Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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Current state of Gene Therapy

I am interested in learning about attempts to treat adult individuals suffering from a genetic disease in which the underlying changes in the DNA of the gene are understood. (i) Are there approaches ...
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How is DNA digested by the human body? [closed]

Suppose I (a human being) eat some food? How would my stomach break down and digest the DNA in the food? I believe ultimately it should break down into and be passed out as uric acid but I'm not sure ...
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Does the cell have a mechanism to determine DNA sequence from protein?

Something like a reverse genetic code.
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Estimating RNA concentration from Specific Activity of Labeled RNA

The question reads, Using T7 RNA polymerase to transcribe in vitro a 100-nt RNA off a DNA template. This RNA contains 19 Adenosines. In your 100 uL transcription reaction you added 1.00 µL of ...
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From an information perspective, are both strands of DNA necessary?

I am learning about the genetic code, replication, and transcription, and I have a question about whether or not both strands of DNA are really "necessary". In replication, at a high level, we are ...
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How does epigenetics know to mutate which gene in order to survive? [closed]

It seems that during reproduction particular genes are targeted for modification (mutation, deletion, insertion, etc.) given environmental inputs of either or both of the parents. If a creature was ...
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Estimated protein size using CDs data [closed]

The number of amino acids in a protein is important to predict their size. I used coding DNA sequence (CDs) to predict the average of the protein size of E.coli k12 from a sample provided by the ...
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Why must DNA be packed into chromosomes during mitotic phase?

Why does DNA have to be packed into chromosomes? Why can't DNA just divide itself evenly?
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Is there a term for when a detrimental gene can be positively selected for because of linkage to a very fit gene?

Let's say that some piece of DNA would be subject to extreme negative selection if it were independently inherited, but it is very closely linked to an extraordinarily fit gene, and so the complex it ...
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Separation of smaller DNA fragments and larger fragments without using gel electrophoresis?

For an upcoming experiment I would have two kinds of DNA fragments in a sample after a particular reaction step: First there would be fragments of a length of approx. 170 bps and then there would be ...
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What makes DNA sequences most different/recognizable from a biological perspective? [duplicate]

We can pretty easily quantify the amount difference between two different strings/sequences of characters. For example, if we take the words trebuchet and trebucket, we can say they have a Levenshtein ...
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Is DNA of all animals made of the A,T,C,G blocks? [closed]

Is it true that DNA of all animals is made of the A,T,C,G blocks?
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DNA. mRNA, tRNA [closed]

Can someone explain to me how transcription and translation works, especially the part about codes. And does amino acids has code or is it the tRNA?
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True or False: Dideoxynucleotide sequence analysis Question

True or false: Dideoxynucleotide sequence analysis is a template-directed method that makes use of chain terminators that stop DNA synthesis because they lack a 2'OH group. The answer is false. ...
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Would it be possible to eat things from another planet [closed]

Although at first glance my question is perhaps better suited for a space exploration or sci-fi forum I looked and felt this forum was more appropriate. What makes plants and animals edible and ...
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How to calculate information content of a DNA sequence

How does one calculate the information content of DNA sequence like ATCGGCT where mutation rate of G's is 10% and the most common mutation product binds with C and A with equal frequency. I know that ...
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Choice of primers for PCR

This exercise was given by my professor but I am struggling to understand the solution. A PCR is performed on the following sequence (in order to replicate the chain and thus have a greater quantity ...
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Is there any virus that contains both DNA and RNA in its genome?

It is known that viruses contain DNA or RNA- either one and not both. I came across a question: Which virus contains both DNA and RNA?
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DNA to Binary Distance Computation [closed]

If I represent DNA as binary values, what is the best way of computing distance between them. So : A = 00, T = 11, G = 01 and C = 10 Hamming Distance between ATGC and TAAC is 3, however their ...
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Do all cells produce the same proteins?

If DNA is more or less the same in all cells, and DNA is used to produce proteins from aminoacids, then do all cells produce the same proteins or are they specialised/controlled by something?
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Making a offspring with O+ blood [closed]

If offspring is O+ what blood type would parents have to have to make this possible?
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Why do we encode information in DNA in binary and not in base 4?

I recently read an article about Harvard scientists encoding 700Tb of data in DNA strands. But they encoded the information in base 2, so T and G was a 1 and C and A was a 0. But why binary? Why ...
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How to safely conserve my current DNA methylation marks?

I read the Wikipedia article on DNA methylation Let's say I want to extract and then stock my current DNA methylation marks somewhere so that I can use it safely 20 years in the future for a medical ...
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Does cancer cells come from same process as evolution? [duplicate]

Here is how I understand it: DNA replication is not 100% perfect and error can happen, this error can be good(evolution) or bad(cancer properties). But its not the only source of cancer cells - DNA ...
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How to read this DNA inversion diagram?

In the following diagram about chromosome inversion, I don't understand: Why do we need to take the reverse complement from step 1 to 2? Isn't inversion just reversing the bases in the region? How ...
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Do plants have distinctive DNA genomes from each other like humans do?

Can exact same species of plant have a distinct genome from others of same exact species growing nearby or in a different place/country etc. ? Can a leaf be traced to the the exact plant based on DNA ...
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How much of the Neanderthal genome is living on in humans?

I've understand that outside of African, most ethnic groups carry some (4% or less) Neanderthal DNA. So en masse, across all living humans, what percentage of the original Neanderthal genome is still ...
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In percentage, how much is the human genome (DNA) similar to the mouse genome?

Some guy argued with me against evolution theory, and he claimed that human and mice share 98% just like human and chimpanzee. I've tried to search online for a simple and accurate answer, but I ...
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Questions on adding a protein to a DNA library [closed]

Two questions regarding finding the DNA sequence of a amino acid sequence (AA): 1) If you are able to find out the mRNA sequence of an AA, then don't you automatically know the DNA sequence? 2) ...
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What is the length of the centromeric repeat sequence in a human?

I'm looking for the lengths of the centromeres of human chromosomes. The best I could come up with so far has been: The length of individual centromeric arrays was found to range from an average of ...
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can you tell someone's age from a DNA sample? [duplicate]

So as I understand it telomeres shorten as you age. Working under that assumption.. let's say you were investigating a crime and there was some DNA evidence that had been left behind. Could you ...
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Minichromosome maintenance protein structure and function

I am having difficulty answering three homework questions which relate directly to Chong et al. (2000). Questions The authors have determined that MtMCM is able to bind both ssDNA and dsDNA (see ...
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Why does Taq polymerase add 3' adenine overhangs?

Is there a mechanism for the preference of Taq polymerase to add a non-templated 3' adenine (overhang) instead of other bases?
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How Did They Know What To Do ? And Cellular Identification [closed]

So this is regarding Science, generally, it has influence throughout each section science. How did the early age Scientists etc. knew what is to be done to achieve a certain thing ? And by that, I ...
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Why is DNA double stranded and RNA single stranded? [closed]

Why is DNA present as a double helix structure and RNA as a single helix? What causes the difference between them? What are the practical physiological differences between dsDNA and ssRNA? How are the ...
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Mutagenic Agent [closed]

This was a passage in University Degree Genetic Journal that confused me. DNA base pairs are more susceptible to mutagenic agents, so this reduces the chances of spontaneous mutations happening ...
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Determine OTU identity using Blastn full database or organism specific database?

I am seeking opinions on the best way to determine OTU identity using Blastn. Would the best way to identify an OTU be to blast the OTU to the full nr/nt Nucleotide collection or to blast your OTU to ...
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What is the meaning of the “d(…)2” notation when writing a DNA sequence?

When the sequence of a DNA oligo is written as d(CGCTAGCG)2 what is the meaning of the d(...)2? Why would it not simply be ...
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Pooling already extracted dna?

I had ethanol precipitated a large amount of DNA (2ml) and had to split the sample in half to spin down because only the microcentrifuge has the correct rotor to spin that fast. I want to get as ...
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How to improve DNA extraction

I am using the following protocol to extract chromosomal DNA from bananas: Cut up one banana into small pieces, approximately (1 cm3) Add ½ a cup of warm salt water and the banana pieces into the ...
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if sperm contains only 50% of someone's DNA how can it be used to identify someone?

Is DNA so unique that 50% of it is enough to identify a single person?
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Strand directed mismatch repair system?

In SDM (strand directed mismatch repair), random correction of DNA (correction of template strand) is not right. For example if G (from template strand) gets joined with the T (it should have actually ...
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Construct a restriction map of a linear fragment of DNA using the following data?

I've attempted to do the single digests, and the double digests, but cannot complete the map.... I've attached what I've done so far DNA Sizes of Fragments (bp) uncut DNA 900 DNA cut with EcoRI ...
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Do eukaryotes assimilate DNA that is floating in the extracellular membrane?

Prokayotes, which replicate primarily using binary fission, don't get much genetic diversity. For this reason, they take in any genetic material they encounter, in a gambit to help them better adapt ...
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DNA binding Domain [closed]

How to say whether a specific amino acid in a protein is binding to DNA or not from sequence alone and what are the features or characteristics to be considered?
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Do you have a comprehensive protocol using xGen blocking oligo? [closed]

Specifically used with genomic DNA and to help prevent non-specific binding
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What is two-start or zigzag model of 30 nm chromatin fibre?

I read some webpages describing the two-start model but could not get it. I'll be obliged if someone helped me understand the topic. The websites I have been through are: ...
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What is positive and negative supercoiling?

Is the following correct? Positive supercoiling = the coiling of DNA helix (B-DNA) on itself during intesified coiling of the two DNA stands in right handed direction negative supercoiling = the ...
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How do the major and minor grooves in the DNA helix arise?

I understand that they arise due to the pairing of bases of two opposite stands and are sites through which important proteins needed for replication and transcription of DNA interact. But I don't get ...