The process by which information encoded in a gene is converted into a functional protein or RNA, resulting in or contributing to a phenotype.

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Why does pETDuet-1 only have one T7 terminator but two T7 promoters?

Why does pETDuet-1 only have one T7 terminator but two T7 promoters (vector map below)? Is there any advantage of having only one terminator? There are going to be two mRNAs transcribed from this ...
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38 views

How big advantage had a trait have to bring to evolve in the human evolution? [on hold]

Yes, I've heard that we have evolved from the common ancestor with primates as intesively, as the chimpanzees. Sometimes I read about some enormously complex traits, evolutionary psychologists think ...
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33 views

How do biologists quantify “gene expression” in experiments?

I've read papers which contain statements such as "control of gene expression is critical in biological processes". How exactly does one quantify "gene expression"? Isn't gene expression an umbrella ...
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24 views

Genes that exist in old Affymetrix platform but not in the newer one

I am using two gene expression datasets from an Affy U95Av2 platform and an Affy U133 Plus 2.0 platform. When I map the Affy probe names to HUGO gene names, there are thousands of genes which exist in ...
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40 views

What further research can the result of gene variation detection be used for [closed]

We do a research on a particular cancer (for e.g. breast cancer). Now, we have a result for the gene variation detection (VCF file). What next steps do we need to do? We don't have a clear picture ...
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102 views

Is the increased/decreased enzyme activity (tyrosinase) caused by an environmental factor (UV radiation) considered to be gene expression?

My AP Bio assignment asks that I research the effects of UV radiation on melanin production, but the directions and questions suggest that UV radiation influences gene expression. From what I could ...
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17 views

TCGA Array Data Interpretation - why is PTEN up when I know it shouldn't be in RCC?

I am trying to make some sense of the KIRC (clear cell renal cell carcinoma) gene expression microarray data (level 3). I am a little bit confused by the expression levels of PTEN which are elevated ...
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34 views

How much time do the different mechanisms of gene regulation need to take effect?

I am thinking of the major regulatory mechanisms, like general transcription factors, activators, repressors, and RNA interference. If non-active regulator genes using each of the different ...
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1answer
25 views

What's the difference between CREs and DHSs?

I would like to know what's the difference between cis-regulating elements and DNase I–hypersensitive sites, in order to produce a meaningful segregation of non coding elements affecting gene ...
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27 views

mitochondrial gene upregulated in F1 cross

I am doing RNA-Seq data analysis from ovarian samples that represent two pure breeds (high prolific vs low prolific) and their F1 cross. Flushing diet has been shown to affect ovulation rate in some ...
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1answer
33 views

Does a zygote express all genes?

If a zygote has all the cytoplasmic determinants and all the specific transcription factors, does that mean that all genes in the genome are expressed?
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28 views

Is the zygote the only totipotent cell?

I’ve been told that the unfertilized egg contains cytoplasmic determinants (e.g. proteins, transcription factors, mRNAs) that are divided unevenly during the early stages of cell division in an ...
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19 views

Using PGAL10 promoter to overexpress specific yeast genes: How to?

I was reading a poster about expression boosting for Artemesinin production in yeast and it had this line: PGAL1 and PGAL10 have been used for the overexpression of all genes from the ...
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31 views

Are all genes transcribed in differentiated cells?

My textbook tells me that it’s specific transcription factors that allow for a different set of genes to be expressed in different cells (differential gene expression). My book gives the example of ...
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1answer
27 views

Pooling for qPCR

I am comparing miRNA expression levels in 3 different groups but I am low on money and time. I have to get some preliminary results to get the actual research going so I decided to pool my samples and ...
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18 views

Transcription profiling analysis software

I am entering now the field of transcription profiling analysis - and looking for good software to work with the data. I got files with list of genes like this for example: 1415751_at 618.9 ...
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20 views

From DNA to final traits of microorganisms? [closed]

From the answer of this topic, could someone indicate me a book or article about how DNA set the phenotype of microorganisms? For example, showing how DNA changes the shape of such a cell or how DNA ...
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13 views

How to Download the broadpeak files from the encode chip-seq experiment matrix? [closed]

I have tried the SqlDatabase of Encode opened it trough R ,i have tried other packages in R, i have tried the ENCODExplorer package but none of them seems to do what i want. I have an app that asks ...
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1answer
23 views

differentially expressed genes of the treated with estradiol samples

I did differential analysis on samples treated (G1E-ER4) with estradiol (differentiation induced by estradiol) and control (G1E). The genes that I gor as differentially expressed in G1E-ER4 showed ...
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44 views

Interpreting soft clipping in a SAM alignment

I am interpreting CAGE data. I have noticed that in the SAM files I am analysing, there are many pairs of lines of the form (e.g.) ...
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1answer
44 views

cell specialisation and their location

When we create new cells, how come they are of the 'right' type at the 'right' place? For example, when I make a new cell on my lips, it's obviously not the same as a new one in my kidneys. Is the ...
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1answer
75 views

What determines whether the maternal or paternal allele is expressed?

I am taking cell biology and have this question: During the process of gene expression, it is possible to express either the maternal allele or the paternal allele. When and how is the determination ...
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3answers
170 views

Why don't housekeeping genes have TATA Box regions in their promoter sequences?

Housekeeping genes are genes that are continuously transcribed. Like all other genes they have promoter sequences, but they don't have TATA box sequences that are used to specify from where ...
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30 views

Transcription of Genes: Are Specific Transcription Factors + Enhancers Necessary?

I learned about transcription in my AP Biology class and we discussed how transcription occurs, but I was wondering whether transcription always requires the enhancers, activators (specific ...
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819 views

What is the instructional language of DNA?

DNA carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses (Wikipedia). Is it already know how ATCG's ...
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35 views

Can genes be expressed sequentially?

As I understand it, any gene on an exposed/unpacked region of a chromosome is continuously being expressed. Regulatory genes may increase or decrease the amount of protein synthesised due to its ...
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337 views

Lac operon: How can lactose enter the cell in the absence of lactose permease?

My textbook states that lactose permease...transports lactose into the cell and When lactose is added to the growth medium, the lactose molecules bind to the other site on the repressor ...
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41 views

Animal gene in plants

Usually only microbes, specifically bacteria are used to express genes of other species for various functions. But, it is possible to try and express an animal gene into a plant. Bacteria like ...
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1answer
32 views

Plasmid Expression Vector [closed]

If I am going to transform a plasmid into a bacterium, which will then be fed to a C. elegans, the expression vector needs to be bacterial correct? The other option is to have a worm expression ...
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20 views

Organ secretions

If an animal secrets an enzyme from an organ that is entirely dedicated for the same secretion, can one or cannot one just use the gene coding for that protein to obtain the protein in vitro. How much ...
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1answer
34 views

Question about cutting gene in Plasmid

I am designing a researching proposal for the class. Because it uses microinjection to up-regulate the gene in C. elegans, the plasmid pCFJ104 - Pmyo-3::mCherry::unc-54 sequences has been chosen. But ...
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1answer
25 views

Gene silencing in C. elegans

I am trying to silence the tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase) gene in C. elegans using the pLT63 plasmid to check if that particular gene has anything to do with the pharyneal pumping or not. Am I using ...
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1answer
28 views

ATP to disassembly of nucleotide ratio

DNA Helicase, the enzyme that is responsible for tearing apart the strands before DNA replication, requires ATP to rip apart nucleotides. I have asked this question to several professors and they ...
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56 views

Common genes and enzymes involved in pathogen entry into host

Many microbes like Salmonella, E.coli, Legionella pneumophila etc. enter host cells via cystoskeleton remodeling of the host cell. Do all microbes follow the same path or there are any other ways for ...
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15 views

Serotonin activity with short 5-HTT promotor region and depression

So after reading a few studies (1,2) it seems that a shorter promotor region for the serotonin transport protein may be associated with increased likelihood of developing depression after stressful ...
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1answer
54 views

What is meant by “the degree to which a gene is expressed” in an individual?

Here is an excerpt from a text that I was reading, Here is an example of microarray data. The idea is to take a group of different individuals and for each of them, you measure how much they ...
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2answers
116 views

how do I find the number of bp in chromosome 3 by knowing number of bp in chromosome 1?

If i have a number of bp in chromosome 1 for example(298,295,559 bp) can I use this number to find the number of bp in chromosome 3.
2
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2answers
273 views

In which phenomena does one gene pair hide the effect of other unit?

This question was asken in an exam, The answer they are saying is "Epistasis". But I think "Dominance" fits better, because it is not mentioned whether genes of same allele are to be considered or ...
2
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1answer
218 views

What is pQTL and why do we need eQTL?

eQTLs are genomic loci that contribute to variation in expression levels of mRNAs (wikipedia). There is data out there that shows that ~60% of the time, the amount of mRNA in a cell is directly ...
2
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1answer
102 views

Differential gene expression analysis between species

I have RNA Seq data from mouse and human skin ( 2 replicates each) and want to compare the expression of the orthologous genes to find any which are differentially expressed. I have quantile ...
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346 views

How many copies of a gene?

I am studying mathematical models of transcription and translation and I am wondering: In a particular genome, how many copies of a gene coding for one particular protein should one expect? Are they ...
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1answer
129 views

Could fingerprints potentially be changed using a gene gun?

Not to confuse with your "DNA fingerprint" I've read surgery is readily used to not just remove but even to change people's prints through employing very small grafts between opposing hands. About 5 ...
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65 views

Are dogs affected by dwarfism?

My husband and I noticed a dog today that looked like a smaller version of a purebred Border Collie, although it didn't appear to be a puppy. It made us wonder if other animal species experience ...
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1answer
202 views

Gene and Protein isoform

What is the relationship between term "Gene isoform" and "Protein isoform"? Say a gene can make 3 isoforms, will it produce only (maximum) 3 isoform protein?
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translation rate regulated by transcription factors?

I'd like to know if there is in the litterature some examples of transcription factors capable to impact not just transcription but also translation rate so that both can be adjusted. I would be very ...
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149 views

Interpretation of qPCR results for low expression genes

I am attempting to validate existence of a transcript using 40 cycle qPCR. I designed primers for a unique feature of this transcript, and also designed primers for a sequence in the transcript that ...
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47 views

How do sex biased genes evolve?

I am wondering how do genes become sex-biased? that is, how does a gene evolve expression which is regulated in a sex-specific manner (assuming no effect from sex-limited Y/W chromosomes). I ...
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50 views

Are there any non-harmful viruses that can alter a specific mutation?

Are there any non-harmful viruses that in going into a cell and using the cells 'machinery' and genetics to 'copy' itself actually changes some of the cells genome , maybe altering some mutations? ...
3
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1answer
117 views

Sex biased gene expression in the X chromosome

It has been shown that the X chromosome is frequently enriched for female biased genes, and has a deficit of male biased genes. For example in this paper, and this one. However, I'm struggling to ...
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55 views

Critical discussion: Gene expression and systems biology allows us to understand the control of complex traits

I'm having a bit of trouble tackling this question. Any help on what I should write about or the points I should mention would be much appreciated. I keep seeing articles about eQTL and QTL are these ...