The process by which information encoded in a gene is converted into a functional protein or RNA, resulting in or contributing to a phenotype.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
0answers
16 views

house keeping gene variation under treatment

I am injecting BCG in mice ears to measure the local inflamation response in the infection side, one ear in the same mouse is kept as control by injecting PBS, in the other one, BCG is injected. When ...
-2
votes
0answers
25 views

One blue and one brown eye. What's up with that? [on hold]

I am studying Mendelian genetics -> Punett Square , but no match is there for below: One of my best friends in elementary school had one blue and one brown eye. What's up with that?
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Validation by PCR of a lowly expressed gene in microarray

I am interested in validating the precence of a gene (FETUB) whose expression is in the lower quartile of the microarray (see figure in link). https://drive.google.com/open?id=...
0
votes
2answers
28 views

What amount of genes co-expressed should be expected in a tissue?

I am working with gene expression microarrays of tumor tissues and I want to use a program to find the clusters of co-expressed genes in order to know if some particular genes are co-expressed with ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Are there observed instances of genes expressing undesirable traits to dissuade members of a particular species from reproducing?

All living things on earth are programmed to both survive and reproduce, but are there observed, documented or otherwise novel cases where the genes of any particular member of any particular species ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

What is a cognate enhancer sequence?

What is a cognate enhancer sequence? While reading a paper (1) presented at a journal class in graduate school, I encountered this sentence: HIF-1 binds to its cognate enhancer sequence, the ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

How to specify a promoter in de novo gene synthesis service?

I am trying to use a de novo gene synthesis service (Genscript) and one part confuses me: Where do I pick the choice of promoter? Or is the promoter choice automatic based on my plasmid choice? e.g....
1
vote
1answer
31 views

How to put a gene under the control of a regulable promoter?

Suppose I have a hetrologous (eukaryotic, plant) gene sequence that I want to express in E Coli under the control of a regulable promoter (say the lac promoter induced by IPTG) how exactly does one ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Feedback mechanisms for the dynorphin-kappa opioid system?

(this is all happening in the brain). Also it's best to go context-first I think (1) Normally if you take an agonist drug that hits a receptor "x", eventually the brain will downregulate the density ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Are the subordinate genes of a repressed operon really “turned off”?

Operons are often described using all or nothing language. A repressor binding to the operator is usually presented as "turning off" the regulated genes. Case in point, Scitable at Nature.com says: ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

Current state of Gene Therapy [closed]

I am interested in learning about attempts to treat adult individuals suffering from a genetic disease in which the underlying changes in the DNA of the gene are understood. (i) Are there approaches ...
3
votes
2answers
62 views

Mutating a protein without mutating the gene?

Is it possible to mutate a region of a protein (says about 300 amino acids long) without actually mutating the gene? One possible way that I can think of is to use RNAi and specifically block that ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

How do expression levels change along lineages?

Is there any general trend between gene expression levels (or transcription levels) and cell lineages? For example, I would naively expect that stem cells express less genes as they have the ability ...
0
votes
2answers
91 views

Multiple start and stop codons in mRNA and pre-mRNA [duplicate]

I have a main question that will lead to further questions depending upon the answer. In the process of transcription, will there be multiple start and stop codons in one sequence of pre-mRNA? If ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Why are there so many regulatory mechanisms in gene expression? [closed]

first time posting here, apologies if this is a stupid question. I am a layman, so I might be ignorant to some already well-known or obvious concepts in biology. From what I understand, gene ...
3
votes
2answers
69 views

What is the most appropriate way to normalize gene expression data?

This question comes because reading a paper about normalization of gene-expression data, is not clear if the method for normalize the data is just for RNA-Seq data or could be applied also for ...
2
votes
3answers
51 views

What is the role of TATA box in transcriptional regulation? [closed]

I know what is the TATA box, but I wish to know whether it has specific roles in transcriptional regulation.
0
votes
1answer
68 views

Why does pETDuet-1 only have one T7 terminator but two T7 promoters?

Why does pETDuet-1 only have one T7 terminator but two T7 promoters (vector map below)? Is there any advantage of having only one terminator? There are going to be two mRNAs transcribed from this ...
0
votes
1answer
45 views

How big advantage had a trait have to bring to evolve in the human evolution? [closed]

Yes, I've heard that we have evolved from the common ancestor with primates as intesively, as the chimpanzees. Sometimes I read about some enormously complex traits, evolutionary psychologists think ...
1
vote
2answers
38 views

How do biologists quantify “gene expression” in experiments?

I've read papers which contain statements such as "control of gene expression is critical in biological processes". How exactly does one quantify "gene expression"? Isn't gene expression an umbrella ...
0
votes
2answers
41 views

Genes that exist in old Affymetrix platform but not in the newer one

I am using two gene expression datasets from an Affy U95Av2 platform and an Affy U133 Plus 2.0 platform. When I map the Affy probe names to HUGO gene names, there are thousands of genes which exist in ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

What further research can the result of gene variation detection be used for [closed]

We do a research on a particular cancer (for e.g. breast cancer). Now, we have a result for the gene variation detection (VCF file). What next steps do we need to do? We don't have a clear picture ...
1
vote
2answers
157 views

Is the increased/decreased enzyme activity (tyrosinase) caused by an environmental factor (UV radiation) considered to be gene expression?

My AP Bio assignment asks that I research the effects of UV radiation on melanin production, but the directions and questions suggest that UV radiation influences gene expression. From what I could ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

TCGA Array Data Interpretation - why is PTEN up when I know it shouldn't be in RCC?

I am trying to make some sense of the KIRC (clear cell renal cell carcinoma) gene expression microarray data (level 3). I am a little bit confused by the expression levels of PTEN which are elevated ...
4
votes
1answer
39 views

How much time do the different mechanisms of gene regulation need to take effect?

I am thinking of the major regulatory mechanisms, like general transcription factors, activators, repressors, and RNA interference. If non-active regulator genes using each of the different ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

What's the difference between CREs and DHSs?

I would like to know what's the difference between cis-regulating elements and DNase I–hypersensitive sites, in order to produce a meaningful segregation of non coding elements affecting gene ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

mitochondrial gene upregulated in F1 cross

I am doing RNA-Seq data analysis from ovarian samples that represent two pure breeds (high prolific vs low prolific) and their F1 cross. Flushing diet has been shown to affect ovulation rate in some ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Does a zygote express all genes?

If a zygote has all the cytoplasmic determinants and all the specific transcription factors, does that mean that all genes in the genome are expressed?
0
votes
0answers
41 views

Is the zygote the only totipotent cell?

I’ve been told that the unfertilized egg contains cytoplasmic determinants (e.g. proteins, transcription factors, mRNAs) that are divided unevenly during the early stages of cell division in an embryo....
1
vote
1answer
24 views

Using PGAL10 promoter to overexpress specific yeast genes: How to?

I was reading a poster about expression boosting for Artemesinin production in yeast and it had this line: PGAL1 and PGAL10 have been used for the overexpression of all genes from the ...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

Are all genes transcribed in differentiated cells?

My textbook tells me that it’s specific transcription factors that allow for a different set of genes to be expressed in different cells (differential gene expression). My book gives the example of ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Pooling for qPCR

I am comparing miRNA expression levels in 3 different groups but I am low on money and time. I have to get some preliminary results to get the actual research going so I decided to pool my samples and ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Transcription profiling analysis software

I am entering now the field of transcription profiling analysis - and looking for good software to work with the data. I got files with list of genes like this for example: 1415751_at 618.9 0....
1
vote
0answers
20 views

From DNA to final traits of microorganisms? [closed]

From the answer of this topic, could someone indicate me a book or article about how DNA set the phenotype of microorganisms? For example, showing how DNA changes the shape of such a cell or how DNA ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

How to Download the broadpeak files from the encode chip-seq experiment matrix? [closed]

I have tried the SqlDatabase of Encode opened it trough R ,i have tried other packages in R, i have tried the ENCODExplorer package but none of them seems to do what i want. I have an app that asks ...
2
votes
1answer
23 views

differentially expressed genes of the treated with estradiol samples

I did differential analysis on samples treated (G1E-ER4) with estradiol (differentiation induced by estradiol) and control (G1E). The genes that I gor as differentially expressed in G1E-ER4 showed ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

Interpreting soft clipping in a SAM alignment

I am interpreting CAGE data. I have noticed that in the SAM files I am analysing, there are many pairs of lines of the form (e.g.) ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

cell specialisation and their location

When we create new cells, how come they are of the 'right' type at the 'right' place? For example, when I make a new cell on my lips, it's obviously not the same as a new one in my kidneys. Is the ...
1
vote
1answer
102 views

What determines whether the maternal or paternal allele is expressed?

I am taking cell biology and have this question: During the process of gene expression, it is possible to express either the maternal allele or the paternal allele. When and how is the determination ...
2
votes
3answers
218 views

Why don't housekeeping genes have TATA Box regions in their promoter sequences?

Housekeeping genes are genes that are continuously transcribed. Like all other genes they have promoter sequences, but they don't have TATA box sequences that are used to specify from where ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Transcription of Genes: Are Specific Transcription Factors + Enhancers Necessary?

I learned about transcription in my AP Biology class and we discussed how transcription occurs, but I was wondering whether transcription always requires the enhancers, activators (specific ...
5
votes
2answers
848 views

What is the instructional language of DNA?

DNA carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses (Wikipedia). Is it already know how ATCG's sequences ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Can genes be expressed sequentially?

As I understand it, any gene on an exposed/unpacked region of a chromosome is continuously being expressed. Regulatory genes may increase or decrease the amount of protein synthesised due to its ...
6
votes
1answer
433 views

Lac operon: How can lactose enter the cell in the absence of lactose permease?

My textbook states that lactose permease...transports lactose into the cell and When lactose is added to the growth medium, the lactose molecules bind to the other site on the repressor ...
5
votes
2answers
46 views

Animal gene in plants

Usually only microbes, specifically bacteria are used to express genes of other species for various functions. But, it is possible to try and express an animal gene into a plant. Bacteria like ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Plasmid Expression Vector [closed]

If I am going to transform a plasmid into a bacterium, which will then be fed to a C. elegans, the expression vector needs to be bacterial correct? The other option is to have a worm expression vector,...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Organ secretions

If an animal secrets an enzyme from an organ that is entirely dedicated for the same secretion, can one or cannot one just use the gene coding for that protein to obtain the protein in vitro. How much ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Question about cutting gene in Plasmid

I am designing a researching proposal for the class. Because it uses microinjection to up-regulate the gene in C. elegans, the plasmid pCFJ104 - Pmyo-3::mCherry::unc-54 sequences has been chosen. But ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Gene silencing in C. elegans

I am trying to silence the tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase) gene in C. elegans using the pLT63 plasmid to check if that particular gene has anything to do with the pharyneal pumping or not. Am I using ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

ATP to disassembly of nucleotide ratio

DNA Helicase, the enzyme that is responsible for tearing apart the strands before DNA replication, requires ATP to rip apart nucleotides. I have asked this question to several professors and they ...