The process through which a biological organism grows to maturity. In certain contexts it can mean the changes the organism goes through over its entire lifetime.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

1
vote
1answer
55 views

Symmetry in animals [duplicate]

Is symmetry in animals due to DNA or natural selection? By symmetry, I mean the left side is an almost (not perfect) reflection of the right half. Is this due to DNA trying to balance the two half or ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Can we observe developmental process in populations or species? [closed]

Similar development as going from embryo to adulthood. Or similar process as ageing in organism. Edit: Let's say that form of organism changes as entity is developing from embryo to adulthood. After ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Has research indicated how much koinophillia preferences are learned vs insinctual

I'm curious about rather the definition of 'normal', as it affects koinophillia & mate choice, is something instinctual or learned. To clarify I'm not asking if koinophillia itself is ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

why is the cleavage in frogs holoblastic and not meroblastic?

background information The cleavage of the frog embryo during the embryo development is holoblastic (complete cleavage). However when we look at yolk-rich eggs we see a cleavage pattern which is ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

How is bilateral asymmetry determined in embryonic development?

What are the mechanisms that ensure consistent left-right asymmetric placement of various internal organs (heart, liver, etc) or consistent left-right asymmetric development of paired organs (brain, ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Embryo development terms

I'm trying to couple the following terms: cytoplasmic determinants, induction, positional information, hox genes, pattern information, morphogenisis, determination and differentiation. I hope ...
1
vote
2answers
67 views

At what age does the mouse skull stop growing?

Unless otherwise mandated, neuroscientific research on mice is done with ~7-week old animals. There is a sort-of mantra that at this age their skulls stop growing. However, recently, I noticed a ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Does a zygote express all genes?

If a zygote has all the cytoplasmic determinants and all the specific transcription factors, does that mean that all genes in the genome are expressed?
0
votes
0answers
41 views

Is the zygote the only totipotent cell?

I’ve been told that the unfertilized egg contains cytoplasmic determinants (e.g. proteins, transcription factors, mRNAs) that are divided unevenly during the early stages of cell division in an embryo....
7
votes
2answers
81 views

Do babies conceived naturally or artificially have any differences in long-term health?

Are there any long-term differences in children conceived via artificial insemination or sexual intercourse, pending that the mother successfully delivers the child?
7
votes
1answer
128 views

Why do fetuses have membranes between fingers and toes?

Are the membranes present between the fetal fingers and toes a remainder of the phylogenetic evolution, or just a way organs do grow most easily?
4
votes
0answers
30 views

How only one follicle develops into graffian follicle?

I've studied that one out of many follicle develops into mature or graffian follicle. The fact which confuses me is that, since all follicles are in same ovary, close to each other with equal supply ...
2
votes
0answers
14 views

How do the connections from V1 to V2 form during early development of the human brain?

I am wondering how corticocortical efferents from layer I and II in V1 develop to forward visual information to layer IV in V2. Is there topology preservation in these connections from the beginning ...
3
votes
0answers
27 views

How is the brain kickstarted during development [closed]

The brain is a complicated beast, that operates (generally) by electrical activity. During development, all cells originate from the a single "cell": the zygote. At some point during development, the ...
1
vote
1answer
99 views

What's the mechanism or structure responsible for new species genetic code generation? [closed]

I always had this question in mind. I think, If humans find answer to it then we can trigger the next evolution of human specie. What is the mechanism or structure responsible for evolution ? I don't ...
4
votes
2answers
271 views

Is the DNA different in each type of cell? What DNA is passed to offspring?

Our body contains many different types of cells and each of those cells have their own DNA (correct me if wrong) like skin cells their own DNA that makes them skin cells instead of muscle cells. So ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Lack of yolk in mammalian oocytes as compared to other vertebrates?

Why do mammalian oocytes have little to no yolk? How does it compare to other vertebrates such as frogs, fish, and birds?
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Polar bodies fertilization

Suppose a sperm fertilized a 2nd polar body( haploid) is there a chance of somewhat normal development?
1
vote
1answer
108 views

Synaptic pruning and selective elimination during adolescence

How does Synaptic pruning occur during pre-adolescence, adolescence and post-adolescence, after there is blooming overproduction of synaptic connections until the years of late childhood, and how does ...
5
votes
3answers
277 views

Symmetry of species [duplicate]

I've got a silly question, sorry for that. I know, that we probably have no the right answer and the current answer could be "that's evolution, external conditions". I'd like to speculate, why most of ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Why are belly buttons on the stomach (why does the umbilical cord end up attached to the stomach)?

Belly buttons are at the site where the umbilical cord was attached to us as we developed inside our mothers. The same is true for all placental mammals. Why are belly buttons on the stomach? Why ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Why do male rats and horses lack nipples? [duplicate]

I have read many articles about why male rats and horses lack nipples, however, I still don't understand why! Do male rats, mice, and horses have nipples in early embryonic life and then lose them?
3
votes
0answers
20 views

What would the resulting karyotype be if someone with Klinefelter syndrome fertilized an “empty” egg?

Endoreduplication: is a form of nuclear polyploidization that results in multiple, uniform copies of chromosomes. This process is common in plants and animals, especially in tissues with high ...
-2
votes
1answer
193 views

How may the age of a child be estimated when required to do so, in video-graphic evidence?

How may it be possible to roughly conclude that a subject in a select piece of video-graphic evidence presented, is in fact a child, i.e. without the subject being, physically examined? Is it ...
0
votes
1answer
55 views

When does lactation occur?

High levels of estrogens and progesterone antagonize prolactin’s effect on the mammary glands, and it’s only after the placenta has been removed and the levels of estrogens and progesterone has ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Why does a fetus drinks and urinates into the amniotic fluid?

I was reading this website saying that fetuses urinate into the amniotic fluid. It also mentioned that, because we drink the amniotic fluid, we’ve been drinking our urine for months. However, why do ...
2
votes
0answers
77 views

Why does it take many sperm for one sperm to fertilize an egg?

Hundreds of acrosomes must undergo exocytosis to digest holes in the zona pellucida. This is one case that does not bear out the adage, “The early bird catches the worm.” A sperm that comes along ...
2
votes
0answers
104 views

Cause of a extra vertebra in the human body [closed]

Most people have five vertebrae in their lumbar (lower back) region, which are named L1 to L5. However, some people possess an additional lumbar vertebra located below the L5. This extra vertebra, ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Comparing Embryonic stem cell and hepatic stem cell

So, currently, I want to compare transcriptome data for liver cell development. I found 2 data sets which start from stem cell, hepatoblast, and then adult cell. The first data set use hepatic stem ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Toll Like Receptors Vs Toll Receptors

What are the major differences between them, apart from one being in humans and other in Drosophilla?
0
votes
1answer
43 views

How DNA programs the first cell in womb into a human [closed]

Sorry if you see me silly. I am just a programmer happens to be curious about biology... So far I understand how DNA make protein, how cell divides, how one composed of cells->tissues-> organs. But,...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Resources for similarity between embryos

Is there a scientific paper/reputable image resource out there which I can use that the embryos of different organisms (vertebrata) are similar in their early developmental stages(without falling into ...
0
votes
1answer
130 views

How are neural networks encoded in the DNA? [closed]

The central nervous systems as well as the brain->muscles and sensory cells->brain nervous pathways, need to be precisely wired for life to be possible. Moreover they are wired almost exactly the same ...
0
votes
2answers
29 views

What is the germ layer origin of human lung fibroblasts?

What is the germ layer origin of human lung-derived fibroblasts?
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Why are segments/parasegments in fruit fly embryos staggered?

I'm reading my developmental biology textbook and I don't understand this concept. I can see how concentrations of Eve and Ftz determine each parasegment. However, I don't understand why the length of ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

What is the mechanism of folic acid deficiency and neural tube defects?

I am having difficulty finding the mechanism by which folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects. I know that it does so, but what in particular actually occurs with folic acid deficiency to ...
1
vote
0answers
71 views

How often does parthenogenesis in mammals happen?

Probably everyone knows that mammals can't produce viable offspring by parthenogenesis. But there are reports of human chimeras (see: a human parthenogenetic chimaera) and it's known for mice to ...
3
votes
0answers
123 views

Cause-and-effect questions about growth and development of plant

I need to solve some cause-and-effect problems. The problems are related to growth and development of plant. "Growth and Development" chapter is the first chapter in third level of high school (senior ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Tissue grafting in marine invertebrates

I'm trying to source a procedure for a transplanting tissue in regenerating polyps. Would anyone happen to know where I can find a method of adhering to donor to host tissue? Thanks
2
votes
1answer
41 views

Who compared developmental biology to crystallography?

I need to find out the name of a nineteenth century biologist who compared developmental biology to crystallography. His idea was that crystals are formed from 'cells' (defined molecular units) that ...
5
votes
1answer
403 views

Where do most mutations come from, mitosis or meiosis?

According to this (old) paper there are 10 times more mutations during meiosis than during mitosis. One reason for that is that recombination often causes replication error and therefore mutations. ...
2
votes
1answer
343 views

Any examples of an organism's life cycle where the reproductive stage occur before the 'adult' stage?

Most life cycles we knew of consist of a juvenile stage (e.g. larval for insects, sporozoite for some intracellular parasites), a reproductive stage and an adult stage. Usually the reproductive stage ...
4
votes
2answers
955 views

Could we slow down life? [closed]

As far as I know there is no absolute time measurement (one that would measure time in a non-environment-dependent fashion) in any life form. Only such time measurements exist, which are dependent ...
4
votes
1answer
954 views

Cause of Crease in Drupe Fruit

What causes the crease through the pericarp of a drupe fruit (peach, nectarine, olive)? It may just be in exocarp as @Ilan pointed out, but I assumed (perhaps wrongly), that the division continued ...
13
votes
1answer
3k views

Do babies resemble their father?

An often heard theory is that newborns and babies resemble the father more than the mother, a theory apparently ignited by a Nature paper by Christenfeld and Hill (1995). Figure 1 shows one of the ...
6
votes
1answer
51 views

How is it determined in a zygote state of foetus, that which side is mouth and which side is for anus?

After the fertilization when the zygote is in the growing state to a foetus, the main canal is introduced first, from mouth to anus. But my question is when the canal is created first how does it ...
3
votes
4answers
234 views

Recommend good conversational books to learn about cell and developmental biology or biochemisty?

I'm an engineer by training and teaching myself the basics of cell and developmental biology. I'm using Scott F. Gilbert's Developmental Biology and Alberts' Essential Cell Biology right now, and they ...
2
votes
0answers
17 views

variance in zygotic gene expression across species

I found this review on the Maternal-to-Zygotic transition (MZT), describing how developmental control switches from maternally deposited RNAs to zygotic expression. I was struck by figure 1, and the ...
6
votes
1answer
76 views

Why differentiated cells can't “undifferentiate” (under normal conditions)?

In a process called differentiation, the cells of the developing organism undergo huge changes, which result in cells, functioning "completely" differently. Two cells are considered to be of different ...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

Cysticercoids of Eucestoda

I have found the following pictures representing cysticercoids of Eucestoda. If I correctly understand the right part of the picture, I would say that the development of the scolex is portrayed on ...