Changes in the heritable attributes of populations of organisms over time. Major mechanisms include drift, natural selection, mutation, and gene flow (migration).

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10
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2answers
735 views

Are fishes evolving?

As far as I know, Fishing has been one of the important occupation since early ages, and infinite number of fishes have already been captured. As the time passes, they must've developed some sort of ...
4
votes
1answer
84 views

What traits make mountain goats so well adapted to mountain living?

I've never really understood how mountain goats manage to survive so well in mountainous regions. I've seen them scale almost sheer cliff faces with apparent ease, and can almost sprint vertically ...
6
votes
1answer
70 views

Is addiction adaptive?

Addiction and addictive traits seem common amongst animals. A pubmed query shows it's been studied in everything from humans to worms. My personal favorite of these is: "Individual Consistency of ...
1
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2answers
56 views

What are the known energy capturing processes in biological systems?

I am not a biologist. I am aware that photosynthesis is the main process for capturing electromagnetic energy from the Sun. Also, I am aware that some bacteria can capture energy from boiling water ...
4
votes
1answer
52 views

Proof of the equivalence between two ways of defining ESS

Background Two common ways of defining what an Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS) are: First definition: Consider a population composed of populations playing two strategies, $\mathbf{p}$ and ...
-3
votes
1answer
55 views

Why are human immune systems comparatively weaker than other animal immune systems? [closed]

Humans get sick on such a regular basis and animals will hardly ever get sick. Animals are typically exposed to the same pathogens as humans, yet a dog won't have a cold or the flu twice a year, with ...
-1
votes
1answer
53 views

Difference between various evolutionary terms [closed]

Could someone kindly explain me the difference between Phylogeny, Phylogenetic Tree, Evolutionary Trees, Phylotype, Clusters, OTU (Open Taxonomic Units). Or if possible please do suggest me a ...
1
vote
0answers
23 views

Development and function of spindle cells

In his book How to Create a Mind author Ray Kurzweil makes some claims about spindle neurons that he provides no source for. Concretely he states that spindle cells: Involved in handling emotion ...
3
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1answer
192 views

Does modern theory of evolution include modification of physical environment?

Does any branch of modern evolution theories include aspects of evolving organisms modifying the physical environment? An example from the evolution of life could be early stage introduction of ...
4
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2answers
116 views

Are epigenetic changes involved in evolution?

Evolution leads to phenotypic changes through changes in DNA such as mutations. Mutations are transmitted to offspring. Cumulative mutational changes across many generations may cause evolution and ...
2
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1answer
42 views

What is the difference between the Modern Synthesis and the Extended Synthesis?

The NCBI talks about "Evolution beyond neo-Darwinism: a new conceptual framework." (source). What is the difference between the Modern Synthesis and the Extended Synthesis?
-3
votes
1answer
93 views

Are there different species of modern day humans? [duplicate]

I've been watching nature shows on Netflix (Wildest series) and different animals of the same "family" are actually different species. e.g. Asian elephants vs African elephants. Asian elephants are ...
1
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0answers
25 views

Resources for similarity between embryos

Is there a scientific paper/reputable image resource out there which I can use that the embryos of different organisms (vertebrata) are similar in their early developmental stages(without falling into ...
3
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0answers
33 views

Games with non-uniform interaction rates

Background: Many models in evolutionary game theory assume uniform interaction rates. For instance, consider the $2\times 2$ game: \begin{array}{l c c} & A & B \\ A & a & b \\ ...
3
votes
2answers
94 views

What does 'direction' mean in the statement “mutations are non-directional”?

I was reading the Mutation theory of De Vries; there I encountered this statement: Mutations are discontinuous, random & non-directional. This is in contrast to Darwinism where variations are ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

How does discontinuous distribution provide evidence for evolution?

One of the evidences for evolution is biogeographical evidence. In it, 'discontinuous distribution' is mostly cited as an evidence. For example, Alligators are found only in south-eastern US & ...
3
votes
1answer
104 views

Do the claims in this paper have any degree of validity?

The paper The waiting time problem in a model hominin population talks about a problem of waiting time, etc. Is the methodology of this numerical simulation, and the conclusion right or is it wrong? ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Replicator equation for mixed strategies?

The the replicator equation is usually defined for pure strategies. More specifically, the replicator eqn for $n$ strategies is given by: \begin{equation} \dot x_{i} = x_{i} \left( \sum_{j=1}^{n} ...
1
vote
3answers
64 views

Cancer a method for early Earth Evolution? [duplicate]

Something I have been wondering for a while is looking at cancer from an evolutionary standpoint. It's easy to conclude (from observations today) that cancer is something we would rather avoid. ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Why Can't the passage of acquired behavior be considered acquired inheritance?

While reading about a cross-fostering experiment conducted on Male California mice and Peromyscus californicus, I came across the fact that the behavior acquired by a generation of mice due to ...
-1
votes
2answers
68 views

Why both sexes of the species don't show equal level of Competition? [closed]

In most species, it is seen that either males or females have evolved to be aggressive towards approaching members of the same species of the same sex and maintaining strict territorial boundaries. ...
2
votes
0answers
53 views

Why did humans evolve the ability to feel such a high level of heat pain? [closed]

It's probably because our ancestors were frequently around 300°C metal which badly damages flesh in a fraction of a second because they made fires to cook. I don't see why that would cause natural ...
4
votes
0answers
34 views

How “old” is a specific snake venom?

This is a World Building question, but it's biology specific (I think). I'm looking for an approximate answer on how long, evolutionary, a specific venom has been roughly the same. Is it pretty much ...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

Does the modern synthesis theory of evolution deny that acquired characteristics can be inherited? [duplicate]

The following is an wikipedia article on Lamarckism. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamarckism According to Ernst Mayr, any Lamarckian theory involving the inheritance of acquired characters has ...
1
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1answer
47 views

Using evolution of bacteria against themselves

We know that mutations happen regularly in bacteria and also that one bacteria might get the mutation and become stronger than the others and thus survive, causing antibiotic resistance as well. Can ...
26
votes
7answers
9k views

How do we know that humans and chimpanzees evolved from a common ape ancestor? [closed]

Richard Dawkins in one of his videos says that Evolution is a fact and not just a theory. He goes on to say that man and chimpanzees both evolve from apes. Is this correct (Is evolution a fact and ...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

Do mammals and birds have a common warm-blooded ancestor?

Is it homogeneous or did they converge? Did we both evolve from warm-blooded reptiles that are extinct maybe?
2
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0answers
51 views

Front versus back in animal anatomy [closed]

Throughout various species, there seems to be a clear distinction between the front and the back. The musculature of the front, when engaged, closes or curls up the body, protecting it, while the ...
0
votes
2answers
53 views

When did the most recent common ancestor of all living domestic dogs live?

Wikipedia provides a very detailed page on the origins of the domestic dog, but this fact does not seem to be present there. Google searches for terms such as "most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of ...
0
votes
1answer
161 views

How does the modern synthesis theory explain the evolution of birds from dinosaurs? [closed]

The theory of evolution claims that birds evolved from dinosaurs only by mutation, genetic drift, migration and natural selection. However, it seems to me that wings were not selectively advantageous ...
7
votes
4answers
268 views

How does Darwinian Evolution work?

Let me explain... A friend and I read some articles, part of a Biology book, and watched a video on evolution. We then tried to explain what Evolution is to each other. My friend said that Natural ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Discrete vs Continuous Replicator Dynamics

The replicator eqn in the case of discrete non-overlapping generations and asexual reproduction is given by the discrete replicator eqn: $$x_i(t+1) = x_i (t)\frac{f_i(t)}{\bar f (t)}$$ where $x_i$ is ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

If oxygen is such a good energy source, why do plants release it?

Why do plants release excess oxygen, rather than consuming it entirely given it is an excellent energy source?
4
votes
2answers
155 views

Why do snakes not have eyelids?

Why is it that snakes do not have eyelids? Is it due to that fact that they are not as evolved as we humans and other organisms that have eye lids, or is there any other significance behind it if ...
5
votes
2answers
80 views

Evolution of spider webs?

Web making seems like a fairly complex behavior built from a pretty strong material. So how exactly did it evolve? Do we have any clues about what kind of features/behaviors preceded web making and ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

What, if anything, would prevent flying fishes evolving to be capable of extended flight? [closed]

This extraordinary video documents a flying fish gliding above the surface of the sea for nearly two minutes. Occasionally it uses its tail for added impetus. It is possible to imagine a fish gliding ...
1
vote
1answer
90 views

Is there an evolutionary advantage for coconut oils to be rich in saturated fats?

I know that coconut oil is composed of multiple saturated fatty acids, but is there a reason why this would have increased the fitness of the coconut plant?
1
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1answer
64 views

How to statistically test the predictability of evolution? [closed]

Can anyone recommend me an experimental study which tries to test the predictability of evolution? The closest works I found are the studies of fluctuation tests (f.e. classical study of Luria & ...
13
votes
2answers
225 views

Are some animals, like dogs and cats, color-blind and how do we know that?

I have heard that some animals, including dogs, cats and donkeys, are color-blind. They cannot recognize any color. Is that true? And how can humans verify that animals are color-blind, or not? During ...
0
votes
0answers
52 views

How can the number of chromosome change during evolution

I found an explanation here, which is basically saying that sometimes the centromeres are duplicated, breaking a chromosome into two halves. But how could this propagate? I don't think inbreeding is ...
4
votes
1answer
58 views

Which Darwin book (and today edition) is illustrated by his own drawings?

I am interested in buying Charles Darwin books and mostly drawings (nowadays editions, I am not a collector). Please, can you advise in which book and which edition I can find the most of his ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

What contribute to the variation of protein sequence across different species and how do they influence?

What contribute to the variation of protein sequence across different species (e.g. phenotype, environment, evolutionary pressure) and how do those factors contribute to the variation? I have tried ...
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Are there any biological obstacles prohibiting lighter-than-air organisms? [duplicate]

Why there are no organisms that use cavities filled with lighter-than air substances (e.g. hydrogen) to fly and remain in air? Given that there are a lot of fish and algae that use similar cavities ...
1
vote
2answers
67 views

Is this a simple Hardy-Weinberg problem?

Phenylketonuria is a severe developmental disability due to a rare autosomal recessive allele. Approximately 1 in every 10,000 newborns suffer from this disease. Calculate the frequency of the allele ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

Have there been any macro-evolution experiements?

I'd like to start first by saying that I don't believe in creationism at all, nor any non-Darwinian-evolution explanation of the diversity of life on Earth. The theory, the fossil record, and the ...
5
votes
2answers
68 views

Do dingos show wolf 'characteristics'?

I've read that Russians have been performing selective breeding on Red Foxes for about fifty years, aiming to make them tame. The wikipedia article says The experiment was initiated by scientists ...
29
votes
3answers
3k views

How could humans have interbred with Neanderthals if we're a different species?

To be clear, I'm not doubting that homo sapiens and homo neanderthalensis did interbreed: of that much I'm convinced. Within the past few years I've seen an upcropping of pop-sci articles discussing ...
3
votes
2answers
89 views

Why we have to damage our muscles to build them?

I know that new muscle cells are made when actin fibers are disrupted. My hypothesis is that muscle mass is limited, from birth, and that nutrients (protein) are only directed to grow muscle when ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Genome Sequencing [closed]

Is Genome sequencing used to determine the relationship between two species that are believed to have a common line of descent? How accurate is this method if so? Are there more accurate methods ...
1
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0answers
111 views

Why are hybrid offspring mostly sterile? [closed]

Hybrid infertility is a common trait in cross-species offspring. Most are sterile, as they do not produce viable gametes. Examples of this can include Ligers and Mules. Could modern advancement in ...