Interactions and relationships among organisms and their environment. This includes biotic and abiotic (non-living/environmental) factors that impact organisms.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
1answer
29 views

How to define a 'trait' objectively?

I'm coming across an increasing number of papers that use trait-based approaches for risk assessment, like this one . This paper defines a trait as follows: Traits are the physiological, ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Which magnoliophyta groups are NOT pollinated by bees and why? [on hold]

Considering the bees as the family Apidae which families of flowering plants are definitely not pollinated by them and what could be the reasons? -Could you say that the relationship is preserved at ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

What are Some Classical Examples of Local Adaptation?

Question Can you please give a list of classical (textbook) examples of local adaptations? How to answer Examples don't necessarily need to include what evidence supports this specific example of ...
4
votes
3answers
72 views

Exponential growth equation and bacteria

I'm a microbiologist, but I'm teaching some ecology in my intro-level course, so when we got to population growth, I thought I'd use the example of a microbial population. But, I hit a strange problem ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

what type of random sampling method commonly used to select trees in a forest [closed]

I was wondering if you can help me what type of random sampling method used to select trees in a forest
0
votes
1answer
29 views

How to use Transect-based sampling to select sample trees [on hold]

I was wondering if you help me how to use Transect-based sampling to select sample trees
0
votes
1answer
32 views

How diverse are species in remote, isolated areas on Earth? [closed]

If we consider land areas that have been largely isolated from each other from a human point of view, but with a similar climate – for example, a part of Europe and a part of Americas with a similar ...
5
votes
1answer
28 views

What happened to the gypsy moth epidemics in the Northeast US?

I remember that back in the 1980s, 1980-1984, gypsy moths were a veritable plague in the Northeast United States. They were literally everywhere. Sidewalks were covered with their squashed bodies (of ...
4
votes
2answers
57 views

Capture recapture for only two visit assuming a open population model

I have a study system where I’m doing a capture recapture analysis. I mark fish in one year and I’m recapturing a subset of them the next year. I only have 2 capture events. Since a lot of time has ...
3
votes
1answer
42 views

What negative effects does cannabalism have in other species (like prion diseases) and how are they mitigated?

It is well known that human cannibals are likely to suffer from a variety of ailments, particularly prion diseases. However a great many other species, from insect to ape practice cannibalism at much ...
2
votes
0answers
14 views

Where should I go for online information on animals endemic specifically in Mozambique?

I've been involved with the citizen science project "Wildcam Gorongosa" for over half a year now (website, forum). As there are lots of unexperienced volunteers, many questions are being asked. Often ...
10
votes
1answer
174 views

Why are oceans said to have “low productivity” in terms of photosynthesis?

80% of the world's photosynthesis takes place in the ocean. Despite this, oceans are also said to have low productivity - they cover 75% of the earth's surface, but out of the annual 170 billion ...
2
votes
1answer
19 views

Relation between biomass and radius of roots system

Is there a known relation between the mass of a plant to the size of its roots? For example, can I take the root size to be proportional to the biomass of the plant like in this relation: $$R = R_0 (...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

How is 'probability of new species origination' defined?

I was reading about how biologists study the change in the rate of species origination, and they estimate the probability that a new species will arise. How is this probability defined and calculated ...
3
votes
2answers
56 views

Different Effects of Detection Probability Between Presence and Count Data at the Same Location

I'm modeling habitat suitability for a large, mobile animal using occurrence data (presence only - I have no true absence data in this case) collected from camera traps (stations with automatic motion/...
4
votes
1answer
82 views

Are thunder and lightning necessary for any organisms?

Comparatively irregular events such as forest fires are necessary for some plants to grow (see here). But do any plant or animal species have similar dependence on thunder and/or lightning?
11
votes
1answer
3k views

Why are some berries poisonous?

In my understanding, the evolutional function of berries is to be eaten and pood out somewhere else, so that the seeds of the plant spread. Is this so? Then why are some berries poisonous?
0
votes
2answers
43 views

Predator prey interaction [closed]

I went through a line in my textbook which read: "But for predators, prey species could achieve very high population densities and cause ecosystem instability." I was not able to understand the ...
20
votes
6answers
9k views

Why haven't prey evolved the ability to always outrun their predators?

I can understand why some prey can't outrun a recently evolved species. However, since cheetahs have existed for so long, why haven't its prey evolved to always outrun it, driving cheetahs to ...
7
votes
2answers
376 views

How did zootoxins evolve?

I've always wondered how toxins in certain organisms have evolved. Particularly, organisms that produce toxins as a deterrent to predators as opposed to organisms that use it to paralyze their prey. ...
1
vote
1answer
152 views

Species-area relation graph

When species richness is plotted vs area, the graph follows the equation : log S = log C + Z log A where Z is the slope of the line. Z values are usually in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 but if very large ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

What empirical evidence of genetic assimilation is there?

There have been many articles arguing that we should view the phenotype in the center of evolutionary theory rather than the genotype as done in most population (or quantitative) genetics. A typical ...
-1
votes
2answers
45 views

doubt with a multiple choice question [closed]

Permanent decrease in population would occur due to- A) Migration B) Natality C) Emigration D) Mortality E) Territoriality . It's obvious that C) & D) options are possible . But I'm confused ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

What does a climax community lead to?

Seral communities modify the environmental conditions in such a way that these are less favourable for itself and more favourable for the next community. Each community acts to end itself. If the ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Telemetry error in Habitat Selection studies

I am using data sets from several researchers with telemetry data, in order to conduct habitat selection studies. However, I don't have the information regarding telemetry error, and I want to use ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

What membrane material(s) is/are used in a diffusion chamber and where can I get this/these material(s)?

I am participating in community biolab and am investigating using diffusion chambers for culturing novel species of bacteria as well other experiments. The type of diffusion chamber I am hoping to use ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Ecological specialization and relative abundance

I am reading Evolution in Changing Environments by R. Levin but have a hard time. Claim At page 25, Levin says as a conclusion The more efficient a caste at meeting the contingency for which it ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

If crocodiles are k-selected, why do they supposedly “not age,” as in avoid senescence?

I recently saw a few sources stating that Crocodiles do not biologically age, implying negligible senescence. Basically, a 70 year old crocodile is in the same physical/health condition as a 7 year ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

How can you tell if there is local adaptation? Non-genetics Methods review

Background Local Adaptation is a famous subject of interest in ecology and evolution. Among ecologists, it is not rare to try to find evidence of local adaptation in absence of genetic data. As a ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Does the edge effect promote biodiversity?

I define the edge effect as: A term used to describe what occurs at habitat boundaries where two bordering communities influence one another. My question is whether it generally leads to an increase ...
22
votes
4answers
3k views

How to get rid of mosquitoes in a small lake

I own a small lake. Give or take it is about 50 meters wide and 100 meters long (or 160 feet wide, 320 feet long), with a max depth of around 2 meters / 6.5 feet. One third of the lake is surrounded ...
11
votes
1answer
171 views

Which biological kingdom comprises the greatest biomass on Earth?

Which of the five biological kingdoms - animalia, protista, plantera, monera, or fungi - has the largest biomass? To clarify, if the biomass of every species in each of these kingdoms was added up, ...
2
votes
2answers
132 views

Does the biosphere have infinite resources and are they infinitely renewable?

Does biomass represent all of the resources of the biosphere and therefore it would be theoretically infinitely renewable (as long as we have the sun) since all the biomass is part of the carbon cycle?...
12
votes
4answers
381 views

When are population dynamics models useful?

When are population dynamics models useful? There seems to have been a lot of research about it, but how does it help? If I need data about how a population will evolve under what conditions, I need ...
2
votes
1answer
60 views

Can galls be formed from mutualistic relationships?

According to Wikipedia, galls (cecidia) are formed by parasitic insects and mites like gall wasps (Neuroterus albipes). At some metamorphic stage, these organisms alter cell division processes in ...
5
votes
3answers
132 views

What is the difference between a predator and a parasite?

A human encountering a tiger or a malaria plasmodium is likely to suffer, and the tiger/plasmodium is likely to gain from the transaction. Not necessarily a good example, and I am aware that a ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

How important is dead wood to the ecology of a forest and how much dead wood should remain?

I have a local 'forest management group' in my area. One of the jobs they do is to thin out the forest by removing some of the trees. They then sell the wood for firewood. I want to tell them to ...
5
votes
1answer
151 views

Selection Pressure on Orca Whale Coloration

What is the proposed selection pressure that leads to the distinctive coloration of Orca whales? I can find nothing in the literature.
10
votes
3answers
1k views

Are there species that occupy several roles in the food hierarchy?

Are there species that occupy several roles in the food hierarchy? By role, I am referring to producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, quaternary consumer and so on. ...
17
votes
1answer
251 views

How do burrowing animals get enough oxygen?

Tree borers make a small hole in a tree. At the end of it, they chew on wood to elongate the tunnel. They digest food and grow. All this takes oxygen. The entrance to the tunnel is generally small. ...
-2
votes
1answer
73 views

Based on this diagram, how do you deduce the keystone species? [closed]

How would you figure out what the keystone species is in the following textbook question? (questions 1 and 2 at the bottom of the image) Based on my knowledge, a keystone species helps to maintain ...
1
vote
0answers
51 views

How can I calculate Shannon-Wiener diversity index in caves with different kind of habitats and different sampling methods?

I would like to start a monitoring in different caves, compare caves of different age and length, and find out if there are any correlations between these factors and their diversity. I was thinking ...
6
votes
3answers
325 views

What is called the “area size that an animal usually lives in”?

What is called the "area size that an animal usually lives in" or "needs for a normal life"? Is there any specific term?
1
vote
1answer
44 views

How to compare diversity between different ecosystems?

I've used the Shannon Wiener Diversity Index for a single ecosystem (species as categorical variables). Do you know any alternative indices, especially ones that compare diversity between different ...
10
votes
2answers
383 views

Are there any side-effects from a mosquitoes extinction?

Suppose that we have the ability to make mosquitoes extinct, what would be the likely effects (on disease and ecosystems for example) of such extinction? Essentially, what roles in nature do ...
2
votes
1answer
85 views

How do you know which organisms are keystone species?

I know that keystone species are those that play a crucial role in an ecosystem, but since all species are interdependent upon each other and each occupy their own niche, aren't they all important? ...
0
votes
0answers
162 views

Measuring Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) using Light and Dark Bottle methods: Sample Question

The following question is taken from my Cliffnotes AP Biology 4th edition practice exam and it deals with the light and dark method for measuring gross primary productivity. In a classroom ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Evolution of parasite into ideal parasite [duplicate]

An ideal parasite is a parasite which thrives within a host without harming it (according to my NCERT textbook). Then, quite obviously, why hasn't that happened yet? I mean, natural selection can ...
5
votes
0answers
40 views

Do Asian giant hornets (Vespa mandarinia) prey on other nests of Asian giant hornets?

Asian giant hornets are known to attack nests of other bees and wasps, but should they encounter another nest of their own, would they attack it?