Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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Correlation of non-coding DNA with coding DNA

I sequenced the first exon of the MC1R gene of 15 labradors (genomic DNA) to look for the loss-of-function mutation (C.916C>T) and as expected, it was where it should have been (916th base pair). As i ...
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Quantifying the number of fragments from RAD library

I have a series of single-end reads from a RAD library of 48 uniquely tagged individuals in fastaq format. The data comes from a small MiSeq run. I want to know the number of unique fragments per ...
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61 views

What is the cause of the packaging capacity limit of recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors?

I am working with recombinant AAV and I am puzzled by the limit of their packaging capacity (around 5Kb ssDNA), that is really a huge drawback for gene delivery. I have tried to look more in deep ...
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55 views

Symmetry in animals [duplicate]

Is symmetry in animals due to DNA or natural selection? By symmetry, I mean the left side is an almost (not perfect) reflection of the right half. Is this due to DNA trying to balance the two half or ...
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18 views

Is blunt end repair and A-tailing necessary when adaptors can be custom made?

I'm planning on creating a RADseq library, which naturally involves digesting genomic DNA following P1 adaptor ligation. I've read a few protocols that require any over-hangs resulting from ...
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Does tRNA contain parts with double-helix structure? [closed]

I read in some place that tRNA has a part which is double-stranded. I wanted to know if that part is similar to DNA (double-helix). (And I know that tRNA won't contain Thymine)
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Scaling down amount of DNA for transfection: what factor to consider?

I am interested in transfecting HEK293 cells with a BAC. One paper suggests using 24 ug of DNA to transfect a 55-cm^2/10 ml culture plate. I am using an assay optimimzed for a 96 well plate so I am ...
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66 views

Why must DNA be packed into chromosomes during mitotic phase?

Why does DNA have to be packed into chromosomes? Why can't DNA just divide itself evenly?
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13 views

Are yeast plasmids methylated?

Do yeast plasmid have methylation? If they do have them, then what kinds of them?
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7 views

mtDNA sequencing error rates

What is the method to estimate the error rate in mtDNA sequencing? E.g. we are given a profile like this: 16069T 16126C 73G 152C Is there a method, a table of known values, or any other way to say ...
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364 views

How can I preserve hair or saliva for future genome sequencing?

Suppose I want to preserve myself so that I can be reproduced as best as possible, in future or be simulated in future. At the moment full human genome sequencing is a bit expensive. One could get ...
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Linear and Circular DNA

So school has taught us that eukaryotes have DNA that is linear and inside of a membrane - called the nucleus. And that prokaryotes have circular DNA that is free floating inside of the cell. We ...
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117 views

Can a certain part of human dna can be replaced with other animals dna?

Human DNA consists of adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. Can thymine of other animal can be placed with humans thymine?
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80 views

How long would it take for a change to the DNA would take effect?

I am not a Biology Student (sorry guys!) but I have thought about this question for a while and hope that maybe one of you can answer it. Lets say that I had my DNA changed so that I wouldn't be ...
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3answers
157 views

Extending a small fragment of DNA

Is there a way to extend a small fragment of DNA, say 150 bp, by making copies of itself and attaching each copy of that small fragment to the end of that 150 bp sequence? For example, I want a 1 ...
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1answer
104 views

Are all genetic instructions in DNA?

Wiki says DNA is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. What ...
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29 views

What is the effect of wheat's polyploidy on wheat itself and on us?

According to Wikipedia, "Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields", and bread wheat is among them. There is also diploid and tetraploid wheat. I guess that hexaploid wheat, besides the obvious ...
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47 views

Determination of genes to be modified in epigenetics [closed]

It seems that during reproduction particular genes are targeted for modification (mutation, deletion, insertion, etc.) given environmental inputs of either or both of the parents. If a creature was ...
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2answers
129 views

In DNA repair, how is it determined which strand contains the error?

DNA replication is more accurate than transcription (or RNA replication) because mechanisms exist for proof-reading and repair of DNA, but not for RNA. Consider a segment of a DNA strand, AGTC. Its ...
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49 views

Can you naturally change your DNA that's passed to your offsprings? [closed]

Is it possible to change the genes that you'll pass on to your offsprings by natural activity and behavior. For example if you do body building for quite a long time build strong muscles then would ...
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74 views

True or False: Dideoxynucleotide sequence analysis Question

True or false: Dideoxynucleotide sequence analysis is a template-directed method that makes use of chain terminators that stop DNA synthesis because they lack a 2'OH group. The answer is false. ...
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2answers
58 views

How is UV light damaging DNA as the chromosomes are deep in the cell?

When UV light is on your skin it has to go through the cell membrane and to the membrane of the core. So it looks like that the DNA is protected. But it probably isn't. But can't membranes not been ...
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1answer
78 views

What exactly are genes, DNA and chromosomes. How do they relate to each other and what is their function? [closed]

So I am new to biology and I have been reading, and searching the web, but I couldn't understand the whole framework of a cell. So as I understood: A DNA, is a double chain of Nucleotides (A,T,G,C ...
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ssDNA library amplification

Assume we are given approx. 80,000 dsDNA fragments of 40 bps length each. I would like to amplify of each of the 80,000 fragments just one particular strand, such that I obtain amplified 80,000 ssDNA ...
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Why do we add salt when precipitating DNA?

All the DNA extraction protocols I have seen involve adding salts to the extraction buffer. What is the purpose of the salts? What happens if they aren't included?
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3answers
160 views

How is the size of a gene defined?

Is there an agreed definition as to how many nucleic acid bases constitute a gene? If not, why not? I'm not sure I understand how the exact sizes of genes are defined.
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How do I know if the tRNA gene is under purifying selection from looking at a sequence dataset?

I'm having trouble figuring out how to tell if a tRNA gene is under purifying selection, just by looking at its sequence dataset. Such as this one:
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In vivo delivery of ssDNA

I am looking for a system with which I can deliver (large quantities of) ssDNA in vivo (say in mice). I do not know whether it is of importance but the 5' end of the ssDNA fragments are assumed to be ...
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71 views

Relationship between DNA strands and mRNA

Does the sense strand or antisense strand of DNA code for the polypeptide product? I'm confused because I know the antisense strand is the template for mRNA but it has anti codons so I do not know how ...
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18 views

Can we make an artificial chromosome?

I know things like BAC and YAC exist. I am thinking of a chromosome the size of those we find in mammals. Say 60 million nucleotides. How big can we make a chromosome with modern technologies without ...
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21 views

Effects of pulverizing liquid nitrogen frozen tissue by by pestle and mortar

Does RNA, DNA or protein molecule break during pulverizing (liquid nitrogen) frozen tissue by pestle and mortar. As I want to make cDNA for qPCR, this is very important to me to know this.
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34 views

How does DNA organise a cell's physical position within a body?

How do cells "know" where they are supposed to be in relation to other cells, in forming the physical shape of the body? If you have ever tried to organise or choreograph the physical positions of a ...
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2answers
100 views

Can animals also get Down syndrome?

I heard that animals cannot get Down syndrome or trisomy. Is that true and why can't they get it? They also have chromosomes.
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43 views

Previously frozen papaya seeds sprouted. How will it affect the plants?

I thought about asking this on Gardening SE, but it seems to me as a technical subject which requires biological expertise to answer. This is not something that usually occurs for gardeners, so I don'...
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78 views

How to improve DNA extraction

I am using the following protocol to extract chromosomal DNA from bananas: Cut up one banana into small pieces, approximately (1 cm3) Add ½ a cup of warm salt water and the banana pieces into the ...
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117 views

Clarification on the “orientation” of chromosomal rearrangements

I need some clarifications on the concept of "orientation" in case of chromosomal rearrangements. Given a deletion event on a chromosome for example, is the resulting DNA at the breakpoint always in ...
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1answer
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Number of Chromatids in G1

I know that in G1, the number of chromosomes is 23 pairs, so 46. I assumed there were 46 chromatids too. Why is the number of chromatids in G1 actually 0, not 46? Thanks.
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3answers
719 views

To what extent is the genetic code more than just a code?

It is worth specifying the exact meaning of "code" in this question. A code is a map from one space to another space with which it has no algorithmic connection. Thus representing 321 as 0x141 is not ...
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1answer
58 views

Current state of Gene Therapy [closed]

I am interested in learning about attempts to treat adult individuals suffering from a genetic disease in which the underlying changes in the DNA of the gene are understood. (i) Are there approaches ...
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287 views

Is there any virus that contains both DNA and RNA in its genome?

It is known that viruses contain DNA or RNA- either one and not both. I came across a question: Which virus contains both DNA and RNA?
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674 views

Can DNA & RNA be considered as nature's programming language?

The final frontier of Biological Sciences could be considered understanding the effects of variation in the DNA (and RNA). If after fertilization the DNA of the zygote could be genetically ...
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What makes DNA sticky-ends sticky?

When restriction enzymes jaggedly cut double stranded DNA it results in so called sticky ends. What is the substance that makes the DNA sticky?
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Why is the DNA helix anti-parallel? [duplicate]

Why is it that DNA strands are running in anti-parallel fashion? Given the chemical base-pairing, they could have been parallel just as well.
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What implications has the missing 2'-OH on the capability of DNA to form 3D structures?

The chemical difference between RNA and DNA is the missing 2'-hydroxyl group in the nucleotides that build DNA. The major effect of that change that I know of is the higher stability of DNA compared ...
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Estimating RNA concentration from Specific Activity of Labeled RNA

The question reads, Using T7 RNA polymerase to transcribe in vitro a 100-nt RNA off a DNA template. This RNA contains 19 Adenosines. In your 100 uL transcription reaction you added 1.00 µL of α32P•[...
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From an information perspective, are both strands of DNA necessary?

I am learning about the genetic code, replication, and transcription, and I have a question about whether or not both strands of DNA are really "necessary". In replication, at a high level, we are ...
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1answer
868 views

Why is DNA double stranded and RNA single stranded? [closed]

Why is DNA present as a double helix structure and RNA as a single helix? What causes the difference between them? What are the practical physiological differences between dsDNA and ssRNA? How are the ...
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1answer
201 views

DNA-DNA cross-linking with formaldehyde?

The 3C (chromosome conformation capture) technology for studying chromatin 3D organization starts by a cross-linking step using formaldehyde to find segments of DNA interacting. In my understanding ...
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36 views

Estimated protein size using CDs data [closed]

The number of amino acids in a protein is important to predict their size. I used coding DNA sequence (CDs) to predict the average of the protein size of E.coli k12 from a sample provided by the ...