The area of physiology dealing with the production and effects of hormones.

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Do women have testosterone?

In a documentary on fitness I saw it was stated that women can't get big like men because of their low concentration of testosterone. If it is true that women have testosterone, where is it made? Why ...
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31 views

Why is Psoriasis treated with Cortisone, when stress (which releases Cortisol) is known to aggravate the condition?

It is well known that stress isn't good for psoriasis , yet why do we treat the illness with Cortisone, a compound very similar to cortisol (and "has a similar name, genesis, and function", according ...
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20 views

Hormones and body mass

I was wondering how some animals (bulls, elephants etc.) become so large by only eating grass or plant based material and why some humans can build large amounts of muscle and mass without a proper ...
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1answer
34 views

What is the physiological difference between cortisone and cortisol?

There is only hydrogen bond different. Cortisol is synthesized by our body, while cortisone is given to the patient. Why you cannot give cortisol directly to the patient? I think the reason is ...
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1answer
98 views

Counterintuitive action of Vitamin D?

Vitamin D acts in a way which to me is counterintuitive. It functionally supplemets Parathormone. It in the intestinal tract steps up calcium absorption by altering nuclear gene expression and also ...
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11 views

How much Melatonin does the Human Body release in the course of a Night?

I have found multiple sources giving slightly different indications as to the peak Melatonin production in humans. It appears that children between ages 5 and 10 may achieve peak Melatonin/blood ...
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1answer
41 views

Are there other methods besides surgery and hormonal treatments to help undescended testicles? [closed]

I've been doing some reading on undescended testicles and common treatments. It looks like the most common treatment for a baby is to give it time to see if the testicles drop on their own. If not, ...
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1answer
40 views

What happens to human dopaminergic reward system once a teenager becomes adult?

I've recently heard a podcast which explained teenage impulsivity and novelty seeking in part by "Lowering the baseline dopamine activity in the reward system" "Increase in dopaminergic reward in ...
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1answer
39 views

How do you express and detect GLP-1 receptors?

I am currently working with a peptide which is an analogue for glp-1, but during invitro studies am not able to detect for the presence of GLP1- receptors. The cell line used is Min-6. How do I detect ...
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2answers
104 views

Effect of steroid hormone on specific cells?

As steroid hormones can pass through the plasma membrane by simple diffusion because they are lipid derived hormones, it means that they are capable of passing through every cell of our body, BUT why ...
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2answers
196 views

Do women experience more bonding hormones than men after sex?

Does Oxytocin (or any other bonding hormone) increase more so for women than for men after sex? Someone told me that it increases 4-fold for men and 12-fold for women (unconfirmed). Is there any ...
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1answer
591 views

What is the female equivalent of the morning erection that some men experience?

There was question about what causes "morning wood." It was answered that the erection in the morning is caused by decline of norepinephrine during REM sleep. Which in part allows to prevent ...
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1answer
114 views

Schedules of mating for men

It’s simple deductive logic to follow that for a species to survive it must provide it’s offspring with the best possible conditions to ensure it’s survival – either that or to reproduce in such ...
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1answer
75 views

Enlargement of thyroid gland

Why does thyroid gland enlarge both in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism? Hypothyroid goitre is due to lack of iodine in diet and hyperthyroid goitre (Exopthalmic goitre, Grave's disease) is due to ...
3
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1answer
340 views

Do hormones make men think of sex?

I remember hearing a saying that goes like "men think of sex every 7 minutes (or seconds?)". I take this saying to mean that men have sex related thoughts more often than women. I'm interested if ...
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1answer
27 views

How are cyclic hormones characterized?

I have a question regarding the description of a subset of peptide hormones, called cyclic hormones. Two examples of cyclic hormones would be somatostatin and melanin-concentrating hormones. I know ...
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2answers
1k views

Which hormones can cross the blood brain barrier?

Can hormones such as testosterone, aldosterone and estrogen cross the blood brain barrier? I looked on Wikipedia and there no mention of it in the testosterone article. Through Googling around I also ...
3
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1answer
46 views

Is there a hormone combination that makes humans grumpy?

Imagine a typical situation that is likely to give rise to a bad temper within an individual: a person is awoken very early in the morning by a sound of a lawn being mowed next door. Unlike expected ...
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2answers
276 views

Can parts of a human brain be asleep independently of each other, or vary in the times required for them to fall asleep?

I know that some birds and marine animals can continue complicated activity (swimming, flying?) while one hemisphere of their brain is asleep. I'm interested if human brain has some parts of it that ...
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1answer
97 views

Which hormones/factors affect Calcium absorption in the small intestine and its regulation?

I think the question is very broad and cannot find precise mechanisms. I am not sure about the precise mechanisms of the regulation. I think they are at least Vitamin D, diffusion and specific ...
6
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1answer
116 views

What is meant by “neurotransmitters flooding the brain”?

I frequently hear expressions like "Dopamine flooding the brain" or "X neurotransmitter flooding the brain" used to communicate with general audiences. For example: "Following [orgasm]? oxytocin ...
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1answer
12 views

Function and process of TCTE-1 receptor

I was wondering if anybody knew of the function and process of the TCTE-1 receptor during the binding of a sperm with an egg. The only think I know of TCTE-1 is that it is a species-specific receptor. ...
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1answer
24 views

Significance of prostaglandins in semen?

I am trying to figure out how prostaglandins in the semen relate to the female reproductive tract. More specifically, How does prostaglandins in semen help the female reproductive tract increase the ...
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37 views

Which chemical and hormonal effects on heart are by metabolites?

I am thinking which hormonal and chemical effects from: catecholamines thyroxin corticosteroids sex hormones prostaglandins Ca2+ Na+ K+ can be be regarded as metabolites i.e. intermediates or ...
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2answers
102 views

Do humans have a “dominant” neurotransmitter system/sensitivity within their brain?

I've recently heard a podcast, in which Dr. Helen Fisher suggests that there are "4 broad personality types", and each one is associated with a particular neurotransmitter: The corresponding ...
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0answers
59 views

How do duplicate brain regions (ex: left/right amygdaloid body) operate together?

I frequently hear talk about parts of the brain like "Amygdala" or "Hypothalamus", so I looked them up in an app called "essential anatomy". What I see is that there's mirror symmetry, and most of ...
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84 views

Neuroendocrinal mechanism of parturition

My book reads, "The fetus signals that it is mature by secreting certain hormones that diffuse across the placenta into mother's blood and cause the secretion of oxytocin from her posterior ...
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1answer
44 views

estradiol hormone role

Increasing estradiol (E2) hormone from ovarian follicles prior to ovulation has been hypothesized to play a critical role for induction of pheromones. These pheromones render females sexually ...
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73 views

Sodium levels and blood pressure

Why does low $\ce{Na+}$ levels cause hypotension (low blood pressure). Alternatively, why does excessive intake of $\ce{Na+}$ cause hypertension or high blood pressure? From what I ...
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1answer
45 views

Growth Hormone and diabetes

Growth hormone and insulin like growth factors are diabetogenic, so I assume that people with high growth hormone (say due to pituitary tumor) may be at high risk for diabetes. Has any correlation ...
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86 views

Learning first-year biology + anatomy via documentary? [closed]

Probably going to take first-year biology in ~4 months; so was thinking to go through MIT's 7.00x on EdX… However seeing at how popular this topic is, I was thinking there might be a fun documentary ...
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1answer
51 views

Euthyrodism and goitre

I read in Tortora and Derrickson that goitre is associated with euthyrodism. How is that possible?
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1answer
18 views

Giving diuretics to insipidus patient

I read in Tortora and Derrickson that giving diuretics to diabetes insipidus patients may in fact alleviate the symptoms of the disease. How is this possible?
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166 views

What are the tissues affected by thyroid hormone called?

I found this question and I wonder if it is asking some general name where both T3 and T4 have an effect. I cannot find any such single name. Is there any single name of tissues that are affected ...
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126 views

Abnormal Prolactin Level [closed]

I want to know what makes the balance of the Prolactin abnormal. Is that related to the presence of a nodule near the pituitary?
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842 views

Renin - enzyme or hormone?

Wikipedia says : The kidneys secrete a variety of hormones, including erythropoietin, and the enzyme renin. Can a substance be both an enzyme and a hormone ? Why is renin both an enzyme and a ...
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2answers
242 views

What mechanism suppresses melatonin release in humans?

I'm looking at melanopsin, a photo pigment in the human eye. One of its actions is to trigger suprachiasmatic nuclei SCN to suppress melatonin release. I'm interested in learning what is the exact ...
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1answer
99 views

What light intensity determines the start/end of a photoperiod in humans?

I'm reading this article, which discusses the influence of Long Photoperiod (LP) and Short Photoperiod (SP) on melatonin production: HIOMT drives the photoperiodic changes in the amplitude of the ...
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1answer
869 views

Are there more/less favourable phases of menstrual cycle to donate blood?

I was wondering whether it makes a difference when during the menstrual cycle a female is donating blood in terms of: Blood quality (iron or hormones levels) Her health/safety I am aware that ...
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1answer
45 views

circulating microRNAs are functional?

In plasma and other body fluids, miRNAs can be found. They not only originate from dying cells but also from active secretion and are usually 'packed' into vesicles/lipo-proteic structures (i.e. ...
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1answer
91 views

Steroid Hormone Signalling

Can the lipid-soluble hormones (like steroid hormones) go inside every cell, as their particular receptors are located in the cytoplasm or nucleus of the target cells? Is there anything special on the ...
5
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1answer
280 views

What causes humans to be sleepy?

Is there a hormone or group of hormones that regulates when we feel sleepy late at night, or in the morning? Or is sleepiness caused by some other non-hormonal mechanism? (e.g. pure psychological, ...
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1answer
60 views

Diabetes-diabetes comorbidity

Is it possible to have both type-1 (insulin-dependent) and type-2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus? That is, to have both insulin resistance and zero (or negligible) insulin production? If ...
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1answer
291 views

Are there records of monozygotic twins in which one experiences androgen insensitivity syndrome

I have given my high school biology students the thought experiment of "What would happen if a researcher induced twinning of a female zygote and then replaced one of the X Chromosomes with a copy of ...
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1answer
57 views

Why is epinephrine not part of the somatic nervous system?

I learned that the adrenal medulla releases epinephrine, which is a vasodilator of the vessels that lead to the skeletal muscle. I also learned that somatic nervous system only uses Achetycholine as ...
7
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1answer
194 views

Why are some menstrual cycles irregular?

A friend of mine asked me this today, and I didn't know. I remember studying the menstrual cycle a few years ago, but I can't remember the details (other than it was very hormone-related), and so I ...
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35 views

Hippocampal regulation of hypothalamus

What is the difference between CA1-CA4 hippocampal subfields and dentate gyrus (DG) in negative regulation of hypothalamus? I`ve found only evidence that GR expression is more in CA1-2 and DG, while ...
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80 views

What is the mechanism by which Melatonin increases dream vividness and intensity in humans?

I'm looking at the wikipedia article on Melatonin and noticed that it mentions vivid dreaming caused by melatonin. I have the "Melatonin and the Biological clock" pamphlet referenced in the article, ...
7
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1answer
98 views

Which brain regions are D1 dopamine receptors expressed, and which brain regions are D2 dopamine receptors expressed?

This is a follow-up question to If D1 receptors stimulate adenylate cyclase (through GPCRs) and D2 receptors inhibit it, then why do mutations in both have similar effects?. As a further question - ...
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1answer
116 views

Is there a comprehensive list of human circadian-like processes, hormones or gene expressions?

I'm reading this article onblood sugar and circadian rhythms and the following question popped into my head: a lot of articles mention various diurnal or circadian rhythmicity of biological processes. ...