Changes in the heritable attributes of populations of organisms over time. Major mechanisms include drift, natural selection, mutation, and gene flow (migration).

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Book recommendations for algorithms used in evolutionary biology

Do you have recommendations for a book that presents the different algorithm used in theoretical evolutionary biology? I don't mean evolutionary or genetic algorithms (otherwise this question would ...
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1answer
260 views

Ka/Ks (dN/dS) analysis module for Python?

From this wiki article: In genetics, the Ka/Ks ratio (or ω, dN/dS), is the ratio of the number of Nonsynonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (Ka) to the number of synonymous ...
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122 views

How should I put a large phylogeny into a scientific paper?

I've been trying to put a phylogeny tree into a scientific paper. This tree includes ~220 species, which is too too large for one page for journal articles (Letter or A4 size). But in my paper it is ...
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2answers
308 views

Why is dimethyltryptamine (DMT) being released during death?

I'm not very well informed about all the things related to biology and the current achievements of science in this field so if I'm wrong in anything I say, please let me know. Many times I've come ...
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1answer
72 views

Current human behavior as a genetic heritage

People: I have doubts about genetic heritage, but let me explain the context which has shown up this doubt for you: I was debating about sexism and the following question were put on the discussion: ...
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2answers
87 views

How likely is it that Earth has millions of different species?

I know that the probability of life existing on a habitable planet is pretty slim. But, how likely is it that it hapenned millions of times in the same planet? Or was it only a few species that ...
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4answers
164 views

How come most animals never seem to evolve over millenia?

People often say, including those with extensive knowledge in biology, that a certain species of animal will evolve in one way or another: 1.From changing environments. 2.Mutations. 3.Possibly even ...
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1answer
71 views

What are the visual, behavioral similarities and differences between Yellow Fever Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus)?

The Tiger and Yellow Fever Mosquito visually look very similar. Recognizing the difference is important for tracking and controlling the spread of Yellow Fever, Dengue fever and other diseases. ...
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2answers
277 views

Are there genetic similarity between humans and pigs that don't exist in chimps?

Chimps are our closer relative. Any genetic similarity between humans and chimps must exist on the common ancestor. Pig branch out sooner. So, any genetic similarity between humans and pigs must be ...
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118 views

Is there any genetic similarity that defy evolution theory?

For example, say species A is common ancestor of B, and C. Species B is a common ancestor of D and E. We would expect that there will be more genetic similarity between D and E than D and C. And ...
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1answer
38 views

Is there any evidence telling us what the oxidation state of early earth's atmosphere was?

I ask this question in relation to the origin of life. I realise it would probably be better suited to a geology stack exchange, but it does not yet exist. The Miller-Urey experiment gives a lab ...
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136 views

Why and how does complexity usually tends to increase through time?

The question of complexity is classic in the very first lectures of evolutionary biology where the teacher usually tries to tell the students that complexity does not necessary increases and that ...
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1answer
72 views

Does avocado and orange have a common ancestor?

While I'm eating my orange, I felt as if I was eating avocado. It might be genetic manipulations perhaps but it made me think if they have a common evolutionary ancestor. Is there?
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47 views

Why isn't RH disease present in other mammals?

Basically, I have read about RH disease, Its rare but it can happen when an RH + baby is conceived by an RH - mother. This raises many questions. I have heard this problem only happens with humans, ...
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80 views

Haidinger's brush: Is this a by-product of the eye's physics, or are there any evolutionary grounds for it?

The human eye is, very subtly, sensitive to the polarization of light. This is an effect known as Haidinger's brush (see Wikipedia article of this name). What, if anything, is known or at least ...
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2answers
202 views

The number of nipples (breasts) a species has?

Only mammals have mammaries and mammary glands. What evolutionary factors determines the number of mammaries (nipples/teats/breasts) a species has? Is it always an even number?
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1answer
77 views

Cats, Dogs and Bears - how are they related?

What is the ancestral relationship between cats, dogs and bears? I presume they are more closely related to one another than other paraphyletic clades of mammal. Which came first? What did their ...
3
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1answer
55 views

Chemoautotrophy in large organisms?

The major nutritional mechanisms include chemoautotrophy, heterotrophy (including parasitism and saprotrophy) and photoautotrophy. All of these modes of nutrition developed first in prokaryotic ...
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1answer
77 views

Body size, what are the evolutionary trade-offs?

Background Considering just the "Kingdom Animalia" branch of organisms. It is clear that bigger does not necessarily mean better - there is large variation in body size... From the 94 µm long ...
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1answer
87 views

Does conjugation support gene selection?

I have already posted this on chat but haven't got any response. A recent question on group selection stimulated me to ask this here. QUESTIONS: Why should bacteria conjugate? If we consider that a ...
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96 views

Empirical evidence for Group Selection?

A controversial concept in Biology "Group Selection", has caused confusion and conflict amongst scientists since the since the mid 1990s. The more general realm of study is termed the "unit of ...
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2answers
107 views

Why, specifically, does each generation, on average, improve upon the design of the species rather than degrade it?

In every non-life example I can envision, a copy of a copy is always a degraded or less pure version of the original unless some outside influence acts to correct the copy back toward the ideal ...
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4answers
214 views

Biodiversity is restricted by genome combinatorics?

Me and some friends are interested in opinions for the following: Conjecture The maximum number of species must be limited by the maximum combinatorial/permutational space that can be occupied ...
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1answer
94 views

Natural enemies boost deep evolutionary fitness?

"Two species that reduce one another's fitness on microevolutionary (short-term) timescales can increase each other's macroevolutionary (long-term) fitness" Opinions? Intuitive Examples: ...
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1answer
85 views

What is the most recent non-primate ancestors of humans?

If we go down the evolutionary tree of humans, (Homo sapiens, Homo erectus, ...), what will be the first non-primate ancestors?
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1answer
49 views

Are there cannibalistic k-selectors?

My understanding of r- and k-selectors does not go deeper than the wikipedia article. I understand k-selectors to be creatures that put tendentially more effort and energy into rearing their ...
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1answer
51 views

Does the existence of one species imply the existence of many other?

Reading one of Sir Arthur Clarke's scifi stories, I came across a statement something to the effect of, existence of a single species automatically implies the existence of many other species. So ...
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1answer
486 views

Why would a single celled organism evolve to be multi-celled?

I read a story this week on Richard Lenski who has been 'evolving' E. coli for more than 50,000 generations now. One comment I read was from someone who doesn't accept Evolution who pointed out that ...
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75 views

What is the evolutionary advantage of regret?

Some motivational speakers may say that regrets are only useful to learn something from. What are the other advantages?
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67 views

DIfference between diversification and differentiation

In Adaptive dynamic : what is the difference between Ecological Differentiation and Ecological Divergence ?
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193 views

Why is there such an argument about evolution?

DISCLAIMER: I am a Christian, although I happen to believe that some form of guided evolution via natural selection is God's mechanism for creation. Now to my question, which is related to my ...
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1answer
74 views

Assumptions of Hamilton's rule

Which elements of the following list are assumptions of the Hamilton's rule? Population structure (non-panmictic population) Additivity = Fitness of the heterozygote equals the mean of the ...
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37 views

Reformulation of Hamiton's rule

Who (and in which article) was the first to reformulate Hamilton's rule using the letters $B$ and $C$?. See below comments on this reformulation. Hamilton, in his 1964's article gave a mathematical ...
2
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1answer
80 views

Why insects are so small compared to mammals?

I was wondering what biological limitations make the dimension of the insects small compared to the dimension of the mammals. I know in other eras insect were bigger!
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3answers
87 views

How to define “evolution”?

The standard answer to: what is evolution? is: It is a change in allele frequency over time! I believe a complete definition should encompass the following concepts: mutations copy ...
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1answer
127 views

Are wild cats the same species as house cats?

I thought that the definition of species is "can interbreed" From Wikipedia: The wildcat (Felis silvestris) is a small cat found throughout most of Africa, Europe, and southwest and central ...
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84 views

Which statement about phenotypic plasticity is false?

This was a test question, and I'm not too sure about the answer. Which statement about phenotypic plasticity is false? a. Because the plasticity of a phenotypic trait may be costly to maintain, it ...
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1answer
127 views

Genetic variation and sensitivity of wild cabbage

1: Is it true that the genetic variation of kale plants is smaller than wild cabbage? I think so, because of human selection of the kale plants. 2: Are broccoli and cauliflower more ...
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1answer
43 views

Which mountain range was formed first (historically) and which the pedigree is correct?

Source 1: Source 1 shows a map of a particular area. In this map you will find the mountain ranges 1 and 2, the species P, Q and R. Two possible pedigrees of the ancestral history of the species ...
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1answer
579 views

Difference in length of Okazaki fragments

The length of Okazaki fragments in the lagging strand is about 100-200 nucleotides in eukaryotes and about 1000-2000 nucleotides in prokaryotes. What (molecular mechanism, enzyme type ) ...
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2answers
80 views

Examples of virus originated from a living system

Do you know some examples of virus or a viroid (or a prion) that originated from a known living organism? How does the virus/viroid/prion lives? Does it paratize the organism from which the virus ...
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1answer
156 views

Why were dinosaurs not as smart as we are?

According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur, Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for 135 million years. They had a lot of time to evolve. My question is: why were dinosaurs not ...
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132 views

Correlation between genome size and mutation rate?

Martin Nowak in his book "Evolutionary Dynamics" talks about a given correlation between genome size and mutation rate. What correlation does exactly exist between these two concepts? Is it a ...
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217 views

What does fitness really mean?

Fitness is certainly the most important concept in the theory of evolution. My question does not have to do with practical measures of fitness but with the theoretical definition of it. I am a bit ...
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21 views

What is the origin of viruses? How could they get both living and non-living characteristics? [duplicate]

I read that viruses are called intermediate between living and non-living particles. Well, if so, then where did they originate from? From living or non-living? If they originated from either living ...
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0answers
20 views

Is there an evolutionary advantage for hamsters throwing up food when scared?

My hamster throws up food when scared, and from a general Google search it seems that other hamster-keepers experience the same thing. Why do hamsters do this? What advantage does it serve - now and ...
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497 views

Why do humans find baby animals cute?

Why do humans find baby animals like cats, dogs, ... so cute? As these are potential competitors or even natural enemies (like e.g. tigers, leopards, ..), the protection instinct (reasonable for the ...
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147 views

Probability of Extinction under Genetic Drift

Here is the Wright-Fisher model of genetic drift: $$\frac{(2N)!}{k!(2N-k)!}p^kq^{2N-k} \Leftrightarrow \binom{2N}{k}p^kq^{2N-k}$$ where $\binom{2N}{k}$ is the binomial coefficient. This formula ...
2
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1answer
53 views

Who was the first to talk about evolvability?

"Evolvability is the capacity of a system for adaptive evolution." (source) There are several other definitions though: Who was the first person to use the word "evolvability"? Who was the first to ...
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1answer
83 views

The concepts of relatedness - Hamilton's rule and kin selection

Here is a quotation from this wikipedia page The relatedness parameter (r) in Hamilton's rule was introduced in 1922 by Sewall Wright as a coefficient of relationship that gives the ...