Interactions and relationships among organisms and their environment. This includes biotic and abiotic (non-living/environmental) factors that impact organisms.

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39 views

How to transform snail shells into a fertilizer? [closed]

I heard that the chemical structure of the snail shell has elements that help in waste water treatment and in some cases as a fertilizer? What is the process used to render snail shells into ...
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0answers
22 views

How does the snail shells' fertilizer compare to regular fertilizers?

May I ask about the quality of the fertilizer derived from the shells and their effectiveness compared to other fertilizers on the market ?
3
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1answer
48 views

Using Canonical Correspondence Analysis on matrices with missing data

I have a matrix of sites where not all the environmental variables I want to assess were sampled. In other words, there are sites with the whole set of variables sampled, and there are other sites ...
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0answers
29 views

What good are mosquitos? [duplicate]

Mosquitoes have been getting a bad press lately, for transmitting malaria, dengue, zika and numerous other diseases. Some reputable scientists are now talking seriously about extinguishing (making ...
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0answers
93 views

Escaping resource limitations during tumor evolution

In their discussion of the importance of r- and K-selection on tumors, Aktipis et al. (2013; figure 3) provide the following illustration of a hypothetical cancer growth curve: In it, you can see ...
6
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1answer
4k views

How does a pine cone open?

When a pine cone is wet, it remains closed. However, when it's dry it opens again. From the perspective of physics or biomechanics, what is the mechanism that allows a pine cone to open and close as ...
5
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1answer
155 views

The replicator equation vs the Lotka-Volterra equation

Background The replicator equation with $n$ strategies is given by the differential equation: \begin{equation} \dot x_{i} = x_{i} \left( \sum_{j=1}^{n} a_{ij}x_{j} - \phi \right) \qquad i = 1, \...
3
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2answers
91 views

Why do pine stands exist?

I live in the midwestern United States. I cycle to work, sometimes on heavily wooded roads, and I can't help but notice that in most places within the surrounding deciduous forests Pine and evergreen ...
3
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1answer
24 views

Mechanisms and Assumptions of the Species-Area Realtionship

I would like to choose a model to use to describe a species area relationship based on plant species richness data that I have collected. Rather than choosing the power model a priori, I am ...
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0answers
62 views

Large coalitions of lions taking over multiple prides?

I have noticed while watching lion documentaries that coalitions with more than 3 males tend to take over multiple prides and have 1 large pride in their territory while coalitions with 3 lions or ...
1
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1answer
102 views

What are the basic skills required to pursue future studies in theoretical ecology? [closed]

I am a student and just about to choose a project for my Master's thesis in biology. I want to pursue studies in theoretical ecology in the future. Between field ecology and computational biology (as ...
2
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1answer
131 views

How does the ideal free distribution work?

I have recently completed a study on Brent Goose. I found that Brent Geese occupy high quality habitat first then once this is full of geese, they fill up low quality habitat. However, there were ...
6
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1answer
84 views

Are there any animals that gradually approaches the predator to search for food?

I was wondering if there is an animal (or insect, bird, etc.) that eventually comes close to its predator to search for food, but only does so if it couldn't find food in the environment it is in. So ...
11
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1answer
164 views

How big should the human population be, as predicted by body mass?

I would guess there is a theory in biology which states that the population size for a given species is inversely proportional to the body mass of individuals in that species. In other words, there ...
6
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1answer
176 views

Is it theoretically possible to restore the Tiger population to 100,000?

The current global Tiger population is roughly 5100 according to Wikipedia. With habitat destruction and poaching continuing and no effective improvement in conservation, most likely the Tiger ...
5
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2answers
90 views

Evolution of spider webs?

Web making seems like a fairly complex behavior built from a pretty strong material. So how exactly did it evolve? Do we have any clues about what kind of features/behaviors preceded web making and ...
2
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1answer
106 views

Niche overlap Index

I wanted to use the compana() function from the adehabitat package in R. I don't really understand the meaning of the data in ...
0
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1answer
63 views

What makes animal to continually reproduce? [closed]

I was reading about Trypophobia and reached to Surinam Toad's reproduction methods. Then I had this doubt- Why would animals want to reproduce so much? In case of humans we mostly have the offsprings ...
3
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3answers
64 views

Are there inherent problems in simulating marine environments, as compared to terrestrial systems?

We cultivate a number of terrestrial organisms in greenhouses and stables where they live in completely artificial environments. This seems to extend far less to marine organisms, such as fish. ...
5
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0answers
52 views

Is high metabolism linked to high evolutionary turnover?

I recently read The Dinosaur Heresies by Robert T. Bakker, a 1986 popular science book presenting arguments for an active lifestyle and high metabolic rate in dinosaurs. One of the arguments that ...
5
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0answers
234 views

What are the branches of system ecology?

What are the branches of system ecology that scientists research in nowadays? Or what can system ecology can applied to, or be used? I have read its Wikipedia page, but sadly it doesn't answer my ...
8
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1answer
99 views

Do camels pose an environmental threat to kangaroos?

Camels, once used for transport across the Australian outback, were set free, and are reproducing at an uncontrolled rate in the empty interior of Australia. Do the ecosystems of camels and ...
4
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1answer
290 views

How can omnivores be in more than one trophic level?

I'm learning about the ecosystem and its relation to organisms, So organisms in a food chain can be put from producers to tertiary organisms. I just don't get the part where an organism can be labeled ...
8
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1answer
3k views
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1answer
42 views

In terms of ecology what is optimality? [closed]

I am studying animal science and I have been learning about reproductive theories however i cant seem to understand the theory of optimality
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1answer
105 views

What is enantiostasis?

I have searched around and read my textbook but I am failing to understand how enantiostasis is different to homeostasis. For reference, Wikipedia definition is as follows: Enantiostasis is the ...
6
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1answer
101 views

How can we calculate the minimum sustainable number of the panda population?

I have a degree in Biology so I'm a little embarrassed that I never learned this, but... How do we know 1600 Pandas isn't enough? I know that we have historical numbers (although I couldn't find ...
6
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2answers
129 views

Why do some trees in California have dead brown leaves but also new green leaves?

It's Autumn 2015, and I just saw a tree that had mainly dead brown leaves but also some new small green leaves growing. Why didn't the tree just keep its old leaves? Does it think we are in spring ...
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2answers
303 views

Was the recent “conservation hunt” of a black rhino supported by science?

CNN recently covered a sanctioned black rhino hunt in Namibia by Texan Corey Knowlton, who bid US$350,000 for the license. In the story, he claims that the hunt was actually supporting conservation of ...
2
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1answer
45 views

Parametric Bootstrap Capture Recapture

I am using the (one sample) capture recapture for estimating hidden human population. One sample method uses purely frequencies of capture to estimate population. One of my colleague suggested ...
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2answers
72 views

Why both sexes of the species don't show equal level of Competition? [closed]

In most species, it is seen that either males or females have evolved to be aggressive towards approaching members of the same species of the same sex and maintaining strict territorial boundaries. ...
4
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1answer
86 views

How far in can non-extremophiles live, in Earth?

I am a high school student. I'm doing a project where I need to find a planet in our galaxy that might be habitable. Then I need to create an organism that could live on that planet and justify ...
6
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2answers
592 views

Is there an antagonistic association between Penicillium and Aspergillus?

Some Aspergillus species appear to like walnuts. My question concerns the association of Penicillium and Aspergillus. No sooner does Aspergillus colonize a walnut (or some other challenging carbon ...
2
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1answer
154 views

Are there any theories using thermodynamics/statistical mechanics or information theory principles to modelling in ecology?

So far, I've only known one: the MaxEnt theory. It uses the maximum information entropy developed by information theorist, which in turn inspired by the thermodynamics from physics, to predict the ...
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2answers
257 views

Examples of prey predator interactions where density of predator is very low and prey form groups when the predator attacks the prey for food

Examples of prey predator interactions where density of predator is very low (has a threat of extinction) and prey form groups when the predator attacks the prey for food. I have searched this in ...
4
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1answer
323 views

Do plants have preference for the form of nitrogen as nutrient?

In the nitrogen cycle (ecology), it is usually described that plants can use nitrogen in the form of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). Do plants prefer one form of nitrogen over the other?
2
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1answer
193 views

How does one calculate the amount of oxygen produced by trees?

I'm currently working on a project to measure the impact of tree planting. Calculating the amount of oxygen seems harder than I imagined. Of-course there's the type and size of the tree and the ...
1
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1answer
61 views

How to determine the relationship of competition or cooperation?

I am currently studying the interaction of Twitter memes (two or many), such as competition and cooperation. Is there any model or method in biology that can identify the types of the relationship, ...
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2answers
82 views

Is this a simple Hardy-Weinberg problem?

Phenylketonuria is a severe developmental disability due to a rare autosomal recessive allele. Approximately 1 in every 10,000 newborns suffer from this disease. Calculate the frequency of the allele ...
11
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2answers
6k views

Can humans transdermally absorb minerals from ocean water, and if so how much?

According to several studies quoted here, chemicals can be absorbed by the skin transdermally, at least under certain conditions. When it comes to elements in seawater like sodium, magnesium, ...
3
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2answers
125 views

Do reptiles hunt?

I encountered the following passage in the book The Art of Interactive Design by Criss Crawford (bold formatting is mine): [...] From stalking and evasion to the chase, the [interaction between ...
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0answers
53 views

Hemiptera sp preimago?

Which species of Hemiptera is this preimago, seen in 2015 in Rome?
3
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2answers
489 views

How does ecology differ from biology?

What precisely is ecology? How does it differ from biology? Because I never studied biology after high school, please explain as if I were 10 years old. I only know that ecology is a subset of biology ...
3
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1answer
1k views

Index of ecological niche overlap

For this question I am interested in the Pianka's Index of ecological niche overlap. What is the Pianka's Index? How does it work? How can one calculate this index? How often is it used? In what ...
2
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0answers
81 views

Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule: endotherms and ectotherms

Surface area to volume ratio (in terms of heat conservation) is not the only mechanism, but it is still an important mechanism for explaining Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule. Given that, I want to ...
3
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3answers
101 views

Are there organisms that have incorporated plastic into their lives?

Are there organisms that have incorporated (manmade) plastic into their lives in any way? Either in their diet, or as a part of their body?
2
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1answer
41 views

Algae and greenhouse effect

Just a thought: the CO2 concentration is increasing . Due to a different but possible related phenomenon, the algal blooms are on the rise. We humans want to control both. But algae are the major ...
5
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2answers
208 views

Difference between biological control and introducing species for conservation?

I have a biology assignment and we have to explain various methods and strategies for conservation, two of which are: Biological control Introduced Species What is the difference between these?...
5
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1answer
49 views

Length of dispersal flight of European spruce bark beetle?

I'm interested in length of dispersal flight of Ips typographus. I can barely find some information about dispersal distances, height of dispersal flight, but not at all information about how many ...
6
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1answer
178 views

Effects of selection on effective population size

Background The effective population size ($N_e$) is a central concept of evolutionary biology and is influenced by several parameters. For example: sex ratio bias affects $N_e$ $\left(N_e = \frac{...