The area of physiology dealing with the production and effects of hormones.

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What induces parturition in humans?

I know that the release of oxytocin induces labor. But what induces the release of oxytocin? What is the trigger? And is it something that happens in the mother's body signalling that it's time to ...
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What's the feedback regulation of Thyroid diseases and body temperature?

While going through the feedback regulation, the control of blood glucose level by insulin and glucagon is quite discussed in multiple materials including the textbook. I also understand the basic ...
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68 views

What is basis of multifunctionality of “master glands” in the endocrine system?

I have just started reading about the endocrine system and I am having some difficulty understanding the basis of distribution of glands and associated hormones. I am using multifuntionality to ...
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Why does the face turn pale in dangerous situations?

I know what the effects are of a dangerous situation on the brain, i.e., an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which eventually results in an increased heart rate and elevated ...
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36 views

How nerves interact with other cells? [closed]

I read in a book by Mick O'Hare, that injuries inflicted by electric current are caused by tension of your muscles. Is that explainable only with physics or nerves really use electrical signal as ...
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1answer
345 views

How do female hormones cause blood to clot?

On most female-hormone supplements you get a warning that is something like this: The use of a combination hormonal contraceptives (CHC), like NuvaRing, is associated with increased risks of ...
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42 views

Leptin and fat mass?

I am interested in the relationship between blood leptin concentration and fat mass. It is well known that as fat mass increases, leptin increases. Have there been studies that look into whether the ...
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1answer
94 views

Can androgen-insensitive genetic-males get pregnant?

According to the linked report, people with androgen insensitivity syndrome appear as male, but have both feminine and masculine outer genitalia. However, I was not able to find out whether their ...
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30 views

Is hunger pushing cognitive ability in humans? [closed]

We have a lot of those questions here that base on personal anecdotes and I try to avoid asking any of those. Still, after skipping breakfast and an extremely effective work day so far I started ...
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1answer
93 views

Do humans have skin cells that trigger oxytocin release in the brain?

I was reading an article by Montgomery on the therapeutic effect of pets (Boston Globe, January 12, 2015), and I found this quote: All animals appear to have cells directly under the skin that ...
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118 views

How does visual sexual arousal work between the eyes, brain, and genitals/gonads? [closed]

When many people look at sexual images, they often can become sexually aroused, including full genital arousal, and feel urges, known more often used as "horny" as slang/urban usage. How does this ...
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55 views

Phytoestrogens from hops in beer and estrogenic activity in humans

There is a saying that phytoestrogens from hops can cause breast growth (gynecomastia) in male beer drinkers. Are there any reliable studies linking beer consumption to increased estrogenic activity? ...
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Over what range do Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) levels tend to fluctuate over the course of a day?

I understand that the majority of doctors consider the TSH test "the gold standard" for measuring thyroid function (examples stating that literally are here and here). The reference range for what is ...
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55 views

Is there any biological support for the concept of “chakras”? [closed]

Is there any support in modern biology for the ancient concept of "Chakras"? I've seen the concept of 7 chakras linked to the major endocrine glands in the human body (pineal,thyroid, adrenal, ...
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1answer
33 views

Does hypothalamus regulate posterior pituitary gland?

We have the hypothalamus-anterior pituitary-endocrine axis, but is there a similar chain of command for posterior pituitary gland such that oxycotin and vasopressin are regulated by some tropic ...
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3answers
58 views

What does it mean for a hormone to be “active”

In my textbook it is stated that the T3 hormone produced at the thyroid gland is 3-5 times more biologically active than T4. How is being active defined and how can this effect be measured?
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1answer
101 views

Question about epinephrine

In my class we were told that adrenaline (or epinephrine) causes vasoconstriction. My question was I had always thought that people took this via an EpiPen when they were having an allergic reaction. ...
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2answers
141 views

Is it possible for a human to wake up in a wrong way?

There's an old folk saying that goes like "He got out of bed on a wrong foot" - to indicate that the person's day is going poorly because of the way that person woke up. Is it is possible for a human ...
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40 views

Can we artificially increase human growth using HGH?

Robert Pershing Wadlow was a man who lived in the early-mid 1900s and had hyperplasia of his pituitary gland, which caused him over-produce human growth hormone (HGH) and grow to nearly 9 feet ...
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62 views

How does estrogen influence collagen synthesis?

Through what mechanisms does estrogen interact with collagen synthesis? Especially in the context of elevated estrogen levels and genesis of purpura simplex .
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1answer
97 views

Pituitary giants - is the fusing of growth plates dependent on amount of growth hormone in blood?

I wanted to ask a couple questions related to pituitary giants (people who are giants because of some anomaly, such as a tumor, in their pituitary gland). Some of these giants seem to keep growing ...
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2answers
2k views

Why do men have a higher hematocrit (red blood cell count) than women?

The hematocrit, also known as packed cell volume (PCV) or erythrocyte volume fraction (EVF), is the volume percentage (%) of red blood cells in blood. It is normally 45% for men and 40% for women. ...
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1answer
113 views

When did our ancestors switch to a menstrual cycle instead of the estrous cycle?

The Wikipedia page on the Estrous cycle says: Humans have menstrual cycles instead of estrous cycles. They shed their endometrium instead of reabsorbing it. Unlike animals with estrous cycles, ...
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Why do Sorghum Bicolor leaves roll up?

In A level Bio today we talked about abcesic acid as a stress hormone, and its ability to reduce osmotic potential around guard cells to close stomata. My question is, is abscesic acid in sorghum ...
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What is the biological basis of “energy” that extraverted humans draw from social engagements and introverts expend?

This question is related to this question about introverts becoming exhausted after extended social events on cognitive sciences stack exchange. As I read more on the topic of human ...
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1answer
100 views

Why is LH level much higher than FSH level at ovulation?

My teacher showed us an elaborate collection of graphs with one of them showing FSH and LH plasma levels during the menstrual cycle. LH level was almost 3 times higher than FSH level. Why? Does this ...
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Would constant light or fading light be registered as more wakefulness promoting by the Supra Chiasmatic Nucleus?

During the fall and winter season, a number of people are experiencing Seasonal Affective Disorder. One of the way it has traditionally been treated is with a dedicated lightbox - a very high ...
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1answer
34 views

Help me understand how the thyroid secretes

Please have a look at this close up light microscopic image of a thyroid gland: So I'm guessing the cubic epithelial cells surrounding this big red pulp are the secreting cells...? If so, is the ...
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1answer
568 views

Can ovulation and menstruation occur simultaneously?

Is that possible that ovulation happens in the time of actual menstrual haemorrhage in human females - let say in a case that woman has 21 day cycle and her menstrual period is 7 days? If yes, does ...
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27 views

Hormones and body mass

I was wondering how some animals (bulls, elephants etc.) become so large by only eating grass or plant based material and why some humans can build large amounts of muscle and mass without a proper ...
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1answer
115 views

Why is Psoriasis treated with Cortisone, when stress (which releases Cortisol) is known to aggravate the condition?

It is well known that stress isn't good for psoriasis , yet why do we treat the illness with Cortisone, a compound very similar to cortisol (and "has a similar name, genesis, and function", according ...
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142 views

What is the physiological difference between cortisone and cortisol?

There is only hydrogen bond different. Cortisol is synthesized by our body, while cortisone is given to the patient. Why you cannot give cortisol directly to the patient? I think the reason is ...
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3answers
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Do women experience more bonding hormones than men after sex?

Does Oxytocin (or any other bonding hormone) increase more so for women than for men after sex? Someone told me that it increases 4-fold for men and 12-fold for women (unconfirmed). Is there any ...
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What is the female equivalent of the morning erection that some men experience?

There was question about what causes "morning wood." It was answered that the erection in the morning is caused by decline of norepinephrine during REM sleep. Which in part allows to prevent ...
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149 views

Schedules of mating for men

It’s simple deductive logic to follow that for a species to survive it must provide it’s offspring with the best possible conditions to ensure it’s survival – either that or to reproduce in such ...
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315 views

Effect of steroid hormone on specific cells?

As steroid hormones can pass through the plasma membrane by simple diffusion because they are lipid derived hormones, it means that they are capable of passing through every cell of our body, BUT why ...
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Do women have testosterone?

In a documentary on fitness I saw it was stated that women can't get big like men because of their low concentration of testosterone. If it is true that women have testosterone, where is it made? Why ...
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1answer
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How are cyclic hormones characterized?

I have a question regarding the description of a subset of peptide hormones, called cyclic hormones. Two examples of cyclic hormones would be somatostatin and melanin-concentrating hormones. I know ...
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134 views

Is there a hormone combination that makes humans grumpy?

Imagine a typical situation that is likely to give rise to a bad temper within an individual: a person is awoken very early in the morning by a sound of a lawn being mowed next door. Unlike expected ...
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1answer
65 views

What happens to human dopaminergic reward system once a teenager becomes adult?

I've recently heard a podcast which explained teenage impulsivity and novelty seeking in part by "Lowering the baseline dopamine activity in the reward system" "Increase in dopaminergic reward in ...
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1answer
35 views

Function and process of TCTE-1 receptor

I was wondering if anybody knew of the function and process of the TCTE-1 receptor during the binding of a sperm with an egg. The only think I know of TCTE-1 is that it is a species-specific receptor. ...
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1answer
34 views

Significance of prostaglandins in semen?

I am trying to figure out how prostaglandins in the semen relate to the female reproductive tract. More specifically, How does prostaglandins in semen help the female reproductive tract increase the ...
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50 views

Which chemical and hormonal effects on heart are by metabolites? [closed]

I am thinking which hormonal and chemical effects from: catecholamines thyroxin corticosteroids sex hormones prostaglandins Ca2+ Na+ K+ can be be regarded as metabolites i.e. intermediates or ...
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1answer
51 views

How do you express and detect GLP-1 receptors?

I am currently working with a peptide which is an analogue for glp-1, but during invitro studies am not able to detect for the presence of GLP1- receptors. The cell line used is Min-6. How do I detect ...
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2answers
215 views

Do humans have a “dominant” neurotransmitter system/sensitivity within their brain?

I've recently heard a podcast, in which Dr. Helen Fisher suggests that there are "4 broad personality types", and each one is associated with a particular neurotransmitter: The corresponding ...
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176 views

How do duplicate brain regions (ex: left/right amygdaloid body) operate together?

I frequently hear talk about parts of the brain like "Amygdala" or "Hypothalamus", so I looked them up in an app called "essential anatomy". What I see is that there's mirror symmetry, and most of ...
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1answer
251 views

What is meant by “neurotransmitters flooding the brain”?

I frequently hear expressions like "Dopamine flooding the brain" or "X neurotransmitter flooding the brain" used to communicate with general audiences. For example: "Following [orgasm]? oxytocin ...
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1answer
104 views

Enlargement of thyroid gland

Why does thyroid gland enlarge both in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism? Hypothyroid goitre is due to lack of iodine in diet and hyperthyroid goitre (Exopthalmic goitre, Grave's disease) is due to ...
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1answer
134 views

Counterintuitive action of Vitamin D?

Vitamin D acts in a way which to me is counterintuitive. It functionally supplemets Parathormone. It in the intestinal tract steps up calcium absorption by altering nuclear gene expression and also ...
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121 views

Neuroendocrinal mechanism of parturition

My book reads, "The fetus signals that it is mature by secreting certain hormones that diffuse across the placenta into mother's blood and cause the secretion of oxytocin from her posterior ...