Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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Quantitative Differences : DNA and Gene

After HGP, we are not having many databases which consist of several notepad files of ATCG.... Can we distinguish quantitatively a given A,T,C and G stretch as DNA or Gene?
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Can retroviral delivery systems “overwrite” genes?

As the question states, what are the limits of retroviral genetic delivery systems? Are they limited to adding additional gene sequences to a cell, or can they actually overwrite specified segments ...
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124 views

Prenatal Marketing

This is for a short story idea. Is it possible to modify the DNA of a child to make their metabolism more susceptible (physical response, addiction, etc) to a certain type of chemical i.e. a chemical ...
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127 views

Expanding the SETI initiative to seek intelligent data within DNA sequences?

I've recently read a couple articles dealing with long term data storage, and DNA was suggested as one of the prime candidates for long term storage of digital data additionally, there is this article ...
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366 views

Translate DNA to Protein

Assuming the sequence shown is read left to right, what is the sequence of the protein produced? sequence: 5’-ATGTACTTCCATCTGGAATAG-3’ MY ATTEMPT: I know RNA is synthesized 5 to 3. This is ...
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69 views

Consequence of Plants as Incomplete Protein Source

Some years ago, in a 1000~ level biology course we learned that the DNA essentially encodes formulas for creating proteins from amino acids. While the human body can synthesize many many amino acids, ...
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70 views

From a computer science perspective, how is DNA compared for various purposes?

I am very interested in privacy preserving technolgies, such as Microsoft PINQ and would like to see if this is applicable to DNA comparison. Given that I don't have a background in biology, I ...
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56 views

Will gene mutations give rise to a protein that is shorter than the full length protein?

What is the relationship between deletion or insertion of nucleotide in the gene sequence and the protein's length that is coded out from the mutated gene?
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77 views

Has DNA communication/interaction at a distance been empirically demonstrated?

I recently had a discussion with a statistician in my school about memory. Among other things, he told me that it has been experimentally demonstrated that when one extracts DNA from any organism and ...
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52 views

How to identify genes?

You and me are different at DNA level. My eye color gene is different from yours. So, my DNA is different from yours. How can a scientist identify a certain gene in a chromosome (and its function) if ...
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86 views

What is this image?

What I understand is- I think this is picture of DNA. But why is it in this conformation ? What types of cells have this type of DNA ?
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615 views

DNA degradation rate

Usually DNA sample manipulation is realized with an ice box at hand in order to avoid degradation, and also its storage is set at -20ºC. Nevertheless, DNA has been obtained from really ancient samples ...
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Studying changes in DNA for causes of cancer

First of all let me say that I'm not into Biology myself... but I have a question for those of you who are. From what I've read, cancer is caused by 'faulty' DNA that behaves abnormally. Mutations ...
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423 views

Why is it that heterozygous loci appear as two separate bands during gel electrophoresis while homozygous loci appear as one band?

Is it because heterozygotes have a greater base pair length? (And if they do, why is that?) Or is it because recessive alleles are moving slower than the dominant alleles in the gel?
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980 views

Does DNA replication in 5' to 3' (leading strand) need RNA primase?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=27TxKoFU2Nw In the above video it shows that during DNA replication, the lagging strand require RNA primase to add 3' -OH group for further addition of nucleotides. ...
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165 views

Why do our epiphyseal plates close up in our late teens or early twenties?

What causes our epiphyseal plates close up in our late teens or early twenties? I realize that one's genetics plays the main role in this. I assume there is a gene that controls the epiphyseal plates ...
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69 views

Are the DNA codon mappings arbitrary?

I am a Biology novice so I apologize in advance if I state anything incorrectly.... My question is, are the DNA codon mappings arbitrary? I understand that the DNA code is made up of codons which ...
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350 views

Single stranded DNA in gel electrophoresis

From http://www.nfstc.org/pdi/Subject05/pdi_s05_m01_01.htm : ... The separation medium contains a denaturant in order that the electrophoresis is conducted on single-stranded DNA fragments. ...
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54 views

Activity of DNA glycosylase

I am wondering how DNA glycosylase works from the chemical point of view. Sometimes in papers I can see that they are doing activity assays with 1M NaOH and I am trying to understand why using 1M NaOH ...
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737 views

How is the transcription direction of RNA polymerase determined?

When transcription factors attach to the DNA strand - How do they know in which direction they have to initialize the transcription by rna polymerase? Is it always read in the same direction anyway? ...
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83 views

Can protein precipitate out in alcohol during DNA extraction?

In common lab sessions to extract DNA from strawberry or cheek cells, will there be protein contaminating the DNA extract in alcohol? If so, how can we prevent protein from precipitating out of the ...
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53 views

Functioning of BRCA2

I know that BRCA2 interacts with RAD51 to repair DNA damage. But how exactly does it function ? What are the other proteins that interact with it ?
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123 views

DNA ligase mechanism

I am unable to understand what happens to the phosphates from ATP. What are they used for ?Charging 3' end or 5'end ?
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379 views

DNA replication Okazaki fragments

I understand multiple origin bubbles; DNA polymerase only synthesizes DNA from 5' to 3' and all that. But what I don't understand is why it has to be in fragments. Yes, DNA is anti parallel, and so ...
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Simulating Cell differentiation

I'm a computer programmer deeply interested in Biology. I wish to write a computer simulation for cell differentiation. I understand there will be seemingly impossible challenges in doing this. But ...
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Help reading chromatogram

A genetic variation is found in this chromatogram: It says that the "reference sequence" is the top line and that I can use the general genetic code to find the reading frame. I can see that there ...
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38 views

How semi-synthetic cell with artificial DNA works

I know that by now this is old new but I heard that a cell that used a synthetic pair of nucleotides, called X and Y, have been made. My question was, how did the cell understand the X and Y ...
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30 views

Transcription rate expressed in microarray per hour

This article gives measurement of transcription rate and the unit they're using is microarray per hour. For example, at 27°C the average expression of their genes is 236.1 microarray per hour (page ...
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Has it been confirmed yet that the DNA found in dinosaurs was really DNA?

I hear different sources claiming different things, bbc said they did, wikipedia says it hasn't which is it?
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What is the biding site code recognized by the parts of the spliceosome

Another question about another Youtube video. At 0:50, the splicing process begins to remove the non-coding section of the DNA (intron), so the different parts of the spliceosome attach to the borders ...
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70 views

On which part of the DNA will the new DNA nucleotide connect? [closed]

My question is: Where will the new DNA nucleotide connect on the (part of the) DNA shown on the picture? Will it connect to the phosphate group? What does the 5' --> 3' mean? Thank you in ...
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60 views

Why does the stability of YAC increase with size?

From Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry : The stability of YAC increases with size (up to a limit). Those with inserts of less than 100000 are gradually lost during mitosis. Why does this ...
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27 views

Size of DNA in phage

I have read that DNA(after recombination) is packaged in bacteriophages lambda only if it's between 40000 and 53000 bp long. This constraint can be used to ensure packaging of recombinant DNA. I ...
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52 views

Need help distinguishing between a primary and secondary source

I am trying to figure out if the following article is a primary or secondary source. I'm leaning towards secondary but here are my cases for both. Primary: Published in a peer-reviewed ...
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118 views

Stay young by reinserting own DNA from years ago?

As far as I know, the DNA sequence becomes shorter every time a cell divides. A shorter sequence results in information loss and aging characteristics. As a countermeasure, shouldn't one stay young ...
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252 views

How much natural genetic variation is there between bacteria of the same species?

There are lots of questions about how and why there is genetic variation between organisms of the same species, but I haven't been able to find a numerical value for the expected amount of genetic ...
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650 views

What is Luc Montagnier's research on electromagnetic signals from DNA about?

After reading a Youtube comment, I started reading on Luc Montagnier's research on electromagnetic signals from DNA. I haven't been able to find a source that would clearly explain what it's about. I ...
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75 views

How correlated are proximally related CpG sites in human DNA?

Cytosine residues in DNA that can be methylated (i.e. CpG sites) are likely to be in the same methylation state if they are geographically (proximally) close together. I can only find one paper that ...
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226 views

How does electroporation mediated recombination work?

For yeast and other organisms, DNA can be readily taken up into the cell naturally or through membrane disruption. What does applying a voltage to cells do exactly that allows more recombination to ...
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1k views

Difference between viral and human genetic material

I have heard that there is a difference between viral and human genetic material. What is that difference? If I take my cells and take DNA out of them and insert only a small part of it having a ...
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481 views

Transcription factor binding site located in intron

I have noticed that some TF binding sites are located in the introns of the genes. I am puzzled about whether the TF only binds to DNA in the initiation stage of transcription and will detach during ...
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39 views

Mitochondrial D-Loop

I know that the D-loop is a DNA complex in which the strands of double helix DNA molecule are separated for a stretch and held apart by a third strand of DNA. Usually, this third strand has a base ...
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How accurate does the alignment of molecules in DNA have to be?

We have learned that the same information is saved in the DNA in the same place. So when DNA splits and then connects again (during reproduction); how does it maintain the integrity of the ...
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44 views

Help reading gene markers

I'm sorry if "gene markers" is not the correct word. An edit could be appreciated but I don't study in an English speaking country unfortunately. Question overview: In a family, there is a genetic, ...
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18 views

Are both (partial) copies of DNA transcribed in S and G2 phases of cell cycle?

For a little less than half the cell cycle, a significant number of genes are represented twice (just before dividing). Does the cell differentiate between these DNA in any way or are transcription ...
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29 views

What mechanisms exist for the excision of specific sequences from DNA?

I already know about recombinases (specifically excisionases), but was wondering if there were other mechanisms present.
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52 views

G>T transversion VS. T>G transversion?

So I'm reading about how mutations in DNA can be caused by oxidative damage. An example of a product of oxidative damage is given: 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine My textbook says that this product ...
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243 views

What causes skewed ladder bands on an agarose gel?

I frequently ran into an issue where the bands of my ladder become skewed. What causes this? Here's an example: 0.7% agarose gel, 100V, 60 minutes. Same problem occurs with 1%. I loaded 10 ul of a 20 ...
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730 views

Properties of Satellite Chromosomes

I have some questions regarding Satellite chromsomes which could not be resolved by a google search. Does the satellite consist of telomeric sequences ? If not, What is the function of a satellite ? ...
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1answer
67 views

Converting Ensembl Compara gene tree DNA alignment to corresponding amino acid alignment

I have Ensembl compara gene tree alignments (Compara.gene_trees.57.fasta.gz downloaded from ftp://ftp.ensembl.org/pub/release-57/emf/ensembl-compara/homologies/) in nucleotide format. According to ...