Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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How much DNA of mitochondrial origin is incorporated in main cell's DNA?

And especially three points : in which chromosomes is it located (especially for the human case) ? how do we know about it ? does the proportion and composition vary a lot from one eukaryot to ...
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216 views

Are there any DNA base sequences that are fully conserved between the genomes of all humans?

That is, they don't differ throughout the entire population. I understand of course that we can't DNA sequence every human, so by "fully" I mean there's an incredibly small probability of there being ...
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934 views

Why does DNA have its name?

Why is DNA called deoxyribonucleic acid and not something else? I get the nucleic acid part (because that's what DNA is made of) but what about the deoxyribo- part, especially the ribo- part. Maybe ...
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336 views

In percentage, how much is the human genome (DNA) similar to the mouse genome?

Some guy argued with me against evolution theory, and he claimed that human and mice share 98% just like human and chimpanzee. I've tried to search online for a simple and accurate answer, but I ...
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222 views

During the process of correcting mutations via gene therapy, is the defective gene removed?

Just recently started learning about gene therapy, many websites explain that the corrected DNA can be added to the genome using a vector and all that. I just don't understand what happens to the ...
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2k views

Possible reasons for DNA getting stuck in well

I am in the process of Library preparation for Illumina MI-Seq using mtDNA. Using NEB Hotstart LongAmp Polymerase, I was able to obtain upto 10kb amplicons of mtDNA. However, when I switched to a ...
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382 views

DNA extraction from agarose gel

Because DNA is soluble in water, is it possible to extract PCR product by dissolving excised gel containing the DNA band of desired length in water, mashing the gel piece with a pestle, centrifuging ...
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Why do DNA and RNA have the functions they have?

I know that there are two most important directions of genetic information transfer in living organisms: DNA->DNA and DNA->RNA. The first is replication, and the second is transcription. I wonder if ...
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What conditions should I use for Gel Red staining?

What are the optimal staining conditions when using Gel Red? So far, since we have started using it, the gels ran in our lab have been of very poor quality. The bands are very blurred and often ...
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187 views

Do all cells produce the same proteins?

If DNA is more or less the same in all cells, and DNA is used to produce proteins from aminoacids, then do all cells produce the same proteins or are they specialised/controlled by something?
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75 views

Why differentiated cells can't “undifferentiate” (under normal conditions)?

In a process called differentiation, the cells of the developing organism undergo huge changes, which result in cells, functioning "completely" differently. Two cells are considered to be of different ...
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78 views

SNPs and locations

I am new to reading raw DNA. When comparing two people's raw data, why does one person have a different SNP than the other, at the same location, on specific chromosome? But on a different chromosome ...
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95 views

What regulates the timing of the motion of molecular machines during DNA Replication?

This question is about this video I found on Youtube. I just want to know what is the mechanism which regulates the timing of motion of the parts of these molecular machines. I know that those big ...
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277 views

How do scientists create specific mutations?

Suppose I want to create a mutant like Antennapaedia how will I go about accomplishing it ? I know that radiation and certain chemicals are mutagenic. So do scientists subject animals to such ...
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Basic Amino Acid Residue Binding Mechanism to DNA

I understand that many protein DNA binding domains bind to DNA via basic residues such as Arginine and Lysine. But what is the mechanism used to bind to DNA and where on the DNA would these residues ...
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59 views

Why aren't genetic triplets roughly evenly found in DNA?

Sorry, the page I linked to is huge and you'll need to do a text search for "CG" to find the part I'm talking about. I found a graph on this page (http://www.oftenpaper.net/sierpinski.htm) showing ...
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75 views

Nucleosome wrapping direction

Does anyone know which direction the nucleosomes are wrapped? I wonder: Relative to the B-DNA double helix twist direction (right-hand) Relative to the neighbor nucleosomes. Do they alternate to ...
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612 views

How can I predict DNA binding affinities from a protein sequence?

Are there any computational tools to predict the binding affinity to specific DNA motifs from protein domain sequence information?
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344 views

What is a good Non Fluorescent DNA Dye?

Can anyone suggest a dye which specifically targets DNA, but is not fluorescent? (We plan to mark DNA before observing it with RAMAN-Spectroscopy. Because of the weak Signal even a low emission would ...
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163 views

Is there any virus that contains both DNA and RNA in its genome?

It is known that viruses contain DNA or RNA- either one and not both. I came across a question: Which virus contains both DNA and RNA?
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88 views

What is the fate of micronucleus DNA?

Micronuclei are cellular structures that are formed as a by-product of, usually, defective mitosis. The piece of chromosome in a micronucleus may, or may not contain a centromere and the DNA is ...
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74 views

Is telomere shortening consistant over consecutive cell divisions from zygote to a differentiated cell?

Considering the complexity of embryogenesis, a temporal referance would be helpful to coordinate the developmental sequences during embryogenesis and fetal development which is to be completed within ...
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734 views

How does Topoisomerase II inhibition affect cancer cells?

Topoisomerase II poisons represent some of the most important and widely prescribed anticancer drugs currently in clinical use. These drugs encompass a diverse group of natural and synthetic ...
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238 views

What happens after the purification step in Hi-C sequencing?

I am a statistician reading an article on Hi-C, and I am trying to better understand one of the steps in the DNA isolation and sequencing process. Since I'm a statistician, please try to avoid too ...
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73 views

“Enhancers” of enhancers?

I am looking for examples (if any) of genomic regions which regulates the activity of enhancers, either augmenting or reducing it. Essentially some kind of enhancers (or repressors) of enhancers to ...
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105 views

What is the oldest example of DNA identified?

What is the oldest sample of genetic material (presumably DNA) identified? What are the prospects of pushing back much further into the geologic record?
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74 views

(Rough) Model for DNA evolution in E. coli genes

I need a model of in-gene DNA drift. I'm not interested in bacterial phylogenies alone. Here is what I understand: Sequences corresponding to genes have both exons and introns, but in bacteria the ...
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102 views

DNA modifications other than 5-mC/5-hmC/5-fC/5-caC in vertebrate genomes?

Other than 5-Methylcytosine and the more recently discovered 5-Hydroxymethyl, 5-formil and 5-carboxylcytosine DNA modifications found in DNA sequences, what are other DNA modifications present in ...
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293 views

How can I preserve hair or saliva for future genome sequencing?

Suppose I want to preserve myself so that I can be reproduced as best as possible, in future or be simulated in future. At the moment full human genome sequencing is a bit expensive. One could get ...
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995 views

If DNA has a half life of about 500 years, how can old seeds be planted?

According to this article, DNA has a half life of 512 years Wikipedia claims that there are seeds planted as old as 31000 years Doing the basic math $100 / (2^{30000/512})$ we get that only about ...
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Evolutionarily speaking, why do humans have 46 chromosomes

In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. Monkeys, chimpanzees, and Apes have 24 pairs (twenty-four pairs), for a total of 48. What caused humans to have 46? ...
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What does 5' and 3' mean in DNA and RNA strands?

What are 5' and 3' in DNA and RNA strands? Please clarify with some images and please use simple English.
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DNA as an acid? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Does DNA react in all of the ways most other acids do? Even if DNA is made up of nucleotide bases, it is said to be an acid. Why is this?
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Do somatic cells alter their own nucleotide sequence?

I seem to remember reading that embryonic cells will frequently replicate the section of their genome containing rDNA by splicing in duplicate genes. The cells use this to produce ribosomes at a rate ...
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225 views

Do changes in an organism's cell modify the genetic information it uses for reproduction?

What I'm actually interested about is whether a modification in one cell during the life of an asexually reproducing organism affects its genetic information? Which cell's genetic information is used ...
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How do we know that everybody's DNA fingerprint is unique?

How do we know that everybody's DNA fingerprint is unique? I know, I know, everybody's DNA is unique. But when we do DNA fingerprinting, we're looking at very specific regions of high variability. ...
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268 views

Are there other mechanisms for mutation besides imperfect DNA replication?

I was reading http://www.askamathematician.com/2012/05/q-is-quantum-randomness-ever-large-enough-to-be-noticed/ and saw: [...] the evolution of entire species can be changed by a single mistake ...
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126 views

How do electrons destroy DNA bonds in radiation?

Malignant tumors can be treated by radiation therapy. Most commonly it's radiotherapy with photons, or protons and so on. The common denominator for both types is that the radiation creates electrons ...
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6k views

Why does high pH result in the denaturation of DNA?

In the Southern blot method, for example, a solution of NaOH is used to denature the DNA in the sample. I find this counterintuitive since I expected that $\text{Na}^+$ cations would neutralize the ...
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224 views

How easy is it to carry out de novo sequence assembly?

Today a colleague of mine asked the following question: " Assuming I need to build from 0, a chromosome of a fish, with short reads but no other reference whatsoever [de novo assembly]: ...
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246 views

What are the limitations of commercial-grade DNA genotyping compared to full sequencing?

I've heard about services like 23andme, which offer genetic testing to the general public. As a person who knows very little about genetics, I'm interested in the subject and would like to know what ...
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245 views

Plasmid in the nucleus and gene expression

If we insert a plasmid into a human nucleus that contains exact copy of gene and all relevant promoters to produce some human protein, will the cell create functional protein from that plasmid only ...
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Synthetic biology using existing cells

I was watching the video at this link: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-17436365 The speaker says that a cell is taken and its original DNA content is stripped out and replaced with ...
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88 views

Why do we encode information in DNA in binary and not in base 4?

I recently read an article about Harvard scientists encoding 700Tb of data in DNA strands. But they encoded the information in base 2, so T and G was a 1 and C and A was a 0. But why binary? Why ...
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63 views

Repair wrong DNA pair after ending replication?

If there are wrong DNA pair, for example A=G, is there mechanism that could repair such things - after the replication was finished? Or it happens only during replication?
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150 views

There are linear and rotary molecular motors in the cells. Do any of them have a fixed or stable frequency or speed?

Are there any linear, rotary or oscillatory molecular motors in the cells which can have fixed frequeny and which can be used as a reference for elapsed time timer? This question is with relevence to ...
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262 views

Do thymine and uracil ever appear in the same strand of RNA?

Wikipedia says that "in RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil in most cases." I'm curious what are the cases when this does not happen? Does this ever occur in normal functioning, or is it an error? ...
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226 views

Is there a DNA test to identify dog mixes?

We adopted a dog at the age of two. Our vet said it was a mix of an Australian Shepherd and Border Collie, which we've told everyone. Based on markings, I think it's likely. I am wondering, however, ...
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How to find Exons in mRNA Computationally

I'm having trouble finding a method to find exons in the original DNA sequence used to create the mRNA, even given the sequence of the mRNA, as I cannot find a way to reliably identify the beginning ...