The area of physiology dealing with the production and effects of hormones.

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Hormones of a 5 year old girl [on hold]

What kind of hormonal changes do 5 year old girls experience? Also how can they change the behavior?
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Glycoprotein hormones metabolism

Why do the carbohydrate groups in glycoprotein hormones decrease the rate of metabolism? And increase the half-life?
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57 views

Is there a blood panel lab test that measures all the hormone-producing glands?

I understand that there are gland-specific hormone tests, such as: Secretin: for the pancreas; and Prolactin/ACTH: for the pituitary; and PTH: for the payathyroid, etc. However, are there any ...
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Difference between LH and ICSH

Are Luteinizing hormone and Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone(ICSH) the same?
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Why does the face turn pale in dangerous situations?

I know what the effects are of a dangerous situation on the brain, i.e., an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis which eventually results in an increased heart rate and elevated ...
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Corpus luteum during the luteal phase and gonadotropins

Does the corpus luteum operate independently of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis? I know that hCG sustains the corpus luteum in the absence of FSH and LH, but in an ovarian cycle where there ...
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Can we artificially increase human growth using HGH?

Robert Pershing Wadlow was a man who lived in the first half of the twentieth century. He had hyperplasia of his pituitary gland, which caused him over-produce human growth hormone (HGH), and as a ...
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Can a hormone be absorbed into the body digestively?

Obviously, to act most hormones must be present in the bloodstream. What happens if a hormone or hormone-containing food is consumed normally? Is there any way for the hormone to reach the ...
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What do the cholinergic system and protein kinase A pathways have to do with inflammation?

In the middle of a comprehensive review of all experimental research to date related to my graduation topic, I have run into a little bump in terms of how these pathways affect inflammation, and how ...
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Are there testosterone receptors in female mammary tissue?

Does female mammary tissue have receptors for testosterone hormones? Do male hormones influence female mammary glands, as female hormones influenced the male mammary tissue, such as in gynecomastia? ...
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164 views

Could a trans-female person ever become pregnant?

I was told that a transgender person, which I will define as anyone assigned male or female at birth that identifies opposite to that assignment, could never become pregnant conceptually, due to the ...
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Does physical exercise of a specific part affect muscles in the other parts of the body?

There is a theory among bodybuilders, that is, if you train big muscle groups (e.g. legs, chest), it will increase the overall growth of muscles all over the body; the trained muscle will release ...
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398 views

Why would lactate be high in diabetics?

Why are lactate level high in diabetes? For example, type II diabetes are resistant to insulin. If those patients are insulin resistant their gluconeogenesis should be working at a high rate and, ...
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Why do men have a higher hematocrit (red blood cell count) than women?

The hematocrit, also known as packed cell volume (PCV) or erythrocyte volume fraction (EVF), is the volume percentage (%) of red blood cells in blood. It is normally 45% for men and 40% for women. ...
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277 views

What are the differences between how glucagon and cortisol work to increase blood sugar?

As I understand, both cortisol and glucagon cause an increase in blood sugar concentrations. However I don't understand how they work differently or why they work separately. I would be very grateful ...
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58 views

Over what range do Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) levels tend to fluctuate over the course of a day?

I understand that the majority of doctors consider the TSH test "the gold standard" for measuring thyroid function (examples stating that literally are here and here). The reference range for what is ...
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32 views

Where exactly is 'Colloid' with regards to synthesis of thyroid hormones?

I've researched colloid and it seems to be a substance of microfibres and thin films in which thyroid hormones may be synthesised, but I was wondering where this exactly is... I think it could be in ...
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What is the female equivalent of the morning erection that some men experience?

There was question about what causes "morning wood." It was answered that the erection in the morning is caused by decline of norepinephrine during REM sleep. Which in part allows to prevent ...
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170 views

Can androgen-insensitive genetic-males get pregnant?

According to the linked report, people with androgen insensitivity syndrome appear as male, but have both feminine and masculine outer genitalia. However, I was not able to find out whether their ...
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188 views

How may the age of a child be estimated when required to do so, in video-graphic evidence?

How may it be possible to roughly conclude that a subject in a select piece of video-graphic evidence presented, is in fact a child, i.e. without the subject being, physically examined? Is it ...
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How to measure GnRH in menstrual cycle?

I am interested in pulse frequencies of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) in the menstrual cycle (MC) i.e. 28 +/- 7 days. I would like to study its pulsatile nature i.e. within one MC, not same ...
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59 views

How can hyperthyroidism induce osteoporosis?

It says in my physiology notes that hyperthyroidism can cause osteoporosis. I've been trying to figure out how this could be possible for a little more than an hour now. Every article that I look at ...
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If so many different hormones/molecules work by activating adenylyl cyclase, how do they have different effects?

It seems that many hormones and molecules work by activating adenylyl cyclase to convert $\text{ATP}$ to $\text{cAMP}$, such as adrenaline and glucagon. Both of these seem to bind to $\text G$ protein ...
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How does the pancreatic beta-cell know how much insulin to secrete in response to glucose?

How do $\ce\beta$-cells know how much glucose is in the blood? I know that when glucose enters a beta cell it triggers the cell to produce insulin. $\ce\beta$-cells trap glucose by converting it into ...
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Target cells of adrenaline?

I have been thinking about how adrenaline increases blood sugar levels, but have not been able to find an answer to the target cells. Does it affect the hepatocytes and muscle cells, like glycogen? ...
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Nail polish toxicity studies?

Are there any well-founded studies that authoritatively demonstrate negative effects from the use of nail polish, particularly in children? I've been brought into the fray of a couple of folks who ...
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Effects of HRT on transgender(M to F) physiology and athleticism.

I often heard of athletes in the Olympics who would be accussed of having an advantage because they were intersexed. Now I know transgenderism and being intersexed are not the same thing, but they ...
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391 views

When glucose production is low, the brain begins using ketoacids as energy… how does that work?

Can someone very generally describe how the brain consumes ketoacids/ketone bodies when blood glucose has been completely depleted?
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Why would growth hormone (somatotropin) cause both lipid AND glucose release?

GH increases lipolysis (lipid breakdown) and the release of fatty acids from adipocytes into the blood. Fatty acids then can be used as energy sources to drive chemical reactions, including ...
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59 views

Why would glucocorticoids promote glycogenesis and not glycogenolysis?

I read in a textbook that glucocorticoids can stimulate the synthesis of glycogen. I do not understand this at all—shouldn’t glucocorticoids try to increase the blood level of glucose? Why would they ...
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Why does depolarisation by high intracellular K+ trigger calcium channels opening?

I have learnt that in pancreatic beta cells, glucose being metabolised in the cell causes a high ATP level, which triggers ATP-dependent potassium channels to close. This means that potassium can't ...
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Difference between the inactivation of neurotransmitters and hormones

Neurotransmitters must be somehow removed from the synapse once they’ve produced a post-synaptic potential, whether it be through enzymatic breakdown, diffusion, reuptake or another mechanism. ...
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84 views

How is adrenaline a ligand?

I keep reading that adrenaline is a ligand, however from what I understand a ligand is a molecule or ion which donates a pair of electrons to a central transition metal ion in a complex. How then is ...
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What is the mIU unit as used in hCG hormone levels?

My girlfriend is in her very early pregnancy, and has provided several blood samples by now where the doctors measure her hCG levels. The hCG hormone level is measure in a unit called ...
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Proteases in the blood

I’m reading on hormones and the book talks about how peptide or amine hormones are easily broken down by proteases present in the blood plasma. This has led me to question the interactions between ...
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How are steroid hormones secreted? [closed]

Peptide hormones for example tend to be secreted by Ca2+ mediated exocytosis following depolarisation and are secreted in vesicles. How are steroid hormones secreted and what stimulates their ...
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Does exercise really reduce stress in the biological meaning?

It is a very widespread claim, that movement in general helps body to get out stress hormones. It is used as a warning for long sitting at the computer and I also heard it as a pro-vegan argument (We ...
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Artificial Adrenalin

I was watching Sherlock Holmes - A Game of Shadows yesterday. I saw that he had developed a serum that causes a person to react like he has been injected with adrenalin. Watsons's dog fainted, I ...
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If a human is stranded with beer but no water, should they drink it? [duplicate]

TL;DR: At what percent (if any) will alcohol dehydrate you more/faster than drinking nothing? Let's contrive a situation for dramatic effect... A human goes out on a boat for a nice sail in the sea. ...
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Root etiology of non-pituitary low T4 and low TSH

Please note: I'd like to preface this question by stating that this is neither homework nor me seeking medical advice. I am simply trying to understand the biological, physiological root etiology ...
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112 views

What is the antagonist of epinephrine?

Norepinephrine and epinephrine have similar stimulant properties on the nervous system and the body. I was wondering which hormone is the antagonist of epinephrine?
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How do signal transduction pathways utilize transcription factors to express a specific gene?

I have an inquiry regarding the regulation of genes via extracellular signaling. To my knowledge, in autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine cellular communication, large protein ligands that cannot ...
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Which hormones can cross the blood brain barrier?

Can hormones such as testosterone, aldosterone and estrogen cross the blood brain barrier? I looked on Wikipedia and there no mention of it in the testosterone article. Through Googling around I also ...
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165 views

Is there a hormone combination that makes humans grumpy?

Imagine a typical situation that is likely to give rise to a bad temper within an individual: a person is awoken very early in the morning by a sound of a lawn being mowed next door. Unlike expected ...
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995 views

Is there a relationship between Melatonin, Norepinephrine and depression in humans?

I'm reading a booklet on melatonin published in 1996, titled "Melatonin and the Biological Clock". This particular paragraph caught my attention and I would like to better understand what it means: ...
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What's the feedback regulation of Thyroid diseases and body temperature?

While going through the feedback regulation, the control of blood glucose level by insulin and glucagon is quite discussed in multiple materials including the textbook. I also understand the basic ...
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How do female hormones cause blood to clot?

On most female-hormone supplements you get a warning that is something like this: The use of a combination hormonal contraceptives (CHC), like NuvaRing, is associated with increased risks of ...
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69 views

Phytoestrogens from hops in beer and estrogenic activity in humans

There is a saying that phytoestrogens from hops can cause breast growth (gynecomastia) in male beer drinkers. Are there any reliable studies linking beer consumption to increased estrogenic activity? ...
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What is basis of multifunctionality of “master glands” in the endocrine system?

I have just started reading about the endocrine system and I am having some difficulty understanding the basis of distribution of glands and associated hormones. I am using multifuntionality to ...