Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
0answers
31 views

5,6-dihydrouracil and 5,6-dihydroxyuracil - how they arise in DNA?

5,6-dihydrouracil can be formed from cytosine after exposure of DNA to ionizing radiation under anoxic conditions [1]. What are other ways by which 5,6-dihydrouracil is formed in DNA? What about ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

What percentage of DNA do people share?

If you picked two people in the world at random, sequenced each of their entire genome, and compared their DNA, what would the expected percentage match be?
0
votes
0answers
44 views

Is it possible to resurrect dead animal by using it's DNA?

My pet died yesterday by an accident. I'm feeling so sad, can't even sleep well. I tried to control myself and thought about many philosophical questions, but I can't get away from this sadness. ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

How is the rate of transcription influenced by temperature?

How is the rate of transcription influenced by temperature? More precisely, I am looking for an article who quantitatively measured the rate of transcription of an "average gene" and show how this ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Transcription rate expressed in microarray per hour

This article gives measurement of transcription rate and the unit they're using is microarray per hour. For example, at 27°C the average expression of their genes is 236.1 microarray per hour (page ...
4
votes
2answers
37 views

where to find the relative frequency distribution of synonymous codons

Most amino acids can be encoded by more than one codon. For example, Serine can be encoded by any one of ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Stress-responding enhancer?

I wonder if anyone knows a well characterized human enhancer which has been shown increased activity (in e.g. reporter assays) under stressed conditions, such as DNA damage, hypoxia, ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Chromatids in metaphase?

Please see the following picture: In my book, the author claims that these chromosomes are in metaphase (a metaphase stopped by cholchicin). I don't understand why they don't have two ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Has it been confirmed yet that the DNA found in dinosaurs was really DNA?

I hear different sources claiming different things, bbc said they did, wikipedia says it hasn't which is it?
2
votes
1answer
33 views

What causes skewed ladder bands on an agarose gel?

I frequently ran into an issue where the bands of my ladder become skewed. What causes this? Here's an example: 0.7% agarose gel, 100V, 60 minutes. Same problem occurs with 1%. I loaded 10 ul of a 20 ...
11
votes
6answers
2k views

Is there a biological mechanism for evolution encoded into our DNA?

Throughout high school, I remember learning about Darwin's theory of evolution as if it were near-fact. But something always seemed wrong about the ideas presented. Survival of the fittest Random ...
3
votes
1answer
24 views

How do nicks in the DNA strand affect the success of Long Range PCR?

Long Range PCR using NEB Master Mix - Hot Start Taq was working fine for me (amplicon sizes of ~10kb) but stopped working all of a sudden. Is it possible that many freeze-thaw cycles on the DNA ...
5
votes
2answers
83 views
6
votes
1answer
102 views

DNA extraction from agarose gel

Because DNA is soluble in water, is it possible to extract PCR product by dissolving excised gel containing the DNA band of desired length in water, mashing the gel piece with a pestle, centrifuging ...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

What is the biding site code recognized by the parts of the spliceosome

Another question about another Youtube video. At 0:50, the splicing process begins to remove the non-coding section of the DNA (intron), so the different parts of the spliceosome attach to the borders ...
6
votes
1answer
42 views

What regulates the timing of the motion of molecular machines during DNA Replication?

This question is about this video I found on Youtube. I just want to know what is the mechanism which regulates the timing of motion of the parts of these molecular machines. I know that those big ...
0
votes
3answers
59 views

What is the purpose of DNA? [closed]

My very basic understanding is DNA gets transcribed into RNA by effectively replacing thymine with uracil, then RNA is translated to make proteins. Looking at it from an engineering perspective, it ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Mechanism of DNA gyrase inhibitor

Why DNA gyrase inhibitor, such as Nalidixic acid and Norfloxacin, do not stop gyrase from cutting DNA helix but only prevent them from decatenation replicating DNA?
3
votes
1answer
49 views

Can we attack viruses by attaching proteins and such to their shells?

Haven't looked into this to very long, but an initial search didn't return anything. HIV uses certain co-receptors to enter our cells. Could we flood the blood stream with specially designed ...
7
votes
3answers
177 views

Possible reasons for DNA getting stuck in well

I am in the process of Library preparation for Illumina MI-Seq using mtDNA. Using NEB Hotstart LongAmp Polymerase, I was able to obtain upto 10kb amplicons of mtDNA. However, when I switched to a ...
2
votes
3answers
554 views

DNA is charged negative. Where is all the positive charge in my body?

DNA is charged negative because of its phosphate backbone. Since charges need to be balanced (so that there are no charges building up somewhere), what is the positive charge which neutralizes this ...
10
votes
4answers
672 views

“Same” DNA vs genes

It is often cited that humans share 99% (or 98%) of their DNA with chimpanzees. On the other hand it is stated that siblings share only half of their genes. What (if any) is the difference between ...
3
votes
3answers
104 views

More entropy: Atom or Macromolecule? [closed]

A question that appeared on my last exam was : Which of the following has greater entropy A) An atom B) A macromolecule The question doesn't specify anything else(i.e. type/size of atom or ...
2
votes
2answers
71 views

Turning publicly available genome data into proteins

I'm a computer scientist who is starting to dabble with biology. My eventual goal is to model different kinds of cells with a computer program. As of right now, I'm just trying to take some smaller ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

To what extent is it possible to understand if a bacteria can produce a protein? (in silico only!)

I have to answer a question about a sub-task of my thesis: Can the bacteria X produce the protein Y? I searched of course Google and BLAST. There is no data supporting that this specific bacteria ...
3
votes
2answers
83 views

The move from RNA to DNA and the necessity of reverse transcriptase

In this piece about giant viruses and the origin of life, in the context of the move from RNA world to DNA world, virologist Valerian Dolja states: In order to move from RNA to DNA, you need an ...
3
votes
1answer
147 views

How much DNA of Albert Einstein is recoverable?

Since there seem to be five biological descendants of Albert Einstein, and the original chromosomes of him distributed among them ... Is it possible to recover enough DNA of an individual from his ...
0
votes
0answers
82 views

Ribosomal Turing Machines, DNA/RNA computation

I'm a computer science guy, recently crossing over to do some research in computational biology on RNA secondary structure prediction. While looking through the materials I got a crazy idea, what if ...
4
votes
2answers
149 views

What makes DNA helical?

Why isn't DNA like RNA; why isn't RNA like DNA, that is, helical? Why are RNA chains straight?
1
vote
0answers
24 views

What percentage of chimeric takes up in a cDNA library?

I get a cDNA library of species of Mollusca,and complete some of the clones with polyA tails.But when I translate them with three frames,I find there is a large percentage of sequences that cannot ...
2
votes
2answers
117 views

Single stranded DNA in gel electrophoresis

From http://www.nfstc.org/pdi/Subject05/pdi_s05_m01_01.htm : ... The separation medium contains a denaturant in order that the electrophoresis is conducted on single-stranded DNA fragments. ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

On which part of the DNA will the new DNA nucleotide connect? [closed]

My question is: Where will the new DNA nucleotide connect on the (part of the) DNA shown on the picture? Will it connect to the phosphate group? What does the 5' --> 3' mean? Thank you in ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Activity of DNA glycosylase

I am wondering how DNA glycosylase works from the chemical point of view. Sometimes in papers I can see that they are doing activity assays with 1M NaOH and I am trying to understand why using 1M NaOH ...
3
votes
3answers
75 views

dsDNA translation

Since DNA is double stranded and each strand is complementary to the other, the codons on each strand will come out to be different after transcription(depending on the reading frame). Does this mean ...
2
votes
1answer
231 views

Properties of Satellite Chromosomes

I have some questions regarding Satellite chromsomes which could not be resolved by a google search. Does the satellite consist of telomeric sequences ? If not, What is the function of a satellite ? ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Conclusions from hybridization results

A double stranded DNA was denatured in a mixture that included mRNA from a gene in the segment. The mixture was then cooled to promote RNA and DNA hybridization. The following figure the results. ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Anti-parallel DNA code operons

Coming from a software engineering standpoint, suppose I have a string of code like so: ... 5'-ATAGAC-3' ... ... 3'-TATCTG-5' ... Assume the above code is part of a larger segment. Now, reading ...
0
votes
1answer
94 views

Genes, chromosomes, base pairs and the 23 pairs

OK so I'm a bit confused. Does a chromosome consist of genes and do genes consist of DNA? What about the 23 pairs in sexual reproduction? I can't remember what the pairs consist of
2
votes
1answer
54 views

How was Restriction Site of EcoRI sequenced?

The sequence of restriction site of EcoRI - GAATTC was identified in the early 1970s, before Sanger Sequencing was invented.(1977) How was the restriction site of EcoRI sequenced ?
1
vote
1answer
42 views

About the quality of microsatellites

I built a script to detect microsatellites in a FASTA file. However, there are thousands of possibilities. So, my question is: what are the markers of a "good" or "useful" microsatellite? - How ...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

Converting Ensembl Compara gene tree DNA alignment to corresponding amino acid alignment

I have Ensembl compara gene tree alignments (Compara.gene_trees.57.fasta.gz downloaded from ftp://ftp.ensembl.org/pub/release-57/emf/ensembl-compara/homologies/) in nucleotide format. According to ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

What information do microarray image convey?

OK I have read that a cell generates 4 kinds of digital (to be precise discrete) data namely DNA, RNA, Protein (sequences that can be encoded as string sequences of nucleotides/ amino acids) and micro ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Cloning an extinct species - how far are we? [duplicate]

What is the state of the art regarding cloning an extinct species? I don't mean Jurassic Park stuff, but for example extinct animals for which well preserved DNA and a reasonably adequate extant ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

About virus developement [closed]

Was there a 'precurser' to viruses? Was there a time before multicelled organisms when viruses existed? A virus can't exist without a host so is it symbiotic?
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Why does the stability of YAC increase with size?

From Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry : The stability of YAC increases with size (up to a limit). Those with inserts of less than 100000 are gradually lost during mitosis. Why does this ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

Size of DNA in phage

I have read that DNA(after recombination) is packaged in bacteriophages lambda only if it's between 40000 and 53000 bp long. This constraint can be used to ensure packaging of recombinant DNA. I ...
1
vote
2answers
115 views

What is most simple eukaryotic genome?

Expressed in number of Base Pairs or Bytes, about how large is the simplest eukaryotic genome? How much of this is 'junk-DNA' (non-coding)?
0
votes
2answers
54 views

how does DNA and RNA work [closed]

How do the DNA modules tell the cell what to do?
2
votes
1answer
122 views

How is the transcription direction of RNA polymerase determined?

When transcription factors attach to the DNA strand - How do they know in which direction they have to initialize the transcription by rna polymerase? Is it always read in the same direction anyway? ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Planar circular DNA and protein [closed]

I am trying to develop a planar (two dimensional) lattice based framework to simulate ring (circular) DNA and proteins. To verify my model, I need to simulate real DNA and proteins. The base idea for ...