Interactions and relationships among organisms and their environment. This includes biotic and abiotic (non-living/environmental) factors that impact organisms.

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68 views

What makes animal to continually reproduce? [closed]

I was reading about Trypophobia and reached to Surinam Toad's reproduction methods. Then I had this doubt- Why would animals want to reproduce so much? In case of humans we mostly have the offsprings ...
5
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53 views

Is high metabolism linked to high evolutionary turnover?

I recently read The Dinosaur Heresies by Robert T. Bakker, a 1986 popular science book presenting arguments for an active lifestyle and high metabolic rate in dinosaurs. One of the arguments that ...
2
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1answer
59 views

Can galls be formed from mutualistic relationships?

According to Wikipedia, galls (cecidia) are formed by parasitic insects and mites like gall wasps (Neuroterus albipes). At some metamorphic stage, these organisms alter cell division processes in ...
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68 views

Large coalitions of lions taking over multiple prides?

I have noticed while watching lion documentaries that coalitions with more than 3 males tend to take over multiple prides and have 1 large pride in their territory while coalitions with 3 lions or ...
8
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1answer
100 views

Do camels pose an environmental threat to kangaroos?

Camels, once used for transport across the Australian outback, were set free, and are reproducing at an uncontrolled rate in the empty interior of Australia. Do the ecosystems of camels and ...
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3answers
1k views

Are there species that occupy several roles in the food hierarchy?

Are there species that occupy several roles in the food hierarchy? By role, I am referring to producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, quaternary consumer and so on. ...
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1answer
251 views

How do burrowing animals get enough oxygen?

Tree borers make a small hole in a tree. At the end of it, they chew on wood to elongate the tunnel. They digest food and grow. All this takes oxygen. The entrance to the tunnel is generally small. ...
10
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1answer
172 views

Why are oceans said to have “low productivity” in terms of photosynthesis?

80% of the world's photosynthesis takes place in the ocean. Despite this, oceans are also said to have low productivity - they cover 75% of the earth's surface, but out of the annual 170 billion ...
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1answer
43 views

In terms of ecology what is optimality? [closed]

I am studying animal science and I have been learning about reproductive theories however i cant seem to understand the theory of optimality
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1answer
111 views

What is enantiostasis?

I have searched around and read my textbook but I am failing to understand how enantiostasis is different to homeostasis. For reference, Wikipedia definition is as follows: Enantiostasis is the ...
6
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2answers
136 views

Why do some trees in California have dead brown leaves but also new green leaves?

It's Autumn 2015, and I just saw a tree that had mainly dead brown leaves but also some new small green leaves growing. Why didn't the tree just keep its old leaves? Does it think we are in spring ...
2
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1answer
45 views

Parametric Bootstrap Capture Recapture

I am using the (one sample) capture recapture for estimating hidden human population. One sample method uses purely frequencies of capture to estimate population. One of my colleague suggested ...
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73 views

Why both sexes of the species don't show equal level of Competition? [closed]

In most species, it is seen that either males or females have evolved to be aggressive towards approaching members of the same species of the same sex and maintaining strict territorial boundaries. ...
2
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1answer
154 views

Are there any theories using thermodynamics/statistical mechanics or information theory principles to modelling in ecology?

So far, I've only known one: the MaxEnt theory. It uses the maximum information entropy developed by information theorist, which in turn inspired by the thermodynamics from physics, to predict the ...
2
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1answer
206 views

How does one calculate the amount of oxygen produced by trees?

I'm currently working on a project to measure the impact of tree planting. Calculating the amount of oxygen seems harder than I imagined. Of-course there's the type and size of the tree and the ...
1
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1answer
46 views

What do “reduced antipredator defense” and “reduced antipredator vigilance” mean?

The book BIOMAT 2010 (International Symposium on Mathematical and Computational Biology, edited by Rubem P. Mondaini) mentions the terms reduced antipredator defense and reduced antipredator vigilance....
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1answer
62 views

How to determine the relationship of competition or cooperation?

I am currently studying the interaction of Twitter memes (two or many), such as competition and cooperation. Is there any model or method in biology that can identify the types of the relationship, ...
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2answers
259 views

Examples of prey predator interactions where density of predator is very low and prey form groups when the predator attacks the prey for food

Examples of prey predator interactions where density of predator is very low (has a threat of extinction) and prey form groups when the predator attacks the prey for food. I have searched this in ...
5
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2answers
95 views

Evolution of spider webs?

Web making seems like a fairly complex behavior built from a pretty strong material. So how exactly did it evolve? Do we have any clues about what kind of features/behaviors preceded web making and ...
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2answers
83 views

Is this a simple Hardy-Weinberg problem?

Phenylketonuria is a severe developmental disability due to a rare autosomal recessive allele. Approximately 1 in every 10,000 newborns suffer from this disease. Calculate the frequency of the allele ...
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2answers
129 views

Do reptiles hunt?

I encountered the following passage in the book The Art of Interactive Design by Criss Crawford (bold formatting is mine): [...] From stalking and evasion to the chase, the [interaction between ...
1
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1answer
152 views

Species-area relation graph

When species richness is plotted vs area, the graph follows the equation : log S = log C + Z log A where Z is the slope of the line. Z values are usually in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 but if very large ...
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0answers
53 views

Hemiptera sp preimago?

Which species of Hemiptera is this preimago, seen in 2015 in Rome?
5
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0answers
246 views

What are the branches of system ecology?

What are the branches of system ecology that scientists research in nowadays? Or what can system ecology can applied to, or be used? I have read its Wikipedia page, but sadly it doesn't answer my ...
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0answers
90 views

Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule: endotherms and ectotherms

Surface area to volume ratio (in terms of heat conservation) is not the only mechanism, but it is still an important mechanism for explaining Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule. Given that, I want to ...
5
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1answer
159 views

The replicator equation vs the Lotka-Volterra equation

Background The replicator equation with $n$ strategies is given by the differential equation: \begin{equation} \dot x_{i} = x_{i} \left( \sum_{j=1}^{n} a_{ij}x_{j} - \phi \right) \qquad i = 1, \...
2
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1answer
42 views

Algae and greenhouse effect

Just a thought: the CO2 concentration is increasing . Due to a different but possible related phenomenon, the algal blooms are on the rise. We humans want to control both. But algae are the major ...
5
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1answer
50 views

Length of dispersal flight of European spruce bark beetle?

I'm interested in length of dispersal flight of Ips typographus. I can barely find some information about dispersal distances, height of dispersal flight, but not at all information about how many ...
2
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1answer
37 views

Trial pre-registration service that accepts non-clinical trials, or specifically ecology?

I'm in the early stages of designing a trial in ecology. I'm interested in pre-registering the trial, as suggested here. My concern is that all of the registries (that I can find) deal specifically ...
2
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1answer
50 views

How do we call a region of low carrying capacity?

I am looking for a convenient word to define a region of the landscape where the local carrying capacity (population size) for a given species is low but different from zero. The species is still ...
10
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1answer
535 views

Does the cell internal temperature changes in response to a change in external temperature?

Background Some species are homeotherm (internal temperature is not affected by a change in external temperature) and some are poikilotherm (internal temperature changes in response to external ...
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2answers
376 views

How did zootoxins evolve?

I've always wondered how toxins in certain organisms have evolved. Particularly, organisms that produce toxins as a deterrent to predators as opposed to organisms that use it to paralyze their prey. ...
4
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1answer
75 views

History: Do evolutionary and ecological processes occur at the same timescales?

Classically, it was thought that evolutionary processes occurred at a much slower pace than demographic/ecological processes. Nobody, ever thought about incorporating both processes into the same ...
3
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1answer
346 views

Can I compare Shannon-Wiener diversity indices between plots of different sizes (area)?

Can I compare the Shannon-Wiener (a.k.a. Shannon-Weaver) Index of diversity ($H'$) of plots (communities) with varying sizes (areas)? If not, what steps do I need to take and/or which tests should ...
6
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2answers
111 views

How do animals end up in remote areas?

I was thinking specifically about random marshy water holes on farmers fields. It seems that you can visit just about any one of these and you will find frogs if you look hard enough. They usually ...
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0answers
22 views

Will bark-beetles infest the Methow Valley?

What is the Methow Valley (esp. Winthrop, WA) area's susceptibility to bark beetles? Did the 2014 Carlton Complex wildfires increase the vulnerability due to the large numbers of dead, dying, and ...
8
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1answer
186 views

Database of Geographic Range of Species

Is there a database of organisms which would contain their queriable geographic location? I would need to perform a rather simple query, such as ...
19
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1answer
2k views

Can beavers control the direction a tree falls?

We humans can easily control the direction a tree falls by making a number of strategic cuts, essentially creating a hinge: This prevents trees from falling on equipment and people and sets them up ...
6
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1answer
176 views

Is it theoretically possible to restore the Tiger population to 100,000?

The current global Tiger population is roughly 5100 according to Wikipedia. With habitat destruction and poaching continuing and no effective improvement in conservation, most likely the Tiger ...
5
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1answer
144 views

How to gather life-history traits data on bird species?

I am looking for a data base of life history traits for bird species. Is there such data base? If not, what are your advice on how to collect those data? Is there a handy website that list ...
4
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0answers
53 views

Negative association between habitat quality and reproductive success in birds

I'm looking for bird studies that have found either a negative correlation or no correlation between habitat quality and reproductive success. Or in other words, bird studies that have found that ...
4
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2answers
955 views

Could we slow down life? [closed]

As far as I know there is no absolute time measurement (one that would measure time in a non-environment-dependent fashion) in any life form. Only such time measurements exist, which are dependent ...
7
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0answers
243 views

What bacteria shed harvestable energy from root zone organic matter?

I recently heard of a successful effort that harvests energy from soil at plants' bases due to apparently bacterial breakdown of wastes from the plants: Via photosynthesis a plant produces organic ...
8
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1answer
4k views

How should species density be calculated for a clumped distribution?

Lets imagine 5 plots of different size are sampled for a target species: ...
4
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1answer
296 views

How can omnivores be in more than one trophic level?

I'm learning about the ecosystem and its relation to organisms, So organisms in a food chain can be put from producers to tertiary organisms. I just don't get the part where an organism can be labeled ...
6
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1answer
108 views

Viruses selected by evolution

First let me apologize in advance for I know almost nothing about biology. I had a conversation today with a family member who is a bio-computer-scientist and he talked to me about what his colleagues ...
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1answer
263 views

Are Humans Considered Keystone species? [closed]

Do humans have a huge impact on the ecosystem ? is it possible for other animals to live without us ?
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2answers
534 views

How does ecology differ from biology?

What precisely is ecology? How does it differ from biology? Because I never studied biology after high school, please explain as if I were 10 years old. I only know that ecology is a subset of biology ...
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2answers
305 views

Was the recent “conservation hunt” of a black rhino supported by science?

CNN recently covered a sanctioned black rhino hunt in Namibia by Texan Corey Knowlton, who bid US$350,000 for the license. In the story, he claims that the hunt was actually supporting conservation of ...
2
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1answer
333 views

What does the energy in an energy pyramid represent?

Suppose the energy at the second trophic level as given in an energy pyramid is 100 kcal per square metre. It could mean either of the two following things: 100 kcal is the energy this primary ...