Changes in the heritable attributes of populations of organisms over time. The mechanisms of evolution are mutation, migration, drift, and selection.

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Ewens-Watterson Test of Neutrality

The Ewens-Watterson test is one of the first test of neutrality (of no selection). Later came tests such as Tajima's D or Fu, Li's G and many other. Question Can you please make a description of how ...
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Is Mutation Theory still “valid” for complex organisms?

I'm afraid like most people I suffer from having learned "A History of Evolution" in school, rather than cutting to the chase and learning the actual "up to date" version of the subject. (Imagine if ...
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How to incorporate intraspecific variation in discrete characters in comparative analyzes?

I'd like to run a multivariate analysis (Pavoine et al. 2011) that aims to disentagle the effect of environmental gradients on traits, considering its autocorrelation with phylogeny and space. It uses ...
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What is the evolutionary advantage of red-green color blindness?

Red-green colorblindness seems to make it harder for a hunter-gatherer to see whether a fruit is ripe and thus worth picking. Is there a reason why selection hasn't completely removed red-green ...
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Cyanobacterial photosynthetic oxygen yield

I am somehow not convinced that biotic factors are solely responsible for creating 21% of atmosphere (around 40 million moles of oxygen). There may be additional issues here. Since cyanobacteria ...
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Relationship between genetic diversity within and between species

Here is a quote from Wagner (2008) A second line of evidence [against neutralism] comes from the relationship between the mean number of polymorphic differences between alleles within a species, $\...
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Are there any pre-existing evolutionary explanations for the viscosity and abundance of canine mucus?

If there is, it's not something you find on search engines. To be honest, I first posed this question in a "Bad Ad-hoc Hypothesis" convention kind of context, but now I'm curious if there's any real ...
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What are the atmospheric requirements for large dinosaurs?

What are the atmospheric requirements for large dinosaurs? and are the atmospheric constituents for supporting large dinosaurs any different from the atmosphere today?
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Are there natural selection experiments that quantitatively agree with theoretical modeling? [closed]

Has anyone ever conducted an evolution experiment and quantitatively compared it to theory? For example, has anyone ever put bacteria in a million petri dishes filled with antibiotics and calculated ...
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Why does evolution not make our life longer?

Why does evolution not make life longer for humans or any other species? Wouldn't evolution favour a long life?
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Is salivation decrease during sleep beneficial?

Papers [1, 2, 3] tell that a salivation decrease is not only unpleasant, but harmful for dental health. What cause that decrease? What is the reason for it and do animals have it? I guess it's a ...
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Did the Great Oxygenation Event also cause a mass extinction?

Its usually assumed that the Great Oxidation Event around 2.3 bya caused a great extinction of anaerobic life on earth. But as I was reading Nick Lane's book, ...
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Why would lethal genes evolve?

I've been reading through 'The Selfish Gene' by Dawkins. At a few places in the book he states that incest is damaging because it would give a very high chance of lethal recessive genes becoming ...
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Biological species concept [duplicate]

I could not understand a portion of an article I was reading. It was about biological species concept and it said ' There is difficulty in the application of biological species concept in those ...
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144 views

Mutation-drift equilibrium and among loci variance in heterozygosity

At mutation-drift balance, the increased heterozygosity brought by new mutations is exactly equal to the loss of heterozygosity due to genetic drift. At equilibrium, the expected heterozygosity for a ...
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How does the introduction of clones would affect population genetics? [closed]

Since the ability to clone animals gives another way to preserve species, this could help for the breeding process. It has been noted that with the ability to clone animals, endangered species can ...
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151 views

Selection Pressure on Orca Whale Coloration

What is the proposed selection pressure that leads to the distinctive coloration of Orca whales? I can find nothing in the literature.
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What did cyanobacteria gain from photosynthesis?

As far as I understand, cyanobacteria began performing photosynthesis long before plant cells as we know them arrived on the scene. But cyanobacteria do not seem to use polysaccharides in the same way ...
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How can homosexuality evolve despite natural selection?

I would imagine that the answer to this question would be population control, especially since even if one sibling is homosexual this does not necessarily mean that the other siblings will be too.
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Examples of Vestigial Genes

I consider the existence of a broken GULO gene in humans to be the clearest evidence for human evolution - just what else is it doing there otherwise? Are there any other examples of vestigial genes ...
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Do bears generally have sesamoid bones in their fore and hind feet?

I can't seem to find any information specifically (that shows photographic evidence) of whether bears (of any kind) have sesamoid bones in their feet. And whenever I read information that says that ...
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Why females evolved to be physically weaker than males? [duplicate]

Why have male-female diverged in relationship to strength? What is the evolutionary advantage for this?
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Why are men stronger than women?

What are the evolutionary explanations for why women are physically weaker than men (on average), and is this difference adaptive? See figure one here. I suppose that something puts pressure on men ...
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Effective population size of a metapopulation structured on a grid

Scenario Consider a rectangular metapopulation consisting of $x \cdot y$ demes, where $x$ is the number of deme horizontally and $y$ is the number of demes vertically. The population size per deme is ...
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Effective population size of a continuously spread population

Is there any model to calculate (theoretical predictions) the effective population size of a continuously spread population? Imagine for example a population spread over an infinite 2D landscape. ...
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Components of the concept of Developmental Noise?

Developmental noise is a concept that correspond to the amount of possible phenotypic variance of a given genotype in a given environment. Intrinsic noise (aka Cellular noise) is a component of ...
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Randomness in living systems

The point of my question is not to talk about events that are uncontrolled by living organisms. My question is about controlled randomness, or I'd like to say adaptive random process. Process that are ...
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Why do many people seem to prefer unhealthy compared to healthy foods?

I don't have any concrete statistics on this but many of us seem to love the taste of food that is unhealthy for us. Over the centuries, wouldn't it have been a non negligible advantage to those who ...
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Are there evolutionary advantages for the bee sting to kill the bee?

The question title says it all: are there advantages for the sting of a bee to kill the bee? It seems to me getting rid of this would have only advantages, and might've been selected for if a mutation ...
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Which of these versions of allopatric speciation is correct? [closed]

I'm confused with the illustrations of allopatric speciation. Here are two diagrams- Which one of them is correct and why? According to wikipedia the second figure is correct but I'd like to know ...
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Does evolution head to some optimum? [closed]

Currently we have many species which are "good enough" for current environment, some species emerge, another die. So let's say that they could be close to some local optima. Does the evolution head to ...
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Would it be possible to eat things from another planet [closed]

Although at first glance my question is perhaps better suited for a space exploration or sci-fi forum I looked and felt this forum was more appropriate. What makes plants and animals edible and ...
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Can parents' learned traits be transmitted genetically?

I am wondering whether a behavioral trait (e.g. fear or stress experienced in the lifetime of the parent) can be transmitted genetically to its offspring? I understand that a behavioral tendency for ...
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Has anything evolved to prey on endoparasites?

Is there any organism which lives within a host but gains nutrition not from host cells/materials but by preying on the host's endoparasites? If not, what barriers might exist to the evolution of ...
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Why have parasites not evolved to be harmless?

I have yet to understand why so many viruses or bacteria haven't evolved to be harmless (specifically, I don't know of any harmless virus). I think it would be greatly beneficial for a virus to ...
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Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium generalized to add inbreeding (non-random mating)

Background Quoting from Gillespie's book The level of inbreeding is measured by the inbreeding coefficient, $F_I$, which is the probability that two alleles in an individual are identity by ...
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Is there any evolutionary advantage of selection of L-amino acid over D-amino acid?

After listening to a scientific talk, I had this question that why in the natural selection process, are the L-amino acids selected over the D- form. However, we still we produce D-amino acids; ...
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What are anagenesis and cladogenesis?

Are they two types of speciation? I have read wikipedia but can't figure out if they are really two types of speciation
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Key points of Wagner's theory of innovation

What are the key points of Andreas Wagner's "theory of innovation" from his book The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations? Specifically: What is new in his theory? What problems in evolutionary ...
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Population size and genetic drift - What are the evidences?

Wright-Fisher model From the Wright-Fisher model of genetic drift, the random sampling of allele from one generation to the next is taken from a binomial distribution with parameters $2N$ and $p$, ...
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Under what circumstances does Batesian mimicry evolve? [closed]

Batesian mimicry is a form of biological resemblance in which a noxious, or dangerous, organism (the model), equipped with a warning system such as conspicuous colouration, is mimicked by a harmless ...
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Why aren't we immune to the “cold” [duplicate]

As far as I know, people suffer from the cold since ever. Why didn't and don't we evolve to resist it?
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How is evolution possible in contemporary humans?

I would like to know if evolution is continuing to happen in modern humans, assuming things like existence of the nuclear family structure, fidelity to one partner, etc. It seems to me the answer ...
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Why is chlorophyll green? Isn't there a more energetically favorable color? [duplicate]

Chlorophyll being green means it absorbs light in the red and blue area of the spectrum. Isn't this the high and low energy light? Wouldn't plants get more energy if they absorbed light in the green ...
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Is the birds' decision to fly away congenital or learned behaviour?

I see two possibilities how could the birds know what to do every fall: The birds' migrations are driven entirely by the vertical memetics and today it is just a custom transferred from parents to ...
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Is there a difference between macroevolution and group selection?

I encountered two different attitudes towards macroevolution: The first one included long-term microevolution such as the evolution of Cetacea. The second one included only macroevolution in terms ...
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What's the difference between evolution fitness and reproductive success?

What's the difference biological fitness and reproductive success in the biological terminology?
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Why does evolution only involve heritable traits?

If natural selection favors a certain behavior that is learnt, then wouldn’t that behavior be found more often among a population (as more offspring will learn that behavior from their parents or ...
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Why haven't land animals evolved beyond urination?

It occurred to me (while urinating) that this would seem to be selected against because water is a scarce resource. Why are we constantly losing water we don't need to through urination? What is ...