The process through which a biological organism grows to maturity. In certain contexts it can mean the changes the organism goes through over its entire lifetime.

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7
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2answers
836 views

What determines the fate of a cell with respect to differentiation?

I have been reading about Townes and Holtfreter's work in 1955, in which cells are dissociated from a blastocyst in an alkaline solution then mixed together and spontaneously reaggregates based on ...
1
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0answers
14 views

why is the cleavage in frogs holoblastic and not meroblastic?

background information The cleavage of the frog embryo during the embryo development is holoblastic (complete cleavage). However when we look at yolk-rich eggs we see a cleavage pattern which is ...
0
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1answer
40 views

Embryo development terms

I'm trying to couple the following terms: cytoplasmic determinants, induction, positional information, hox genes, pattern information, morphogenisis, determination and differentiation. I hope ...
17
votes
3answers
1k views

Impact of Alan Turing's approach to morphogenesis

Shortly before his untimely passing, the computing pioneer Alan Turing published his most cited paper The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis (1952). The central question for Turing was: how does a ...
1
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0answers
30 views

How is bilateral asymmetry determined in embryonic development?

What are the mechanisms that ensure consistent left-right asymmetric placement of various internal organs (heart, liver, etc) or consistent left-right asymmetric development of paired organs (brain, ...
5
votes
2answers
156 views

Components of the concept of Developmental Noise?

Developmental noise is a concept that correspond to the amount of possible phenotypic variance of a given genotype in a given environment. Intrinsic noise (aka Cellular noise) is a component of ...
1
vote
2answers
41 views

At what age does the mouse skull stop growing?

Unless otherwise mandated, neuroscientific research on mice is done with ~7-week old animals. There is a sort-of mantra that at this age their skulls stop growing. However, recently, I noticed a ...
7
votes
1answer
113 views

Why do fetuses have membranes between fingers and toes?

Are the membranes present between the fetal fingers and toes a remainder of the phylogenetic evolution, or just a way organs do grow most easily?
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Does a zygote express all genes?

If a zygote has all the cytoplasmic determinants and all the specific transcription factors, does that mean that all genes in the genome are expressed?
0
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0answers
33 views

Is the zygote the only totipotent cell?

I’ve been told that the unfertilized egg contains cytoplasmic determinants (e.g. proteins, transcription factors, mRNAs) that are divided unevenly during the early stages of cell division in an ...
7
votes
2answers
79 views

Do babies conceived naturally or artificially have any differences in long-term health?

Are there any long-term differences in children conceived via artificial insemination or sexual intercourse, pending that the mother successfully delivers the child?
4
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0answers
27 views

How only one follicle develops into graffian follicle?

I've studied that one out of many follicle develops into mature or graffian follicle. The fact which confuses me is that, since all follicles are in same ovary, close to each other with equal supply ...
2
votes
0answers
14 views

How do the connections from V1 to V2 form during early development of the human brain?

I am wondering how corticocortical efferents from layer I and II in V1 develop to forward visual information to layer IV in V2. Is there topology preservation in these connections from the beginning ...
13
votes
1answer
2k views

Do babies resemble their father?

An often heard theory is that newborns and babies resemble the father more than the mother, a theory apparently ignited by a Nature paper by Christenfeld and Hill (1995). Figure 1 shows one of the ...
3
votes
0answers
27 views

How is the brain kickstarted during development [closed]

The brain is a complicated beast, that operates (generally) by electrical activity. During development, all cells originate from the a single "cell": the zygote. At some point during development, the ...
1
vote
1answer
97 views

What's the mechanism or structure responsible for new species genetic code generation? [closed]

I always had this question in mind. I think, If humans find answer to it then we can trigger the next evolution of human specie. What is the mechanism or structure responsible for evolution ? I don't ...
4
votes
2answers
227 views

Is the DNA different in each type of cell? What DNA is passed to offspring?

Our body contains many different types of cells and each of those cells have their own DNA (correct me if wrong) like skin cells their own DNA that makes them skin cells instead of muscle cells. So ...
1
vote
1answer
97 views

Synaptic pruning and selective elimination during adolescence

How does Synaptic pruning occur during pre-adolescence, adolescence and post-adolescence, after there is blooming overproduction of synaptic connections until the years of late childhood, and how does ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Lack of yolk in mammalian oocytes as compared to other vertebrates?

Why do mammalian oocytes have little to no yolk? How does it compare to other vertebrates such as frogs, fish, and birds?
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Polar bodies fertilization

Suppose a sperm fertilized a 2nd polar body( haploid) is there a chance of somewhat normal development?
6
votes
1answer
442 views

Is there any scientific evidence that a human has ever grown a third set of teeth?

This is about the possibility (or lack thereof) for a person to re-grow a new "permanent tooth" or set of teeth, to replace the teeth that grew after their milk teeth fell out. I had earlier seen ...
5
votes
3answers
275 views

Symmetry of species [duplicate]

I've got a silly question, sorry for that. I know, that we probably have no the right answer and the current answer could be "that's evolution, external conditions". I'd like to speculate, why most of ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Why are belly buttons on the stomach (why does the umbilical cord end up attached to the stomach)?

Belly buttons are at the site where the umbilical cord was attached to us as we developed inside our mothers. The same is true for all placental mammals. Why are belly buttons on the stomach? Why ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Why do male rats and horses lack nipples? [duplicate]

I have read many articles about why male rats and horses lack nipples, however, I still don't understand why! Do male rats, mice, and horses have nipples in early embryonic life and then lose them?
2
votes
1answer
37 views

What is the mechanism of folic acid deficiency and neural tube defects?

I am having difficulty finding the mechanism by which folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects. I know that it does so, but what in particular actually occurs with folic acid deficiency to ...
3
votes
0answers
20 views

What would the resulting karyotype be if someone with Klinefelter syndrome fertilized an “empty” egg?

Endoreduplication: is a form of nuclear polyploidization that results in multiple, uniform copies of chromosomes. This process is common in plants and animals, especially in tissues with high ...
-2
votes
1answer
192 views

How may the age of a child be estimated when required to do so, in video-graphic evidence?

How may it be possible to roughly conclude that a subject in a select piece of video-graphic evidence presented, is in fact a child, i.e. without the subject being, physically examined? Is it ...
35
votes
2answers
2k views

Can brain cells move?

I was discussing this with my brother. I'm pretty sure I read somewhere that they can move. Thanks EDIT: By movement I mean long distance migration (preferably within the brain only).
6
votes
1answer
786 views

Why does a fetus drinks and urinates into the amniotic fluid?

I was reading this website saying that fetuses urinate into the amniotic fluid. It also mentioned that, because we drink the amniotic fluid, we’ve been drinking our urine for months. However, why do ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

When does lactation occur?

High levels of estrogens and progesterone antagonize prolactin’s effect on the mammary glands, and it’s only after the placenta has been removed and the levels of estrogens and progesterone has ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

Which sperm fertilizes the egg?

Hundreds of acrosomes must undergo exocytosis to digest holes in the zona pellucida. This is one case that does not bear out the adage, “The early bird catches the worm.” A sperm that comes along ...
1
vote
0answers
11 views

Comparing Embryonic stem cell and hepatic stem cell

So, currently, I want to compare transcriptome data for liver cell development. I found 2 data sets which start from stem cell, hepatoblast, and then adult cell. The first data set use hepatic stem ...
0
votes
1answer
122 views

How are neural networks encoded in the DNA? [closed]

The central nervous systems as well as the brain->muscles and sensory cells->brain nervous pathways, need to be precisely wired for life to be possible. Moreover they are wired almost exactly the same ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Toll Like Receptors Vs Toll Receptors

What are the major differences between them, apart from one being in humans and other in Drosophilla?
0
votes
1answer
39 views

How DNA programs the first cell in womb into a human [closed]

Sorry if you see me silly. I am just a programmer happens to be curious about biology... So far I understand how DNA make protein, how cell divides, how one composed of cells->tissues-> organs. ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Resources for similarity between embryos

Is there a scientific paper/reputable image resource out there which I can use that the embryos of different organisms (vertebrata) are similar in their early developmental stages(without falling into ...
0
votes
2answers
25 views

What is the germ layer origin of human lung fibroblasts?

What is the germ layer origin of human lung-derived fibroblasts?
3
votes
4answers
214 views

Recommend good conversational books to learn about cell and developmental biology or biochemisty?

I'm an engineer by training and teaching myself the basics of cell and developmental biology. I'm using Scott F. Gilbert's Developmental Biology and Alberts' Essential Cell Biology right now, and they ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Why are segments/parasegments in fruit fly embryos staggered?

I'm reading my developmental biology textbook and I don't understand this concept. I can see how concentrations of Eve and Ftz determine each parasegment. However, I don't understand why the length of ...
5
votes
3answers
677 views

How does the colinearity of the HOX genes determine the body plan of an organism?

I was recently reading about colinearity in the HOX genes that give an organism its high-level body plan (where the order of the HOX genes on the chromosome follow the head-to-tail order of body ...
1
vote
0answers
66 views

How often does parthenogenesis in mammals happen?

Probably everyone knows that mammals can't produce viable offspring by parthenogenesis. But there are reports of human chimeras (see: a human parthenogenetic chimaera) and it's known for mice to ...
3
votes
0answers
107 views

Cause-and-effect questions about growth and development of plant

I need to solve some cause-and-effect problems. The problems are related to growth and development of plant. "Growth and Development" chapter is the first chapter in third level of high school (senior ...
13
votes
1answer
177 views

What is the biological age of grafted plants?

Suppose you graft a piece of an existing 'old' plant. Will it continue to grow having the same biological age as its parent? I.e., would it die at the same time as its parent? Or would the process of ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Tissue grafting in marine invertebrates

I'm trying to source a procedure for a transplanting tissue in regenerating polyps. Would anyone happen to know where I can find a method of adhering to donor to host tissue? Thanks
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Who compared developmental biology to crystallography?

I need to find out the name of a nineteenth century biologist who compared developmental biology to crystallography. His idea was that crystals are formed from 'cells' (defined molecular units) that ...
5
votes
1answer
378 views

Where do most mutations come from, mitosis or meiosis?

According to this (old) paper there are 10 times more mutations during meiosis than during mitosis. One reason for that is that recombination often causes replication error and therefore mutations. ...
5
votes
0answers
107 views

How does an organism know when to stop growing, whether it is already on the outermost layer? [closed]

When a multicellular organism is under its development how does the current outermost layer of cells "know" that they should not divide furthermore, as their bodyplan coded into DNA is already ...
2
votes
1answer
333 views

Any examples of an organism's life cycle where the reproductive stage occur before the 'adult' stage?

Most life cycles we knew of consist of a juvenile stage (e.g. larval for insects, sporozoite for some intracellular parasites), a reproductive stage and an adult stage. Usually the reproductive stage ...
4
votes
2answers
952 views

Could we slow down life? [closed]

As far as I know there is no absolute time measurement (one that would measure time in a non-environment-dependent fashion) in any life form. Only such time measurements exist, which are dependent ...
4
votes
1answer
871 views

Cause of Crease in Drupe Fruit

What causes the crease through the pericarp of a drupe fruit (peach, nectarine, olive)? It may just be in exocarp as @Ilan pointed out, but I assumed (perhaps wrongly), that the division continued ...