The area of physiology dealing with the production and effects of hormones.

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Can human be emotionless?

Is it possible that a person can't produce, like, dopamine, serotonin, and other emotion hormones? Or, a part of the brain can't function to make one feel something?
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Role of the Hypothalmus in the control of Blood Sugar

In homeostatic regulation of blood glucose, the receptor and effector is the Pancreas, but how does the control centre — the Hypothalamus — connect and link into this process?
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How are constitutive enzymes regulated?

I found that inducible enzymes can be regulated by many ways, but I cannot find how constitutive enzymes are regulated...
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75 views

What was the precursor of testosterone? [closed]

Testosterone evolved about 500 million years ago (says 8fact.com). What was the precursor of testosterone (if any)? If possible, what caused the 'precursor' to evolve?
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How is oxytocin produced?

Is oxytocin (or other peptide hormones) produced from a gene through translation, or is it made some other way?
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After hysterectomy does FSH secretion stop?

This question came in an exam, and my reference book says yes, it does. But it hasn't explained why. If the ovaries are also removed, then the menstrual cycle should stop. In absence of hormones ...
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33 views

Thyroid hormone metabolism and excretion

My understanding is that hormones generated by the thyroid gland, including, for example, T4, are excreted and recirculated in the body through the digestive tract. The reason for thinking this is ...
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What is the effect of TSH on the calcitonin?

I know that TSH is released from the pituitary gland and it motivates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine, and calcitonin is released when the calcium level is high in the blood, but is calcitonin ...
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Plant symbiosis, alternative regulation pathways to AON and miRNA399?

I am currently studying systemic repression of both arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes. I know of the AON pathway (which works through CLE and NARK). I also know of ...
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26 views

Are there biological safeguards to compensate for male primate infertility?

I'm trying to understand human sexual selection, and the following question has been on my mind for some time. I don't know the exact terminology to do a quality scholarly search on the subject. Are ...
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54 views

Freestyle Libre's Glucose's Specificity and Accuracy?

I am studying the Continuous Glucose Monitoring devices i.e. glucose sensors with continuous monitoring. Here one good presentation about the topic. They are considering interstitial fluid in their ...
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140 views

What will happen when humans are injected with plant growth hormones

Will plant growth hormones (PGHs), (let us consider auxins for example) poison our body or not? I do realise that when you eat a shoot, auxins get digested and are less likely to be poisonous but when ...
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120 views

Does TSH and Growth hormone have any role in menstruation?

Actually, I came across this on a mcq (multiple choice question) exam: Name the hormone which has no role in menstruation: A. LH B. FSH C. GH D. TSH (only 1 correct option) Both FSH and LH have ...
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Hormones of a 5 year old girl [closed]

What kind of hormonal changes do 5 year old girls experience? Also how can they change the behavior?
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Glycoprotein hormones metabolism

Why do the carbohydrate groups in glycoprotein hormones decrease the rate of metabolism? And increase the half-life?
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81 views

Difference between LH and ICSH

Are Luteinizing hormone and Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone(ICSH) the same?
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Can a hormone be absorbed into the body digestively?

Obviously, to act most hormones must be present in the bloodstream. What happens if a hormone or hormone-containing food is consumed normally? Is there any way for the hormone to reach the bloodstream?...
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What do the cholinergic system and protein kinase A pathways have to do with inflammation?

In the middle of a comprehensive review of all experimental research to date related to my graduation topic, I have run into a little bump in terms of how these pathways affect inflammation, and how ...
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248 views

Could a trans-female person ever become pregnant?

I was told that a transgender person, which I will define as anyone assigned male or female at birth that identifies opposite to that assignment, could never become pregnant conceptually, due to the ...
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61 views

Are there testosterone receptors in female mammary tissue?

Does female mammary tissue have receptors for testosterone hormones? Do male hormones influence female mammary glands, as female hormones influenced the male mammary tissue, such as in gynecomastia?
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Does physical exercise of a specific part affect muscles in the other parts of the body?

There is a theory among bodybuilders, that is, if you train big muscle groups (e.g. legs, chest), it will increase the overall growth of muscles all over the body; the trained muscle will release ...
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How may the age of a child be estimated when required to do so, in video-graphic evidence?

How may it be possible to roughly conclude that a subject in a select piece of video-graphic evidence presented, is in fact a child, i.e. without the subject being, physically examined? Is it ...
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58 views

How to measure GnRH in menstrual cycle?

I am interested in pulse frequencies of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) in the menstrual cycle (MC) i.e. 28 +/- 7 days. I would like to study its pulsatile nature i.e. within one MC, not same ...
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Where exactly is 'Colloid' with regards to synthesis of thyroid hormones?

I've researched colloid and it seems to be a substance of microfibres and thin films in which thyroid hormones may be synthesised, but I was wondering where this exactly is... I think it could be in ...
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84 views

Corpus luteum during the luteal phase and gonadotropins

Does the corpus luteum operate independently of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis? I know that hCG sustains the corpus luteum in the absence of FSH and LH, but in an ovarian cycle where there ...
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How can hyperthyroidism induce osteoporosis?

It says in my physiology notes that hyperthyroidism can cause osteoporosis. I've been trying to figure out how this could be possible for a little more than an hour now. Every article that I look at ...
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How does the pancreatic beta-cell know how much insulin to secrete in response to glucose?

How do $\ce\beta$-cells know how much glucose is in the blood? I know that when glucose enters a beta cell it triggers the cell to produce insulin. $\ce\beta$-cells trap glucose by converting it into ...
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177 views

Target cells of adrenaline?

I have been thinking about how adrenaline increases blood sugar levels, but have not been able to find an answer to the target cells. Does it affect the hepatocytes and muscle cells, like glycogen? ...
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Nail polish toxicity studies?

Are there any well-founded studies that authoritatively demonstrate negative effects from the use of nail polish, particularly in children? I've been brought into the fray of a couple of folks who ...
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If so many different hormones/molecules work by activating adenylyl cyclase, how do they have different effects?

It seems that many hormones and molecules work by activating adenylyl cyclase to convert $\text{ATP}$ to $\text{cAMP}$, such as adrenaline and glucagon. Both of these seem to bind to $\text G$ protein ...
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Effects of HRT on transgender(M to F) physiology and athleticism.

I often heard of athletes in the Olympics who would be accussed of having an advantage because they were intersexed. Now I know transgenderism and being intersexed are not the same thing, but they ...
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How is adrenaline (also known as “epinephrine”) a ligand?

I keep reading that adrenaline is a ligand, however, from what I understand a ligand is a molecule or ion which donates a pair of electrons to a central transition metal ion in a complex. If this is ...
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66 views

Difference between the inactivation of neurotransmitters and hormones

Neurotransmitters must be somehow removed from the synapse once they’ve produced a post-synaptic potential, whether it be through enzymatic breakdown, diffusion, reuptake or another mechanism. However,...
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200 views

Why would glucocorticoids promote glycogenesis and not glycogenolysis?

I read in a textbook that glucocorticoids can stimulate the synthesis of glycogen. I do not understand this at all—shouldn’t glucocorticoids try to increase the blood level of glucose? Why would they ...
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Why would growth hormone (somatotropin) cause both lipid AND glucose release?

GH increases lipolysis (lipid breakdown) and the release of fatty acids from adipocytes into the blood. Fatty acids then can be used as energy sources to drive chemical reactions, including ...
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Proteases in the blood

I’m reading on hormones and the book talks about how peptide or amine hormones are easily broken down by proteases present in the blood plasma. This has led me to question the interactions between ...
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How are steroid hormones secreted? [closed]

Peptide hormones for example tend to be secreted by Ca2+ mediated exocytosis following depolarisation and are secreted in vesicles. How are steroid hormones secreted and what stimulates their ...
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Why does depolarisation by high intracellular K+ trigger calcium channels opening?

I have learnt that in pancreatic beta cells, glucose being metabolised in the cell causes a high ATP level, which triggers ATP-dependent potassium channels to close. This means that potassium can't ...
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Is there a blood panel lab test that measures all the hormone-producing glands?

I understand that there are gland-specific hormone tests, such as: Secretin: for the pancreas; and Prolactin/ACTH: for the pituitary; and PTH: for the payathyroid, etc. However, are there any "...
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Does exercise really reduce stress in the biological meaning?

It is a very widespread claim, that movement in general helps body to get out stress hormones. It is used as a warning for long sitting at the computer and I also heard it as a pro-vegan argument (We ...
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What are the differences between how glucagon and cortisol work to increase blood sugar?

As I understand, both cortisol and glucagon cause an increase in blood sugar concentrations. However I don't understand how they work differently or why they work separately. I would be very grateful ...
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Artificial Adrenalin

I was watching Sherlock Holmes - A Game of Shadows yesterday. I saw that he had developed a serum that causes a person to react like he has been injected with adrenalin. Watsons's dog fainted, I ...
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If a human is stranded with beer but no water, should they drink it? [duplicate]

TL;DR: At what percent (if any) will alcohol dehydrate you more/faster than drinking nothing? Let's contrive a situation for dramatic effect... A human goes out on a boat for a nice sail in the sea. ...
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Root etiology of non-pituitary low T4 and low TSH

Please note: I'd like to preface this question by stating that this is neither homework nor me seeking medical advice. I am simply trying to understand the biological, physiological root etiology ...
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288 views

What is the antagonist of epinephrine?

Norepinephrine and epinephrine have similar stimulant properties on the nervous system and the body. I was wondering which hormone is the antagonist of epinephrine?
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How do signal transduction pathways utilize transcription factors to express a specific gene?

I have an inquiry regarding the regulation of genes via extracellular signaling. To my knowledge, in autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine cellular communication, large protein ligands that cannot ...
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What's the feedback regulation of Thyroid diseases and body temperature?

While going through the feedback regulation, the control of blood glucose level by insulin and glucagon is quite discussed in multiple materials including the textbook. I also understand the basic ...
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What is basis of multifunctionality of “master glands” in the endocrine system?

I have just started reading about the endocrine system and I am having some difficulty understanding the basis of distribution of glands and associated hormones. I am using multifuntionality to ...
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Why does the face turn pale in dangerous situations?

I know what the effects are of a dangerous situation on the brain, i.e., an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which eventually results in an increased heart rate and elevated ...
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How nerves interact with other cells? [closed]

I read in a book by Mick O'Hare, that injuries inflicted by electric current are caused by tension of your muscles. Is that explainable only with physics or nerves really use electrical signal as ...