wiki article, and /r/askscience. I'm really looking ...
2
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1answer
52 views

Active & passive transport question

If an element, ion or molecule is found in a cell is it possible to tell which method of transport was used? for example if a hydrogen or sodium ion was found in the cell could you tell if it got ...
4
votes
2answers
441 views

Are there any multicellular forms of life which exist without consuming other forms of life in some manner?

The title is the question. If additional specificity is needed I will add clarification here. Are there any multicellular forms of life which exist without requiring the consumption (destruction) of ...
0
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1answer
35 views

Fruit colour related to the dissolving of pectin

What does the dissolving of pectin have to do with the colour of a fruit?
8
votes
1answer
226 views

What's the difference between growing cells in culture and cloning them?

The wikipedia page on Hela cells refers to George Gey being able "to isolate one specific cell, multiply it, and start a cell line." Later it says, "In 1955 HeLa cells were the first human cells ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

PSI-BLAST website algorithm parameters

http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi In this website, when I want to apply the psi-blast algorithm on a sequence, under the section of algorithm parameters , what does PSI-BLAST threshold mean? ...
3
votes
3answers
85 views

Stardust or the elements in our bodies

How do we know we are made of stardust? As our cells divide, are our atoms repurposed from existing materials or spontaneously generated? Do we consume materials after we are born that contain ...
1
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1answer
38 views

Bacterial Cell Problem

A microbiologist has discovered what she thinks are two new types of algae. The first cell (Organism 1) appears cubic and is approximately 1.5 μm long, 1.5 μm wide and 1.5 μm deep. The second ...
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1answer
27 views

About excessive cellular growth

When there is 'excessive' cell growth 'ordered' by the human body in some specific part of the body that is not part of the usual repairing mechanisms, does this cause extra telomere 'shortening' or ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Regarding cancer cells and telomeres

If cancer cells have telomeres are they different than the telomeres in non-cancerous cells? Would cancer cell telomeres be somehow 'set-up' to function almost indefinitely; in other words are 'they' ...
1
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1answer
60 views

Why are hard boiled eggs so homogeneous?

A eukaryotic animal cell is a complicated piece of biological machinery. Some major structures inside of the cell (see the image below) include: the nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi vesicles, and various ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Mechanism of Muscle Growth

According to this video (sorry for the poor reference but it represents my level of understanding in physiology), muscle grow as a consequence of repairing micro-lesions. How are these micro-lesions ...
1
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1answer
43 views

Can Mono-Cell or other organism self-replicate?

I have a question regarding how organism replicate them self to create an other organism, We know that in animal reign, we need a male and female that will generate a new being. what I want to know ...
6
votes
1answer
66 views

Where do the electrons and protons formed from biological reactions go?

In a reaction like disulphide bond formation protons and electrons are released. These particles are presumably damaging in high levels. What systems are in place to prevent a build up of electrons ...
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1answer
32 views

Determining and Differentiating specific ATPases

In respects to this certain ATPase transporter. What do i look for in respects to determining what specific kind it is out of: F-ATPases V-ATPases A-ATPases P-ATPases E-ATPases Im assuming that ...
0
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0answers
16 views

Immunomic Microarray

"One can measure two or more signals simultaneously determined by a single feature, i.e., epitope in immunomic microarray DNA microarrays measure one response value for each gene per sample; that ...
2
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2answers
63 views

peptide MHC microarray

"The recent technology is peptide–MHC microarray or artificial antigen-presenting chip. In this technique, recombinant peptide–MHC complexes and co-stimulatory molecules are immobilized on a ...
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0answers
24 views

recombinant peptide MHC complex

What is recombinant peptide-MHC complex??? Recombinant DNA means "to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in biological ...
4
votes
2answers
76 views

Transmembrane Protein Problem

Problem A transmembrane protein has 1000 aa. The 5th aa is found on the external side of the cell membrane. It interacts with the aqueous environment outside the cell. Amino acid 90 is inside the ...
4
votes
1answer
75 views

How fast cancer cells divide, compared to normal cells

This question suggests that we have, on average, 50-70 billion cell divisions per day. I just read that cancer cells divide more often (therefore more prone to radiation). I am wondering, for a ...
2
votes
1answer
21 views

epitope prediction/ mapping

B-CELL EPITOPE PREDICTION Regarding this article: "Such a molecule can be synthesized or, in case of a protein, its gene can be cloned into an expression vector."----- is a particular line in ...
2
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0answers
18 views

Regarding cellular self-destruction

I heard and read telomere 'health' or 'length' ( if that's right ) has alot to do with cell 'health'. If telomere 'abilities' are 'restored' to a 'healthier' status then the cell it is in functions as ...
-2
votes
1answer
43 views

What is hTAP?? Please help

Could not find a single article regarding this. What is hTAP? Tap is Transfer associated protein, that I know, but what is hTAP??(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Knowledge about Organelles

As we know, there are various organelles present inside a cell. Let's consider mitochondria for example. My questions are -> Do we understand the composition, structural and functional features of ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

Difference between sequential and conformational epitope

Is the difference only in its structure? Like conformational epitope has 3D structure while sequential has a linear structure?(I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through ...
4
votes
2answers
73 views

What is MHC haplotype?

What is MHC haplotype? I did check out the wiki article, but did not understand. (I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going through it because I need it for my research. So if ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

MHC restricted peptide

What is an MHC restricted peptide? "MHC-restricted antigen recognition, or MHC restriction, refers to the fact that a given T cell will recognize a peptide antigen only when it is bound to a host ...
0
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0answers
26 views

Results of fermenting bakers yeast, Sugar and different categories of fruit peels

Based on this recipe I made three Jars of the fermented solution each containing: Papaya Peels Lemon+ Pomegranate peels Pineapple Peels In addition to above recipe I added 1 large tbsp of ...
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2answers
83 views
+100

Does “Garbage Enzyme cleaner” contain cleaning enzymes?

There are many recipes which call for using fruit peel fermentation process to make a concentrated enzyme cleaner solution, some variations call to add bakers yeast. So the question arises that does ...
3
votes
2answers
32 views

How does one determine intracellular concentration?

The TL;DR version Is there a fast way to determine what the cell environment of a particular cell (E.g RBC) is? (in terms of solute/ionic concentration) I'm not sure if the question belongs here, ...
4
votes
2answers
45 views

Are there known downsides to removing UV mutation hotspots to prevent some skin cancers (Genetic sunblock)?

Khavari et al. recently demonstrated that a significant fraction of one of the major forms of skin cancer (cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas) are associated with a mutated KNSTRN gene (a protein ...
3
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1answer
104 views

Integration of several environmental signals

I am looking for examples of different functions that are good fit to how signals are computed in order to respond to the environment. Let's make my question more copmrehensible with an example... ...
0
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0answers
20 views

Difference in structure of B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope

What is the difference in the structure of B-cell epitope and T cell epitope? Also please enlighten me with the fact of discontinuity or conformation of the b or t cell. Went through a number or ...
3
votes
1answer
32 views

SEREX serological analysis of cDNA expression library

What is Serological Analysis of cDNA expression library? I went through this article:http://cancerimmunity.org/serex/introduction/ but could not really make out. Can someone please explain this to me ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Complementarity Determining Regions (CDR)

Complementarity determining regions (CDRs) are part of the variable chains in immunoglobulins (antibodies) and T cell receptors, generated by B-cells and T-cells respectively, where these molecules ...
0
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1answer
22 views

Degenerate Alignment Analysis

Can someone please tell me what is Degenerate alignment analysis? Could not find a good article on the internet that could help me understand what it means? (I have not studied biology since last 8 ...
0
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0answers
22 views

TAA- Tumor associated antigen

An approach to find Tumor associated antigens is based on transfection of expression library made from cDNA into cells expressing desired MHC haplotypes. Can someone please explain what this line ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Microarray probe and target

In a microarray, which one is called a target and which one is the probe? the one that is added later , is that the probe or the one present in the slots of the microarray, that is the probe? (I have ...