The study of the development of an embryo from fertilisation through to description as a foetus.

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How compatible are mammal wombs?

I had read about science working towards the creation of artificial wombs however I wonder how compatible are mammal wombs and connected systems to develop fetuses. What species are so compatible that ...
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810 views

How many consecutive cell divisions are required to form the adult human body from the single cell zygote?

The preferred question would have been what is the total number of cells in a full term human foetus and how many cell divisions are required to reach that number. However estimates of total cell ...
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evolutionary reason behind sharing the same path for food and air?

What is the evolutionary reason behind sharing the same path for food and air? For example, we have a nose and lungs, yet they are linked by the pharynx, which is shared with the mouth and ...
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Which part of the genome are the developmental sequences of embryogenesis located?

Which part or parts of the the genome are the sequences located. Are they spread across the chromosomes? If so how are they accessed sequentially with precision during embrygenesis?
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When can a virus modify DNA in every cell of a living organism?

I've recently heard about experiments with brain tissue, where a virus is introduced in a rats brain, causing a "glow when electric charge is present" protein to be created. This protein then helps to ...
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Fetal development, gastrulation and embryonic disc

I am completely confused by the images circulating on the internet of human gastrulation. First, lets see how it happens in deuterostomes. This image depicts the process: (image is from Wikipedia) ...
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Is there a realtime molecular clock within the genome to co-ordinate the developmental sequences in an embryo?

It is difficult to assume that the massive number of co-ordinated developmental sequences in a developing embryo is controlled by molecular signalling alone. Is anyone aware of a molecular or ...
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What is a zygote?

During fertilization, the nuclear membrane of the pro-nucleus of the ovum and sperm degenerate. Is the cell is stage called a zygote? After the dissolution, mitosis occurs and two cells are formed.Or ...
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70 views

Which X-Y chromosomes have the developmental genes for mammals?

I know that for a given mammal, half the chromosomes come from father and half from mother. This is typically denoted as x-y. I've recently read about "toolkit" genes that control how a cell develops ...
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What metabolic activities are performed by a developing human fetus's liver?

I understand that organ function varies with the stages of development. Does a fetal liver EVER perform lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, make bile, etc? Or does it only begin performing these actions ...
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518 views

Why are eggs “egg” shaped?

Is there a reason as to why chickens lay "egg" shaped eggs, as opposed to spherically shaped eggs (or a random shape)? <--- Main Question For extra points (actually just to add more words in ...
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Simulating Cell differentiation

I'm a computer programmer deeply interested in Biology. I wish to write a computer simulation for cell differentiation. I understand there will be seemingly impossible challenges in doing this. But ...
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What is the total number of rounds of cleavage during mammalian embryonic development?

That for frog is 12, but what about mammalian embryos? I cannot find the exact number anywhere.
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Could a fetus properly develop in micro/zero-gravity?

I suppose another way of looking at the question is: how important is gravity for the development of mammal fetuses? And if things would go wrong, what sort of things would they be, and what would be ...
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What determines testosterone exposure in womb, baby's genetics or mom's body?

I read this article which has the following quote: The ratio between index and ring finger is believed to be linked to exposure to the male hormone testosterone in the womb. And I wonder what ...
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988 views

Impact of Alan Turing's approach to morphogenesis

Shortly before his untimely passing, the computing pioneer Alan Turing published his most cited paper The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis (1952). The central question for Turing was: how does a ...
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613 views

Do twins “run in the family”?

My wife and I recently found out that we are going to have twins and so nearly everyone asks if we have a family history of twins. Now I know that the answer for me is that it doesn't matter—as ...
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176 views

Why are Birds and Reptiles with abundant yolk sac polyspermic?

I was given an explanation that birds and reptiles are polyspermic because they have an abundant yolk sac. But how does it explain the thing? Chicken as an adult is not using in my opinion yolk as an ...
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477 views

Why do pandas have a high probability of giving birth to twins?

According to the BBC documentary "Wild About Pandas", about half of panda birth result in twins. Why do they have such a high probability compared to other mammals? What factor(s) control that ...
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768 views

What forms the human amniotic sac?

I am trying to understand the formation of embryonic disc for human and chick so the following question is related to here about formation of embryonic disc. I had thought that the amniotic sac forms ...
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370 views

Does chicken embryo form the disc called “discoblast” in the cleavage and blastulation of chicken?

This thread is related to my previous thread which is still unsolved mainly. I need to be able to compare chick and human cleavage and blastulation of zygote. My friend says that Chicken have ...
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285 views

Where does meiosis II of oogenesis end exactly in tuba uterina - uterus?

I know that metaphase II ends at ampulla tuba uterina, but I am not completely sure where the telophase II ends. Is it in the triangular section of cervix uterii? I just have an intuition that the ...
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4k views

Do humans have Coelom?

Kimball Biology 5e says Coelom is the main body cavity of many animals. It is lined with an epithelium derived from mesoderm. Gilbert Embryonal Biology 9e says Coelom is the space between ...
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When does Coelom form exactly?

Related to my other question. I know that the coelom is derived from mesoderm. Coelom seems to form during organogenesis within 3rd and 8th week of embryogenesis. However, that answer is not either ...