Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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DNA sequencing problem

First off, let me start by outlining the problem: Your laboratory has established a technique for examining DNA replication in a cellular extract. To the cellular protein extract, you add ...
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71 views

What are microRNA, siRNA and antisense RNA?

From what I understand, microRNA binds to proteins which can cut certain mRNA strands do that this protein is not synthesised. This seems like gene silencing to me, however I have also come across the ...
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51 views

Can life forms exist from simple structures not made of the four bases? [closed]

I understand that all life forms on the planet are made from adenine, gauatine, cytosine and thymine, which chemically joined together to form RNA or DNA (correct me if I'm wrong). This goes on to ...
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DNA is charged negative. Where is all the positive charge in my body?

DNA is charged negative because of its phosphate backbone. Since charges need to be balanced (so that there are no charges building up somewhere), what is the positive charge which neutralizes this ...
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Does DNA have the equivalent of IF-statements, WHILE loops, or function calls? How about GOTO?

Does DNA have anything like IF-statements, GOTO-jumps, or WHILE loops? In software development, these constructs have the following functions: IF-statements: An IF statement executes the code in a ...
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418 views

Can DNA & RNA be considered as nature's programming language?

The final frontier of Biological Sciences could be considered understanding the effects of variation in the DNA (and RNA). If after fertilization the DNA of the zygote could be genetically ...
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28 views

What mechanisms exist for the excision of specific sequences from DNA?

I already know about recombinases (specifically excisionases), but was wondering if there were other mechanisms present.
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can the face of a person be accurately predicted from DNA information? [duplicate]

3/05/creepy-or-cool-portraits-derived-from-the-dna-in-hair-and-gum-found-in-public-places/?utm_source=plus.google.com&utm_medium=socialmedia&utm_campaign=20130503&utm_content=collageartdna ...
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Why do eukaryotic organisms have introns in their DNA?

We touched on introns and exons in my bio class, but unfortunately we didn't really talk about why Eukaryotes have introns. It would seem they would have to have some purpose since prokaryotes do not ...
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97 views

How are 23 chromosomes in human sperm chosen?

I'm not biologist and I have just a basic knowledge. I've been thinking for a long time about the following question: How does the body choose which 23 chromosomes should be active in human sperm and ...
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Nutritious protein substance for vitamin enhanced crop?

I am not a bio or science major, but we have a subject, like an elective on biotechnology and we were tasked to think of a product that hasn't been invented yet. My groupmates and I thought of a ...
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Life without DNA?

I'm by no means an expert in the field, merely a curious visitor, but I've been thinking about this and Google isn't of much help. Do we know of any lifeforms that don't have the conventional ...
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278 views

Why AZT is selective towards HIV and doesn't impair human DNA replication?

I've found this article, which is a very old one (from the time when nucleoside analogs where researched as a possible way to prevent replication of virus genetic material, before the HIV epidemics). ...
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199 views

Why does high pH result in the denaturation of DNA?

In the Southern blot method, for example, a solution of NaOH is used to denature the DNA in the sample. I find this counterintuitive since I expected that $\text{Na}^+$ cations would neutralize the ...
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326 views

Why is it that heterozygous loci appear as two separate bands during gel electrophoresis while homozygous loci appear as one band?

Is it because heterozygotes have a greater base pair length? (And if they do, why is that?) Or is it because recessive alleles are moving slower than the dominant alleles in the gel?
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How does the size of insert affects the rate of Homologous Recombination in yeast?

When performing genetic knockouts in yeast using homologous recombination to replace a target gene sequence via a vector DNA, does the region between the flanking regions in the vector have to be the ...
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Link between macro lncRNA and DNA looping

I was wondering if anybody knows some publication about macro lncRNA (very long unspliced RNAs) or more generally a transcribed RNA that may lead to cis-DNA looping of genomic regions overlapped by ...
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2answers
66 views

What are the major causes of mutations in DNA?

I know that point mutations can change the base sequence of a gene by altering a specific codon that codes for a particular amino acid. Are these mutations purely random events that occur when DNA is ...
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27 views

DNA replacement: new species

This is a hypothetical question What would happen if the DNA of a prokaryote was replaced with the one of a prokaryote of another species, would the cell structures change and adapt to the new DNA ...
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262 views

Pros/cons: linear vs. circular DNA [duplicate]

Why did Eukaryotes evolve to have linear DNA and not circular like Prokaryotes? What are the pros and/or cons?
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48 views

Core architecture of the body encoding [closed]

First of all, I am not a biology guy; I am in Computer Science. But, I have a strong interest in all the mysteries of nature, from universe to human body. So, I want to ask a question related to ...
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445 views

What is biological dark matter?

I recently stumbled upon the Biological Dark Matter wiki page. Its pretty light on details, but it appears to be genetic material found in humans that doesn't fall into currently classifications. ...
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1answer
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G>T transversion VS. T>G transversion?

So I'm reading about how mutations in DNA can be caused by oxidative damage. An example of a product of oxidative damage is given: 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine My textbook says that this product ...
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DNA barcoding and real-time PCR

I recently read an article on how DNA barcoding was used to identify species present in health products. I also read an article about how Real-Time PCR was used to identify meat species in meat ...
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Has DNA communication/interaction at a distance been empirically demonstrated?

I recently had a discussion with a statistician in my school about memory. Among other things, he told me that it has been experimentally demonstrated that when one extracts DNA from any organism and ...
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How do I find a protein from this DNA sequence?

I have a DNA sequence from a sequencer. How can I determine what protein is it? I tried some translator but it didn't help. What protein is this and how can I determine it? The sequence: ...
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What is it about the housekeeping genes that makes them almost immune to gene regulation?

When it comes to eukaryotes, including ourselves, we have all different kinds of specialized cells and tissues that are so different, yet originally all came from the same single cell. And apparently ...
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How are we able to find the specific sites at which DNA binding proteins bind?

We know that some DNA binding proteins are site specific, that is they recognise and bind to a specific nucleotide sequence. My question is how can we precisely tell at which sites they bind? Is it ...
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SNPs and locations

I am new to reading raw DNA. When comparing two people's raw data, why does one person have a different SNP than the other, at the same location, on specific chromosome? But on a different chromosome ...
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Plasmid in the nucleus and gene expression

If we insert a plasmid into a human nucleus that contains exact copy of gene and all relevant promoters to produce some human protein, will the cell create functional protein from that plasmid only ...
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87 views

Can genetic engineering be performed without a laboratory setting? [closed]

I'm becoming more interested in genetic engineering as I learn more about it, and it's becoming more and more apparent that there's very few resources on genetic engineering at home. A similar ...
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Transfect Mammalian Cells with Single Stranded DNA?

Agrobacteria can deliver parts of their DNA to plant cells as T-DNA, transfer DNA. This DNA is delivered as a single strand and can be integrated into the plant genome or can be converted to a double ...
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Repair wrong DNA pair after ending replication?

If there are wrong DNA pair, for example A=G, is there mechanism that could repair such things - after the replication was finished? Or it happens only during replication?
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38 views

The damage of cancer cells

I read about the molecular biology of cancer, and I have a mess on my head and a lot of questions.. . My primary question is- The damage of the cancer cells is in the dna sequence or in the gene ...
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Could we engineer humans to behave like insects? [closed]

First off, though complex, I'm assuming insects are at an earlier evolutionary stage than humans. That being said, could humans be genetically engineered to behave like insects? I'm not talking about ...
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Known ways to modify the genetic structure of the 13 loci used in CODIS

After reading the answer to Does our DNA change during our lives?, I was wondering if and how it would be possible to change the structure of the 13 loci that are used in the CODIS database, in such a ...
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why is DNA antiparallel? Can it be parallel?

My biology textbook mentions that DNA is antiparallel and it got me wondering... Can DNA be parallel? What would happen if it was parallel? could DNA still replicate right?
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How semi-synthetic cell with artificial DNA works

I know that by now this is old new but I heard that a cell that used a synthetic pair of nucleotides, called X and Y, have been made. My question was, how did the cell understand the X and Y ...
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Do apes and humans share 99% of DNA or 99% of genes? What is the difference?

I made an answer on the Scifi.SE that can be read here. It is about how the characters in the story Jurassic Park might have gotten DNA for all the species shown. In my answer, I said this: Apes ...
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Does a man contain all the genes needed to make a woman?

This question is brought on by a Sci Fi novel I am thinking about writing. The plot device involves a colonist in charge of building a population on a new planet who loses his supply of embryos and so ...
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63 views

Why do some cells like myofibrils have multiple nuclei?

I see that myofibrils (muscle cells) contain not one, but multiple nuclei. Why is this so? Do all the nuclei participate in cell division?
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DNA content in plant seeds vs. fruit flesh

Is there a publication comparing DNA yield and/or PCR-amplifiability after extraction from fruit flesh (like apples, oranges, cherries etc) in comparison to seeds of the same fruits? I would prefer a ...
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Can cfDNA testing distinguish results in the case of twins?

A fetus can now be screened for some of the more common genetic diseases and its sex determined from just a whole blood sample from the pregnant mother. Fetal DNA is abundant enough in the systemic ...
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How fallible are DNA paternity tests?

Is it possible to get either a false positive or a false negative from a DNA paternity test and what would be the likely mechanisms behind this? For example, is it possible that a father's DNA could ...
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29 views

Superpatients for Cancer resistance

I was reading an article on MIT Technology review about superpatients for low cholesterol that got me thinking whether such patients exist for cancer. The article is ...
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178 views

Are there viruses that affect cells across different species?

I'm not a professional in biology nor a student, but I'm curious about this. To be more specific: why doesn't a plant virus affect animal cells? I suspect that different kinds of cells have different ...
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How is DNA Read

Little odd question here. I was told that DNA was read in groups of three. Assuming this, my question is: Which way would better describe how the DNA is read. (123)456789 to 123(456)789 to ...
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54 views

Will gene mutations give rise to a protein that is shorter than the full length protein?

What is the relationship between deletion or insertion of nucleotide in the gene sequence and the protein's length that is coded out from the mutated gene?
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585 views

Why are urban birds still scared of humans?

I understand that animals are naturally scared of humans because we basically slaughtered every living thing we found in our way for millennia. How long does it take for them to genetically 'forget' ...
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520 views

Why do the major and minor groove exist in DNA?

So I know that the major/minor groove arise from the offset pairing of the two strands in the helix. All my textbook tells me is that "pitch causes the off-set pairing of DNA and this gives rise to ...