Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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Simulating Cell differentiation

I'm a computer programmer deeply interested in Biology. I wish to write a computer simulation for cell differentiation. I understand there will be seemingly impossible challenges in doing this. But ...
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26 views

Transcription rate expressed in microarray per hour

This article gives measurement of transcription rate and the unit they're using is microarray per hour. For example, at 27°C the average expression of their genes is 236.1 microarray per hour (page ...
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33 views

What is the biding site code recognized by the parts of the spliceosome

Another question about another Youtube video. At 0:50, the splicing process begins to remove the non-coding section of the DNA (intron), so the different parts of the spliceosome attach to the borders ...
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1answer
24 views

Size of DNA in phage

I have read that DNA(after recombination) is packaged in bacteriophages lambda only if it's between 40000 and 53000 bp long. This constraint can be used to ensure packaging of recombinant DNA. I ...
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1answer
42 views

Need help distinguishing between a primary and secondary source

I am trying to figure out if the following article is a primary or secondary source. I'm leaning towards secondary but here are my cases for both. Primary: Published in a peer-reviewed ...
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2answers
92 views

Stay young by reinserting own DNA from years ago?

As far as I know, the DNA sequence becomes shorter every time a cell divides. A shorter sequence results in information loss and aging characteristics. As a countermeasure, shouldn't one stay young ...
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2answers
2k views

Difference between CDS and cDNA

What is the difference between Coding Sequences (CDS) and cDNA? Are Coding sequences the sequences that is transcribed to mRNA and cDNA in contrast DNA obtained by reverse polymerization of matured ...
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2answers
176 views

How much natural genetic variation is there between bacteria of the same species?

There are lots of questions about how and why there is genetic variation between organisms of the same species, but I haven't been able to find a numerical value for the expected amount of genetic ...
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1answer
436 views

What is Luc Montagnier's research on electromagnetic signals from DNA about?

After reading a Youtube comment, I started reading on Luc Montagnier's research on electromagnetic signals from DNA. I haven't been able to find a source that would clearly explain what it's about. I ...
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143 views

How does electroporation mediated recombination work?

For yeast and other organisms, DNA can be readily taken up into the cell naturally or through membrane disruption. What does applying a voltage to cells do exactly that allows more recombination to ...
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1answer
596 views

Difference between viral and human genetic material

I have heard that there is a difference between viral and human genetic material. What is that difference? If I take my cells and take DNA out of them and insert only a small part of it having a ...
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2answers
347 views

Transcription factor binding site located in intron

I have noticed that some TF binding sites are located in the introns of the genes. I am puzzled about whether the TF only binds to DNA in the initiation stage of transcription and will detach during ...
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1answer
44 views

What causes skewed ladder bands on an agarose gel?

I frequently ran into an issue where the bands of my ladder become skewed. What causes this? Here's an example: 0.7% agarose gel, 100V, 60 minutes. Same problem occurs with 1%. I loaded 10 ul of a 20 ...
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1answer
253 views

Properties of Satellite Chromosomes

I have some questions regarding Satellite chromsomes which could not be resolved by a google search. Does the satellite consist of telomeric sequences ? If not, What is the function of a satellite ? ...
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1answer
50 views

Converting Ensembl Compara gene tree DNA alignment to corresponding amino acid alignment

I have Ensembl compara gene tree alignments (Compara.gene_trees.57.fasta.gz downloaded from ftp://ftp.ensembl.org/pub/release-57/emf/ensembl-compara/homologies/) in nucleotide format. According to ...
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1answer
46 views

How does DNA resolve on size exclusion resin?

We generally have a good idea of how DNA separates using agarose gel electrophoresis, how well does DNA resolve on a SEC resin like superose? I get the impression that salt influences where it elutes. ...
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2answers
61 views

Maintaining purebred pedigrees and how to lessen chance of getting disease?

Many breeds of dogs are known for a high incidence of genetic disorders. German shepherd and Saint Bernard dogs are predisposed to developing a crippling condition called hip dysplasia. Q: What ...
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1answer
102 views

Should the length of the electrodes in the electrophoresis chamber be proportional to chamber's size?

I am trying to build a small horizontal electrophoresis chamber from scratch. I want to use it for comet assay and I will be using only 1 slide, so it's going to be about 3cm wide, 10cm long and 4cm ...
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1answer
57 views

How correlated are proximally related CpG sites in human DNA?

Cytosine residues in DNA that can be methylated (i.e. CpG sites) are likely to be in the same methylation state if they are geographically (proximally) close together. I can only find one paper that ...
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2answers
265 views

DNA replication Okazaki fragments

I understand multiple origin bubbles; DNA polymerase only synthesizes DNA from 5' to 3' and all that. But what I don't understand is why it has to be in fragments. Yes, DNA is anti parallel, and so ...
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1answer
2k views

How does a thymidine block halt DNA synthesis?

The best I've been able to find is that there's a feedback mechanism, but what is this feedback, and how does the mechanism work? If it's just that the concentration of thymidine is too high, why ...
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1answer
190 views

How to learn DNA Origami

Can you tell me is there any good softwares and tutorials which can be used to learn DNA Origami. I am new to this and want to learn from basics. Advance thanks for your help edited: INSILICO
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1answer
51 views

What percentage of DNA do people share?

If you picked two people in the world at random, sequenced each of their entire genome, and compared their DNA, what would the expected percentage match be?
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33 views

Mitotic crossover happens in G1?

I was reading this article in wikipedia and came across this : It has been suggested that recombination takes place during G1, when the DNA is in its 2-strand phase, and replicated during DNA ...
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0answers
90 views

What to do with a DNA sequencer? [closed]

My school is very fortunate to have a DNA sequencer, and I want to find an opportunity to learn how to use it. I'm currently taking AP Biology this year, and I hope to do an independent study in ...
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If everybody DNA is different then how blood can match even with matching blood group?

We know that everybody's DNA pattern is different in the world. Then how can ´we transfer blood from one person to another person and this person can survive ?
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113 views

Would it be correct to state that any biological difference between the sexes has to be found in the Y chromosome?

If the reason Why Men Don't Listen and Women Can't Read Maps is genetic, then one of the genes in the Y chromosome is to blame and in theory could be identified. Correct or incorrect?
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373 views

Gel electrophoresis after RNAse treatment

I do not understand how to solve this question. I know that RNAse will cut smaller pieces of RNA. The answer given is A
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51 views

Functioning of EDTA

I know that EDTA chelates metal ions. It weakens bacterial cell wall and inactivates the DNases. What is the reason why it can do so ? I guess it can inactivate DNases by altering the ...
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2answers
83 views

Do individual (free) nucleotides base-pair with other free nucleotides?

I had a student ask me about this and my google-fu let me down. He asked if individual nucleotides (not in a nucleic acid) base-pair with their complementary nucleotides, essentially forming many ...
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2answers
54 views

Removing a restriction site and introducing other at its place

What would you do if you want to remove an EcoRI restriction site and introduce BamHI restriction site at apprx. the same location ? One of the answers in my textbook was : To construct a DNA ...
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1answer
89 views

Generating custom human DNA sequences based on traits such as eye colour?

I'm wondering if it would be possible to create software (unless some already exists, but I couldn't find any) to generate human DNA (the base pairs on the double helix) containing genes representing ...
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1answer
108 views

Do spouses begin to share genes over time?

I apologize if this hypothesis sounds strange by I was wondering if any research had been done on a phenomenon which I've seen and have corroborated with many other - the idea that over time spouses ...
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2answers
43 views

How does high-fidelity of DNA replication depend on the formation of hydrogen bonds?

Replication has an error rate of less than 1 in 100 million. DNA polymerase forms H-bond with the H-bond acceptor atoms in the minor groove. <-- enhance fidelity here? Binding of the triphosphate ...
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1answer
69 views

Do “transcription factor binding site” and “operator” mean the same thing?

Can the terms "transcription factor binding site" and "operator" be used interchangeably in all contexts when referring to a DNA sequence, e.g. regardless of a cell type, whether or not the binding ...
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59 views

Are there beneficial genetic mutations identified by consumer DNA genotyping?

I'm looking at services like 23andme, and see that they identify a wide variety of genetic-based risks, like predisposition to diseases, hair loss, cancer, etc. Are there a more "positive" DNA ...
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2answers
19 views

How does non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) work?

I was reading about non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in my molecular biology of the gene textbook but the explanation provided in the text was rather vague to me, and I was not able to understand it ...
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1answer
41 views

Conclusions from hybridization results

A double stranded DNA was denatured in a mixture that included mRNA from a gene in the segment. The mixture was then cooled to promote RNA and DNA hybridization. The following figure the results. ...
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116 views

What is most simple eukaryotic genome?

Expressed in number of Base Pairs or Bytes, about how large is the simplest eukaryotic genome? How much of this is 'junk-DNA' (non-coding)?
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1answer
151 views

Codon alignment via Python? [closed]

I have pairs of coding DNA sequences which I wish to perform pairwise codon alignments via Python, I have "half completed" the process. So far.. I retrive pairs of orthologous DNA sequences from ...
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1answer
122 views

Suggestions for an experiment? [closed]

I would appreciate suggestions for my year-long AP Biology project. Such a project would consists of a standard experiment, to be done over the period of a year, so it would have >to be fairly ...
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1answer
2k views

Is episome a plasmid or a virus?

A plasmid is a small DNA molecule that is physically separate from, and can replicate independently of, chromosomal DNA within a cell. In general, in eukaryotes, episomes are closed circular DNA ...
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1answer
80 views

Can IVF decrease the probability of trisomy in the fetuses of older mothers?

Is trisomy mostly due to complications with fertilization? If so, does in vitro fertilization reduce the probability of trisomy for the fetuses of older mothers? If not, can zygotes be screened ...
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1answer
30 views

programmatic fast search of 100-1000 short reads to a public server and obtain list of nearby genes

What are the options for programmatic fast searching of 100-1000 short reads to a public server and obtain list of nearby genes where the reads map? Input: ~100-1000 short reads Output: GFF list of ...
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1answer
33 views

How is the rate of transcription influenced by temperature?

How is the rate of transcription influenced by temperature? More precisely, I am looking for an article who quantitatively measured the rate of transcription of an "average gene" and show how this ...
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1answer
45 views

On which part of the DNA will the new DNA nucleotide connect? [closed]

My question is: Where will the new DNA nucleotide connect on the (part of the) DNA shown on the picture? Will it connect to the phosphate group? What does the 5' --> 3' mean? Thank you in ...
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1answer
66 views

Percentage of understood human DNA [closed]

I want to know what's the approximate percentage of understood human DNA, as in, which part does what. I'm not asking for details, just the amount. Thank you.
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1answer
66 views

Understanding DNA supercoiling

While trying to understand DNA supercoiling, I came across these lines in the book Genetics by Ursula Goodenough : All natural DNA is superhelical. The axis of the duplex itself follows a ...
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1answer
32 views

Concentration of DNA by isopropanol

I have read that DNA can be concentrated by addition of isopropanol. What does "concentrated" mean? What does isopropanol do on a molecular level to concentrate DNA?
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1answer
16 views

2 types of telomerases?

As telomerase works by adding new nucleotides complementary to the RNA it contains, it cannot work for the complementary strand. Say telomerase X has RNA complementary to the 5' to 3' strand it ...