Changes in the heritable attributes of populations of organisms over time. The mechanisms of evolution are mutation, migration, drift, and selection.

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Does cancer cells come from same process as evolution? [duplicate]

Here is how I understand it: DNA replication is not 100% perfect and error can happen, this error can be good(evolution) or bad(cancer properties). But its not the only source of cancer cells - DNA ...
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Why does evolution only involve heritable traits?

If natural selection favors a certain behavior that is learnt, then wouldn’t that behavior be found more often among a population (as more offspring will learn that behavior from their parents or ...
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What were the Neanderthal innovations?

At some point the neanderthal and modern human lineages diverged. I'm not sure what exactly their most common recent ancestor was (I see some sources suggesting homo heidelbergensis), but in any case ...
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40 views

Is there any evidence that any other species are “pre-intelligence”? [closed]

Is there any evidence regarding whether other species might, given time, evolve intelligence as humans have? I realize "intelligence" is a vague word here, but I'm interested in throwing a wide net, ...
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Does the species of snake that eats Amphidromous inversus have chiral dimorphism?

From what I read at Schilthuizen and Davison (2005), Amphidromous inversus is a species of snail that occurs in 2 forms that are nearly mirror images of each other occurring in nearly equal ...
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Describing trait evolution across a very small phylogenetic tree [closed]

I am very new to phylogenetic comparative methods but I want to explore the evolutionary patterns of a number of quantitative traits I have across a small sample (5) of closely related species (...
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40 views

Origin of aerobic respiration [closed]

Since life originated in water, did the first eukaryotic organisms utilize the dissolved oxygen in the water or they respired anaerobically?
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What is the evolutionary advantage of red-green color blindness?

Red-green colorblindness seems to make it harder for a hunter-gatherer to see whether a fruit is ripe and thus worth picking. Is there a reason why selection hasn't completely removed red-green ...
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How much of the genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees are due to genetic drift?

Both natural selection and genetic drift play a part in changing our DNA over time. Are there trustworthy estimates how much of the differences over the whole genome between us and chimpanzees are due ...
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124 views

Why do fetuses have membranes between fingers and toes?

Are the membranes present between the fetal fingers and toes a remainder of the phylogenetic evolution, or just a way organs do grow most easily?
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52 views

How do I measure genetic distance?

I'm not sure how to measure genetic distance. There seems to be many different equations out there, and all the ones I found are rather old. In my specific problem I want to see if the twist in ...
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85 views

Is natural selection still at work in humans in the 21st century? [duplicate]

There has been some disussion on this site about some aspects (e.g. evolution of eye sight, or height, or the effect of medicine, or evolution the past $\sim10000$ years). My question is really more ...
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94 views

Why do fruits have to ripen?

It seems like most fruits that we consume undergo some sort of ripening process either before or after they are picked from the vine, tree, etc. I understand that sugars are released during the ...
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Why don't rats have a gallbladder, unlike other rodents?

It has long been known that rats do not have a gallbladder, though other species including humans, monkeys, cows, reptiles, dogs and mice, all have a gallbladder. In this paper from almost 100 years ...
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203 views

What is the difference between Founder effect and Bottleneck effect?

Both are examples of genetic drift in which there is a change in the allele frequency when the population size becomes small. What is the difference between the two?
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Current scientific theories for evolution of Cucurbita

I'm attempting to find research on scientific theories surrounding the evolution of certain plants, and am unable to find any footing with respect to a certain genus. In this case, I am researching ...
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Do animals have different taste preferences within the same species?

Humans (especially children...) seem to dislike certain foods or drinks, that other humans seem to like. Common examples are coffee, french cheeses, olives, milk, fish and cabbage. Are there examples ...
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Why were the earliest humans hunter gatherers instead of fruit eaters living on trees?

How is it that the earliest humans who evolved from primates (who live on trees and mostly eat fruit) became hunter-gatherers (which seems like a harder, more stressful and more dangerous way to find ...
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Why do living fossils like crocodiles remain so constant and not evolve? [duplicate]

Crocodiles have supposedly remained unchanged for millions of years, and several other species are considered as "living fossils". How do such species remain so constant over time given that they will ...
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2answers
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How to name a case of convergent evolution where the same mutation is involved in both lineages?

Definition of Convergent evolution - from Wikipedia > Convergent Evolution Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages. Convergent ...
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Can we say the 'goal' of Mullerian mimicry is a 'decrease in the number of sacrificed indivials'?

Can we say that Mullerian mimicry allows two species to decrease their number of sacrifice individuals because: Originally, one species needs to sacrifice some individuals to allow predators to ...
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28 views

What are the evolutionary benefits for herbs having beneficial health effects on humans? [duplicate]

There are many types of plants which produce chemicals which can be beneficial in treating human illnesses, or at least alleviate painful symptoms. Why would they do that? Is it just random chance, ...
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2answers
119 views

Are humans evolving since their first appearance? [duplicate]

Is the evolution a very prolonged progress, or are we going to witness further evolution of the human species? If so, in which direction? Are there any widely predicted changes for humans?
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105 views

Why does the Vas Deferens detour over the pubic bone?

I was surprised to learn that the vas deferens detours over the pubic bone instead of taking the obviously more direct path. https://human.biodigital.com/widget?be=u1P&uaid=1ly5V Because I would ...
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Are there examples of selection on males influencing female phenotypes?

I've been studying selection on female body color in a sexually dimorphic species and am intrigued by the possibility that selection on males, whether it be through sexual or natural selection, may ...
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60 views

How did dolpins acquire the dorsal fin?

I had been thinking bout atavism when I saw a picture of a dolphin. I had seen it before, but suddenly the dorsal fin startled me. How did this dorsal fin evolve, especially, is it some atavism from ...
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Why are there different species of bacteria?

The usual (high school or intro to bio) explanation for diversification of species comes from multicellular, usually sexually reproducing organisms, and seems to be closely tied to the biological ...
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98 views

What's the mechanism or structure responsible for new species genetic code generation? [closed]

I always had this question in mind. I think, If humans find answer to it then we can trigger the next evolution of human specie. What is the mechanism or structure responsible for evolution ? I don't ...
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76 views

Why plants and animals are so different even though they come from the same ancestors?

All the documentaries I have watched, books I have read so far on the starting of life on earth only talk about animals. The very first life form on earth was bacteria. Then evolution took us this far....
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110 views

Are human beings evolved to eat meat? [duplicate]

I know humans can cook, and prepare almost anything, but are humans specifically adapted to eat meat. One of my doubts humans are not particularly well adapted to eat meat because they lack canine ...
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93 views

Escaping resource limitations during tumor evolution

In their discussion of the importance of r- and K-selection on tumors, Aktipis et al. (2013; figure 3) provide the following illustration of a hypothetical cancer growth curve: In it, you can see ...
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22 views

How to incorporate intraspecific variation in discrete characters in comparative analyzes?

I'd like to run a multivariate analysis (Pavoine et al. 2011) that aims to disentagle the effect of environmental gradients on traits, considering its autocorrelation with phylogeny and space. It uses ...
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2answers
89 views

Crossing over and exon shuffling?

Campbell Biology 10e, in discussing the functions of introns, writes: The presence of introns in a gene may facilitate the evolution of new and potentially beneficial proteins as a result of a ...
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110 views

Why did multicellular organisms evolve when a single cell can survive on its own? [duplicate]

Since unicellular organisms can survive, why would there be evolution of multicellular organisms?
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54 views

Why did eukaryotic cells develop? [closed]

If eukaryotic cells can survive in extreme conditions, then why are their still prokaryotic organisms?
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Does the bending of a tree's trunk in the wind stimulate and strengthen root growth?

Recently Southern California experienced extreme wind velocities and afterwards the news reported over 300 trees had fallen in San Diego County. I had either heard or read somewhere that the action of ...
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94 views

What came first? The DNA or the DNA polymerases?

I know this sounds a lot like chicken and egg question and while the latter has an answer, I am intrigued about the former. A modified form of the question would be, in the course of abiogenesis, ...
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48 views

Is it known how human sweat glands evolved?

If human descends from apes than probably we lost our hair. Perhaps in the age of homo erectus we lost our hairs and began transpiring through our skin with sweat glands. But how did these glands ...
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1answer
86 views

Evidence of species transitions [closed]

I had a debate with a person who believes in some kind of creativism, let's call it that way. And in the middle of the "debate", an interesting question popped up. What are evidences of "...
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Was the frequency of mutations more during primitive earth due to radioactivity?

Primitive earth was more radioactive (or was it really?) according to radiometric analysis of C14 which suddenly appeared at 4250 million years in the Hadeon eon. Is it possible that ancient high ...
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27 views

The evolution of sleep [duplicate]

Are there evolutionary theories as to why we (and most animals) sleep? Some claimed functions of sleep include: restoration, waste clearance, memory processing, etc. But unless we understand why ...
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75 views

Why doesn't lard taste good? [closed]

I mean looking from evolutionary perspective sugar tastes sweet and individuals that had this perception ate more sugar and survived and those that didn't perceive sugar as sweet didn't eat it and ...
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1answer
148 views

Why does Citric Acid occur in Citrus fruits?

Why is there so much citric acid in citrus fruits? And how did it evolve i.e. what did it come from? Is it a by-product of the ripening process? Why have citrus fruit evolved a particularly high ...
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554 views

Examples of animals with 12-28 legs?

Many commonly known animals' limbs usually number between 0 and 10. For example, a non-exhaustive list: snakes have 0 Members of Bipedidae have 2 legs. Birds and humans have 2 legs (but 4 limbs) ...
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Do animals demonstrate target practice (i.e., playful accuracy behavior)?

Do animals demonstrate any sort of accuracy-motivated play? (please provide examples!) Consider most human sports and related hobbies. Most share the common goal of hitting a target or being accurate,...
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133 views

Have scientists ever produce a new species in laboratory by means of natural selection?

I was wondering, if scientists ever produce a more complex species from a less complex species by means of natural selection? I imagine something like, bacteria which can't photosynthesis and oxygen (...
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59 views

How to understand Aposematism and Batesian mimicry

EDIT I want to understand the reason for intense animal colors. I.e. I don't want to understand the variety of the colors, just the intensity. The Wikipedia page for Cethosia biblis says, the intense ...
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Does evolution thinks? [closed]

I understand evolution as survival of the fittest rule , where its the nature and surroundings that shapes the life by extinction of species which are not fit to survive the nature at that period. To ...
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2answers
125 views

Are there any predators without camouflage?

Are there any predators that don't use camouflage?
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Is there a formal definition of signature of natural selection?

I’ve searched for a definition of signature of natural selection. Unfortunately, I haven’t found any formal definition of it. The signature of positive selection ...