Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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Quantifying the number of fragments from RAD library

I have a series of single-end reads from a RAD library of 48 uniquely tagged individuals in fastaq format. The data comes from a small MiSeq run. I want to know the number of unique fragments per ...
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18 views

Is blunt end repair and A-tailing necessary when adaptors can be custom made?

I'm planning on creating a RADseq library, which naturally involves digesting genomic DNA following P1 adaptor ligation. I've read a few protocols that require any over-hangs resulting from ...
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1answer
55 views

Symmetry in animals [duplicate]

Is symmetry in animals due to DNA or natural selection? By symmetry, I mean the left side is an almost (not perfect) reflection of the right half. Is this due to DNA trying to balance the two half or ...
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0answers
31 views

Scaling down amount of DNA for transfection: what factor to consider?

I am interested in transfecting HEK293 cells with a BAC. One paper suggests using 24 ug of DNA to transfect a 55-cm^2/10 ml culture plate. I am using an assay optimimzed for a 96 well plate so I am ...
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1answer
36 views

Does tRNA contain parts with double-helix structure? [closed]

I read in some place that tRNA has a part which is double-stranded. I wanted to know if that part is similar to DNA (double-helix). (And I know that tRNA won't contain Thymine)
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1answer
61 views

What is the cause of the packaging capacity limit of recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors?

I am working with recombinant AAV and I am puzzled by the limit of their packaging capacity (around 5Kb ssDNA), that is really a huge drawback for gene delivery. I have tried to look more in deep ...
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0answers
13 views

Are yeast plasmids methylated?

Do yeast plasmid have methylation? If they do have them, then what kinds of them?
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0answers
7 views

mtDNA sequencing error rates

What is the method to estimate the error rate in mtDNA sequencing? E.g. we are given a profile like this: 16069T 16126C 73G 152C Is there a method, a table of known values, or any other way to say ...
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1answer
80 views

How long would it take for a change to the DNA would take effect?

I am not a Biology Student (sorry guys!) but I have thought about this question for a while and hope that maybe one of you can answer it. Lets say that I had my DNA changed so that I wouldn't be ...
4
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1answer
104 views

Are all genetic instructions in DNA?

Wiki says DNA is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. What ...
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1answer
29 views

What is the effect of wheat's polyploidy on wheat itself and on us?

According to Wikipedia, "Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields", and bread wheat is among them. There is also diploid and tetraploid wheat. I guess that hexaploid wheat, besides the obvious ...
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1answer
49 views

Can you naturally change your DNA that's passed to your offsprings? [closed]

Is it possible to change the genes that you'll pass on to your offsprings by natural activity and behavior. For example if you do body building for quite a long time build strong muscles then would ...
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1answer
64 views

Correlation of non-coding DNA with coding DNA

I sequenced the first exon of the MC1R gene of 15 labradors (genomic DNA) to look for the loss-of-function mutation (C.916C>T) and as expected, it was where it should have been (916th base pair). As i ...
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2answers
58 views

How is UV light damaging DNA as the chromosomes are deep in the cell?

When UV light is on your skin it has to go through the cell membrane and to the membrane of the core. So it looks like that the DNA is protected. But it probably isn't. But can't membranes not been ...
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0answers
14 views

ssDNA library amplification

Assume we are given approx. 80,000 dsDNA fragments of 40 bps length each. I would like to amplify of each of the 80,000 fragments just one particular strand, such that I obtain amplified 80,000 ssDNA ...
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1answer
78 views

What exactly are genes, DNA and chromosomes. How do they relate to each other and what is their function? [closed]

So I am new to biology and I have been reading, and searching the web, but I couldn't understand the whole framework of a cell. So as I understood: A DNA, is a double chain of Nucleotides (A,T,G,C ...
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0answers
30 views

How do I know if the tRNA gene is under purifying selection from looking at a sequence dataset?

I'm having trouble figuring out how to tell if a tRNA gene is under purifying selection, just by looking at its sequence dataset. Such as this one:
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3answers
160 views

How is the size of a gene defined?

Is there an agreed definition as to how many nucleic acid bases constitute a gene? If not, why not? I'm not sure I understand how the exact sizes of genes are defined.
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0answers
58 views

In vivo delivery of ssDNA

I am looking for a system with which I can deliver (large quantities of) ssDNA in vivo (say in mice). I do not know whether it is of importance but the 5' end of the ssDNA fragments are assumed to be ...
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2answers
71 views

Relationship between DNA strands and mRNA

Does the sense strand or antisense strand of DNA code for the polypeptide product? I'm confused because I know the antisense strand is the template for mRNA but it has anti codons so I do not know how ...
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0answers
18 views

Can we make an artificial chromosome?

I know things like BAC and YAC exist. I am thinking of a chromosome the size of those we find in mammals. Say 60 million nucleotides. How big can we make a chromosome with modern technologies without ...
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0answers
21 views

Effects of pulverizing liquid nitrogen frozen tissue by by pestle and mortar

Does RNA, DNA or protein molecule break during pulverizing (liquid nitrogen) frozen tissue by pestle and mortar. As I want to make cDNA for qPCR, this is very important to me to know this.
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0answers
34 views

How does DNA organise a cell's physical position within a body?

How do cells "know" where they are supposed to be in relation to other cells, in forming the physical shape of the body? If you have ever tried to organise or choreograph the physical positions of a ...
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1answer
42 views

Previously frozen papaya seeds sprouted. How will it affect the plants?

I thought about asking this on Gardening SE, but it seems to me as a technical subject which requires biological expertise to answer. This is not something that usually occurs for gardeners, so I don'...
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2answers
100 views

Can animals also get Down syndrome?

I heard that animals cannot get Down syndrome or trisomy. Is that true and why can't they get it? They also have chromosomes.
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1answer
18 views

Number of Chromatids in G1

I know that in G1, the number of chromosomes is 23 pairs, so 46. I assumed there were 46 chromatids too. Why is the number of chromatids in G1 actually 0, not 46? Thanks.
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3answers
719 views

To what extent is the genetic code more than just a code?

It is worth specifying the exact meaning of "code" in this question. A code is a map from one space to another space with which it has no algorithmic connection. Thus representing 321 as 0x141 is not ...
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1answer
58 views

Current state of Gene Therapy [closed]

I am interested in learning about attempts to treat adult individuals suffering from a genetic disease in which the underlying changes in the DNA of the gene are understood. (i) Are there approaches ...
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2answers
59 views

Does the cell have a mechanism to determine DNA sequence from protein?

Something like a reverse genetic code.
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0answers
28 views

Estimating RNA concentration from Specific Activity of Labeled RNA

The question reads, Using T7 RNA polymerase to transcribe in vitro a 100-nt RNA off a DNA template. This RNA contains 19 Adenosines. In your 100 uL transcription reaction you added 1.00 µL of α32P•[...
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0answers
34 views

From an information perspective, are both strands of DNA necessary?

I am learning about the genetic code, replication, and transcription, and I have a question about whether or not both strands of DNA are really "necessary". In replication, at a high level, we are ...
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1answer
47 views

Determination of genes to be modified in epigenetics [closed]

It seems that during reproduction particular genes are targeted for modification (mutation, deletion, insertion, etc.) given environmental inputs of either or both of the parents. If a creature was ...
2
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0answers
36 views

Estimated protein size using CDs data [closed]

The number of amino acids in a protein is important to predict their size. I used coding DNA sequence (CDs) to predict the average of the protein size of E.coli k12 from a sample provided by the ...
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2answers
66 views

Why must DNA be packed into chromosomes during mitotic phase?

Why does DNA have to be packed into chromosomes? Why can't DNA just divide itself evenly?
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2answers
79 views

Is there a term for when a detrimental gene can be positively selected for because of linkage to a very fit gene?

Let's say that some piece of DNA would be subject to extreme negative selection if it were independently inherited, but it is very closely linked to an extraordinarily fit gene, and so the complex it ...
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2answers
45 views

Separation of smaller DNA fragments and larger fragments without using gel electrophoresis?

For an upcoming experiment I would have two kinds of DNA fragments in a sample after a particular reaction step: First there would be fragments of a length of approx. 170 bps and then there would be ...
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2answers
65 views

What makes DNA sequences most different/recognizable from a biological perspective? [duplicate]

We can pretty easily quantify the amount difference between two different strings/sequences of characters. For example, if we take the words trebuchet and trebucket, we can say they have a Levenshtein ...
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1answer
50 views

Is DNA of all animals made of the A,T,C,G blocks? [closed]

Is it true that DNA of all animals is made of the A,T,C,G blocks?
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22 views

DNA. mRNA, tRNA [closed]

Can someone explain to me how transcription and translation works, especially the part about codes. And does amino acids has code or is it the tRNA?
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1answer
74 views

True or False: Dideoxynucleotide sequence analysis Question

True or false: Dideoxynucleotide sequence analysis is a template-directed method that makes use of chain terminators that stop DNA synthesis because they lack a 2'OH group. The answer is false. ...
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2answers
64 views

Would it be possible to eat things from another planet [closed]

Although at first glance my question is perhaps better suited for a space exploration or sci-fi forum I looked and felt this forum was more appropriate. What makes plants and animals edible and ...
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0answers
88 views

How to calculate information content of a DNA sequence

How does one calculate the information content of DNA sequence like ATCGGCT where mutation rate of G's is 10% and the most common mutation product binds with C and A with equal frequency. I know that ...
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2answers
49 views

Choice of primers for PCR

This exercise was given by my professor but I am struggling to understand the solution. A PCR is performed on the following sequence (in order to replicate the chain and thus have a greater quantity ...
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1answer
287 views

Is there any virus that contains both DNA and RNA in its genome?

It is known that viruses contain DNA or RNA- either one and not both. I came across a question: Which virus contains both DNA and RNA?
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3answers
78 views

DNA to Binary Distance Computation [closed]

If I represent DNA as binary values, what is the best way of computing distance between them. So : A = 00, T = 11, G = 01 and C = 10 Hamming Distance between ATGC and TAAC is 3, however their ...
6
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4answers
221 views

Do all cells produce the same proteins?

If DNA is more or less the same in all cells, and DNA is used to produce proteins from aminoacids, then do all cells produce the same proteins or are they specialised/controlled by something?
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1answer
73 views

Making a offspring with O+ blood [closed]

If offspring is O+ what blood type would parents have to have to make this possible?
5
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1answer
96 views

Why do we encode information in DNA in binary and not in base 4?

I recently read an article about Harvard scientists encoding 700Tb of data in DNA strands. But they encoded the information in base 2, so T and G was a 1 and C and A was a 0. But why binary? Why didn'...
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2answers
85 views

How to safely conserve my current DNA methylation marks?

I read the Wikipedia article on DNA methylation Let's say I want to extract and then stock my current DNA methylation marks somewhere so that I can use it safely 20 years in the future for a medical ...
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Does cancer cells come from same process as evolution? [duplicate]

Here is how I understand it: DNA replication is not 100% perfect and error can happen, this error can be good(evolution) or bad(cancer properties). But its not the only source of cancer cells - DNA ...