Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

2
votes
1answer
29 views

Why doesn't mitochondrial DNA accumulate damage over successive generations?

From what I recall, mitochondrial DNA is very susceptible to damage from oxidative stress because it is a site where free radicals are generated and their DNA isn't packed into chromatin like nucleic ...
-6
votes
0answers
45 views

How DNA pair can increase or decrease [on hold]

I know mutation always happen in reproduction. There are DNA crossing and virus/bacteria can mutate DNA of lifeforms But I don't know why DNA pair could be increase or decrease and result in new ...
3
votes
1answer
47 views

Bayes theorem for mutations

MEN 2A is a dominant inherited disease caused by a mutation in the RET proto-oncogene. The probability of being sick when you have the mutation of the RET proto-oncogene varies with age and is assumed ...
4
votes
1answer
81 views

During the process of correcting mutations via gene therapy, is the defective gene removed?

Just recently started learning about gene therapy, many websites explain that the corrected DNA can be added to the genome using a vector and all that. I just don't understand what happens to the ...
5
votes
0answers
59 views

Does crude oil or kerogen contain ancient DNA?

According to wikipedia by the formation of oil there are a lot of organic materials present including DNA. Is it possible that this DNA is conserved somehow for millions of years?
-1
votes
1answer
74 views

Does the DNA of a tadpole change after it becomes a frog?

Does the DNA of a tadpole change after it becomes a frog? In other words what changes take place as a tadpole becomes a frog, and does this metamorphosis affect the DNA in any way? I would appreciate ...
2
votes
2answers
77 views

How accurate does the alignment of molecules in DNA have to be?

We have learned that the same information is saved in the DNA in the same place. So when DNA splits and then connects again (during reproduction); how does it maintain the integrity of the ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

Help reading gene markers

I'm sorry if "gene markers" is not the correct word. An edit could be appreciated but I don't study in an English speaking country unfortunately. Question overview: In a family, there is a genetic, ...
2
votes
2answers
31 views

Help reading chromatogram

A genetic variation is found in this chromatogram: It says that the "reference sequence" is the top line and that I can use the general genetic code to find the reading frame. I can see that there ...
4
votes
2answers
57 views

Does DNA polymerase always go the same direction?

I read that mutations are more likely to occur on "the strand that DNA polymerase replicates discontinuously". Does DNA polymerase always go replicate the same strand discontinuously, and if so, ...
3
votes
1answer
27 views

DNA length and annealing kinetics

I have a mixture plasmids and undesired short linear fragments that share the same sequences. During denaturation and annealing, I would like the plasmids to 'find each other' before annealing to the ...
3
votes
1answer
25 views

Forensic genetics- why is mtDNA comparison sometimes better than nDNA comparison?

Why is (in forensic genetics) in some cases more appropriate comparison of nuclear DNA but in some other cases comparison of mitochondrial DNA? Is it because geneticists are sometimes unable to find ...
1
vote
2answers
47 views

What's the proton concentration around a DNA helix?

Let's suppose the concentration of a 20-nt DNA strand is $10^{-4}$M and the solution does not contain any salt ions. In a solution with pH 7, $[H^+]=10^{-7}$M, on average each DNA has only 0.001 ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

DIY storing family DNAs' samples for future uses (eg medical)

I have a question I could not get an understandable reply from Google and I am no expert in the matter, so my plead to you is if you could give me practical and relatively easy to follow advice. With ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

Where to find gene manipulation video (or photos)

I hope Im not asking a dumb question! Where can i find video of gene manipulation in action under microscope? Like extracting a gene from a cell, fixing gene mutations, putting the gene in a vector, ...
6
votes
1answer
45 views

Why differentiated cells can't “undifferentiate” (under normal conditions)?

In a process called differentiation, the cells of the developing organism undergo huge changes, which result in cells, functioning "completely" differently. Two cells are considered to be of different ...
3
votes
2answers
40 views

RNA polymerase question

In this question we are examining a bacterial RNA polymerase that elongates at 20 codons per second. Question 1: How long will this RNA polymerase take to transcribe the Lac Z gene at 3510 base pairs? ...
5
votes
2answers
90 views

Do changes in an organism's cell modify the genetic information it uses for reproduction?

What I'm actually interested about is whether a modification in one cell during the life of an asexually reproducing organism affects its genetic information? Which cell's genetic information is used ...
4
votes
0answers
43 views

DNA-DNA cross-linking with formaldehyde?

The 3C (chromosome conformation capture) technology for studying chromatin 3D organization starts by a cross-linking step using formaldehyde to find segments of DNA interacting. In my understanding ...
2
votes
1answer
14 views

Are both (partial) copies of DNA transcribed in S and G2 phases of cell cycle?

For a little less than half the cell cycle, a significant number of genes are represented twice (just before dividing). Does the cell differentiate between these DNA in any way or are transcription ...
0
votes
2answers
44 views

Can someone link me to resources on the efficiency of sticky end ligation?

I really would like to know if sticky end ligation could potentially be performed with very high efficiency, and which factors influence that. However, I can't find any papers on the subject, even ...
12
votes
2answers
240 views

Do transcription factors bind to both strands of DNA?

Do transcription factors (or generally proteins) bind to only single strand of DNA or both strands? Since it can have non covalent bonds to both strands in theory. I would like to know the mechanism. ...
7
votes
1answer
63 views

Do DNA repressors exist?

I know about enhancers and the mechanism that lead them to increase the gene expression of their targets but I was wondering if similarly DNA repressors exist. I know about protein repressors but I am ...
6
votes
1answer
67 views

“Enhancers” of enhancers?

I am looking for examples (if any) of genomic regions which regulates the activity of enhancers, either augmenting or reducing it. Essentially some kind of enhancers (or repressors) of enhancers to ...
4
votes
2answers
62 views

Questions on DNA damage

I'm not strong in biology, so bear with me on this: I've been reading that as we age, our DNA is damaged by internal (e.g. errors during replication) and external (e.g. sun damage or radiation) ...
4
votes
1answer
76 views

Is there a DNA analogue to ribozymes? [duplicate]

If not, is it impossible for DNA to have enzymatic activity?
3
votes
1answer
96 views

How would you affect bulk DNA gene therapy for a human?

Let's imagine that we understood DNA programming and our genome very well and realized that there were some significant flaws (we die, we need sleep, etc.) And let's imagine that we understand how to ...
3
votes
1answer
61 views

Is it possible to insert DNA without cutting the recognition site with CRISPR/Cas9?

We are looking for a way to insert DNA into a genome, but we would like to do it in a way that the recognition site stay intact to be able to add again DNA at the same location. Do you know if it is ...
4
votes
1answer
50 views

DNA sequencing problem

First off, let me start by outlining the problem: Your laboratory has established a technique for examining DNA replication in a cellular extract. To the cellular protein extract, you add ...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

What are microRNA, siRNA and antisense RNA?

From what I understand, microRNA binds to proteins which can cut certain mRNA strands do that this protein is not synthesised. This seems like gene silencing to me, however I have also come across the ...
56
votes
5answers
10k views

Does DNA have the equivalent of IF-statements, WHILE loops, or function calls? How about GOTO?

Does DNA have anything like IF-statements, GOTO-jumps, or WHILE loops? In software development, these constructs have the following functions: IF-statements: An IF statement executes the code in a ...
2
votes
1answer
27 views

What mechanisms exist for the excision of specific sequences from DNA?

I already know about recombinases (specifically excisionases), but was wondering if there were other mechanisms present.
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Can life forms exist from simple structures not made of the four bases? [closed]

I understand that all life forms on the planet are made from adenine, gauatine, cytosine and thymine, which chemically joined together to form RNA or DNA (correct me if I'm wrong). This goes on to ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Nutritious protein substance for vitamin enhanced crop?

I am not a bio or science major, but we have a subject, like an elective on biotechnology and we were tasked to think of a product that hasn't been invented yet. My groupmates and I thought of a ...
4
votes
1answer
257 views

Why AZT is selective towards HIV and doesn't impair human DNA replication?

I've found this article, which is a very old one (from the time when nucleoside analogs where researched as a possible way to prevent replication of virus genetic material, before the HIV epidemics). ...
1
vote
1answer
91 views

How are 23 chromosomes in human sperm chosen?

I'm not biologist and I have just a basic knowledge. I've been thinking for a long time about the following question: How does the body choose which 23 chromosomes should be active in human sperm and ...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

How do genetic chimeras with different blood types not die?

If a person is a chimera and has two different blood types in his veins, how does he not die? Shouldn't the immune system attack one of the blood types? In 1953 a human chimera was reported in the ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

Link between macro lncRNA and DNA looping

I was wondering if anybody knows some publication about macro lncRNA (very long unspliced RNAs) or more generally a transcribed RNA that may lead to cis-DNA looping of genomic regions overlapped by ...
5
votes
1answer
147 views

Why does high pH result in the denaturation of DNA?

In the Southern blot method, for example, a solution of NaOH is used to denature the DNA in the sample. I find this counterintuitive since I expected that $\text{Na}^+$ cations would neutralize the ...
2
votes
2answers
61 views

What are the major causes of mutations in DNA?

I know that point mutations can change the base sequence of a gene by altering a specific codon that codes for a particular amino acid. Are these mutations purely random events that occur when DNA is ...
1
vote
2answers
66 views

How does the size of insert affects the rate of Homologous Recombination in yeast?

When performing genetic knockouts in yeast using homologous recombination to replace a target gene sequence via a vector DNA, does the region between the flanking regions in the vector have to be the ...
2
votes
1answer
26 views

DNA replacement: new species

This is a hypothetical question What would happen if the DNA of a prokaryote was replaced with the one of a prokaryote of another species, would the cell structures change and adapt to the new DNA ...
3
votes
1answer
199 views

Pros/cons: linear vs. circular DNA [duplicate]

Why did Eukaryotes evolve to have linear DNA and not circular like Prokaryotes? What are the pros and/or cons?
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Core architecture of the body encoding [closed]

First of all, I am not a biology guy; I am in Computer Science. But, I have a strong interest in all the mysteries of nature, from universe to human body. So, I want to ask a question related to ...
2
votes
1answer
409 views

Can DNA & RNA be considered as nature's programming language?

The final frontier of Biological Sciences could be considered understanding the effects of variation in the DNA (and RNA). If after fertilization the DNA of the zygote could be genetically ...
3
votes
2answers
194 views

What is biological dark matter?

I recently stumbled upon the Biological Dark Matter wiki page. Its pretty light on details, but it appears to be genetic material found in humans that doesn't fall into currently classifications. ...
1
vote
2answers
42 views

DNA barcoding and real-time PCR

I recently read an article on how DNA barcoding was used to identify species present in health products. I also read an article about how Real-Time PCR was used to identify meat species in meat ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Clarification on the “orientation” of chromosomal rearrangements

I need some clarifications on the concept of "orientation" in case of chromosomal rearrangements. Given a deletion event on a chromosome for example, is the resulting DNA at the breakpoint always in ...
1
vote
2answers
37 views

How do I find a protein from this DNA sequence?

I have a DNA sequence from a sequencer. How can I determine what protein is it? I tried some translator but it didn't help. What protein is this and how can I determine it? The sequence: ...
2
votes
2answers
241 views

Why is it that heterozygous loci appear as two separate bands during gel electrophoresis while homozygous loci appear as one band?

Is it because heterozygotes have a greater base pair length? (And if they do, why is that?) Or is it because recessive alleles are moving slower than the dominant alleles in the gel?