The process by which information encoded in a gene is converted into a functional protein or RNA, resulting in or contributing to a phenotype.

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2answers
18k views

Why do we assume that the first humans were dark-skinned?

According to the article Dark skin and blue eyes: How Europeans once looked: It is widely accepted that Man's oldest common forefather was dark skinned, and that people became more pale as they ...
4
votes
2answers
245 views

Can intron become exon in alternative splicing?

From this image We can see several exons that are actually introns in other genes. It's not a really a different gene, it's an alternative splicing of a gene. My background is not biology so is it ...
1
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1answer
39 views

Transcription of Genes: Are Specific Transcription Factors + Enhancers Necessary?

I learned about transcription in my AP Biology class and we discussed how transcription occurs, but I was wondering whether transcription always requires the enhancers, activators (specific ...
5
votes
2answers
848 views

What is the instructional language of DNA?

DNA carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses (Wikipedia). Is it already know how ATCG's sequences ...
1
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0answers
38 views

Can genes be expressed sequentially?

As I understand it, any gene on an exposed/unpacked region of a chromosome is continuously being expressed. Regulatory genes may increase or decrease the amount of protein synthesised due to its ...
5
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2answers
46 views

Animal gene in plants

Usually only microbes, specifically bacteria are used to express genes of other species for various functions. But, it is possible to try and express an animal gene into a plant. Bacteria like ...
1
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1answer
38 views

Plasmid Expression Vector [closed]

If I am going to transform a plasmid into a bacterium, which will then be fed to a C. elegans, the expression vector needs to be bacterial correct? The other option is to have a worm expression vector,...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Question about cutting gene in Plasmid

I am designing a researching proposal for the class. Because it uses microinjection to up-regulate the gene in C. elegans, the plasmid pCFJ104 - Pmyo-3::mCherry::unc-54 sequences has been chosen. But ...
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0answers
20 views

Organ secretions

If an animal secrets an enzyme from an organ that is entirely dedicated for the same secretion, can one or cannot one just use the gene coding for that protein to obtain the protein in vitro. How much ...
2
votes
1answer
181 views

Is there a consensus on the CaMV 35S minimal promoter sequence?

We have an algal enhancer element and a transcription factor that probably binds it. Basal expression of the enhancer element or full promoter driving luciferase in tobacco protoplast was extremely ...
1
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1answer
26 views

Gene silencing in C. elegans

I am trying to silence the tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase) gene in C. elegans using the pLT63 plasmid to check if that particular gene has anything to do with the pharyneal pumping or not. Am I using ...
7
votes
2answers
419 views

What is the best way to express two proteins in a mammalian cell?

I have two proteins and I will be preparing a vector with both genes for stable transfection. Each protein will have their own promoter and I will use piggyBac vector to insert a single cassette with ...
3
votes
1answer
141 views

Could fingerprints potentially be changed using a gene gun?

Not to confuse with your "DNA fingerprint" I've read surgery is readily used to not just remove but even to change people's prints through employing very small grafts between opposing hands. About 5 ...
5
votes
3answers
702 views

How does the colinearity of the HOX genes determine the body plan of an organism?

I was recently reading about colinearity in the HOX genes that give an organism its high-level body plan (where the order of the HOX genes on the chromosome follow the head-to-tail order of body ...
1
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0answers
15 views

Serotonin activity with short 5-HTT promotor region and depression

So after reading a few studies (1,2) it seems that a shorter promotor region for the serotonin transport protein may be associated with increased likelihood of developing depression after stressful ...
4
votes
1answer
67 views

What is meant by “the degree to which a gene is expressed” in an individual?

Here is an excerpt from a text that I was reading, Here is an example of microarray data. The idea is to take a group of different individuals and for each of them, you measure how much they ...
0
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2answers
119 views

how do I find the number of bp in chromosome 3 by knowing number of bp in chromosome 1?

If i have a number of bp in chromosome 1 for example(298,295,559 bp) can I use this number to find the number of bp in chromosome 3.
2
votes
2answers
325 views

In which phenomena does one gene pair hide the effect of other unit?

This question was asken in an exam, The answer they are saying is "Epistasis". But I think "Dominance" fits better, because it is not mentioned whether genes of same allele are to be considered or ...
0
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2answers
84 views

Complexity in creating transgenic animals (e.g., mice)

Many papers I have seen describing transgenic rodent models (and presumably applicable to other model organisms) involve the knock-in, or modification to, a single gene, possibly two genes. With ...
2
votes
1answer
372 views

What is pQTL and why do we need eQTL?

eQTLs are genomic loci that contribute to variation in expression levels of mRNAs (wikipedia). There is data out there that shows that ~60% of the time, the amount of mRNA in a cell is directly ...
2
votes
1answer
119 views

Differential gene expression analysis between species

I have RNA Seq data from mouse and human skin ( 2 replicates each) and want to compare the expression of the orthologous genes to find any which are differentially expressed. I have quantile ...
4
votes
2answers
547 views

How many copies of a gene?

I am studying mathematical models of transcription and translation and I am wondering: In a particular genome, how many copies of a gene coding for one particular protein should one expect? Are they ...
4
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2answers
116 views

Genetic Imprinting and Cell differentiation

It does not seem possible that these two processes can coexist: 1) Genetic imprinting is the phenomenon where genes are expressed differently depending on the parent of origin: 1a. Methylated ...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

Are dogs affected by dwarfism?

My husband and I noticed a dog today that looked like a smaller version of a purebred Border Collie, although it didn't appear to be a puppy. It made us wonder if other animal species experience ...
1
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1answer
246 views

Gene and Protein isoform

What is the relationship between term "Gene isoform" and "Protein isoform"? Say a gene can make 3 isoforms, will it produce only (maximum) 3 isoform protein?
0
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0answers
22 views

translation rate regulated by transcription factors?

I'd like to know if there is in the litterature some examples of transcription factors capable to impact not just transcription but also translation rate so that both can be adjusted. I would be very ...
1
vote
0answers
187 views

Interpretation of qPCR results for low expression genes

I am attempting to validate existence of a transcript using 40 cycle qPCR. I designed primers for a unique feature of this transcript, and also designed primers for a sequence in the transcript that ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

How do sex biased genes evolve?

I am wondering how do genes become sex-biased? that is, how does a gene evolve expression which is regulated in a sex-specific manner (assuming no effect from sex-limited Y/W chromosomes). I ...
3
votes
1answer
120 views

Sex biased gene expression in the X chromosome

It has been shown that the X chromosome is frequently enriched for female biased genes, and has a deficit of male biased genes. For example in this paper, and this one. However, I'm struggling to ...
12
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3answers
2k views

Databases for gene regulatory network graphs?

What databases are available for gene regulatory network graphs starting from a given gene? For example, starting from p53 gene, where can I find a gene regulatory network image that can be exported ...
0
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1answer
57 views

Critical discussion: Gene expression and systems biology allows us to understand the control of complex traits

I'm having a bit of trouble tackling this question. Any help on what I should write about or the points I should mention would be much appreciated. I keep seeing articles about eQTL and QTL are these ...
0
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0answers
26 views

Why is polysome loading affected by double stranded structure?

Why polysomes are not able to load properly onto a transcript if a transcript has a double-stranded structure in it?
0
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1answer
30 views

Why do Alu repeats form secondary structures?

I've been doing a lot of research on Alu repeats and how they mediate the gene expression. I read the following article "Useful junk: Alu RNAs in the human transcriptome". And it says that alu ...
4
votes
1answer
273 views

Why do some protocols require prewarming a liquid medium before inoculating?

For example, in this protocol for E. coli competent cell preparation, it says: Plate 10 uL E. coli BL21(DE3) cells on a LB-agar plate; incubate overnight (12 hours). Prepare 500 mL SOB medium ...
6
votes
1answer
67 views

Comparison of gene expression time series in vitro and in vivo

I have to analyse two datasets consisting of time-series measurements of gene expression. One set are in vivo data from the expression profiles obtained between a few days before birth to several days ...
5
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0answers
384 views

Genetic expression in interspecific hybrids

Referring to interspecific hybrids, I have the following two questions:- Quoting from wikipedia:- The offspring of an interspecific cross are very often sterile; thus, hybrid sterility ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

In insects, does the Alanine repeat occur on the homeodomain sequence of the abdomen or does it occur on a different sequence?

By "Alanine repeat", I am referring to the suppression of the formation of extra insect legs due to Ubx gene suppression through Distal-less repression.
0
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0answers
29 views

Regarding benzoic acid and its effects

One of the users on the chemistry s.e. mentioned that when benzoic acid forms in the body in response to other chemicals it might have a mutating effect on one's DNA. Is this true?
4
votes
1answer
57 views

Is it possible to express the cistrons from a polycistronic insertion fragment in a single plasmid?

I have a insertion fragment that I wish to express from pUC19 in Escherichia coli. The insertion fragment is a sub-section from a larger operon sequence and contains just the last two cistrons from ...
7
votes
2answers
740 views

Father with mutated mtDNA- why isn't his offspring at risk?

Mothers transmit their mitochondria (and therefore mtDNA) to their offspring and fathers don't. Lets assume that father had a mutation of the gene that encodes mtDNA, would then be his offspring at ...
0
votes
1answer
262 views

How to select genes before log2 ratio on a RNASeq gene expression matrix, based on signal median

I want to transform a TCGA mRNA expression matrix (in linear data format) to log2-ratios and then run a feature (gene) selection, selecting the 1000 most variant genes (genes with higher standard ...
2
votes
1answer
114 views

Correct/complete representation of RTPCR statistics

In papers reporting a relative quantification of gene expression by RTPCR, I often see a bar chart with mean ± standard error or deviation, with the deviation belonging to biological replicates. This ...
6
votes
1answer
74 views

“Enhancers” of enhancers?

I am looking for examples (if any) of genomic regions which regulates the activity of enhancers, either augmenting or reducing it. Essentially some kind of enhancers (or repressors) of enhancers to ...
2
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0answers
36 views

Do The Traces Genetic Diseases Remain in families?

I know that there are certain diseases that are predominant on genes. But, is there any sort of surety that if parents are suffering from a disorder then their offspring has to suffer from the same. ...
0
votes
1answer
71 views

What pattern can be learned from the data of RNA seq counts and HiC matrix? [closed]

I now have some data on the RNA seq counts and related Hi-C matrix of gene segment on a chromosome. My concern is, basically, what can we do with these data so as to establish the connection between ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

Why introduction of an extra copy of a gene related to pigmentation causes RNA interference in Petunia?

RNAi became famous after Fire and Mello experiment in C.elegans; however, it had been observed before. In the 80's, Jorgensen was trying to increase pigmentation of Petunia flowers by introducing ...
4
votes
1answer
236 views

Epistasis Across Chromosomes and Individuals 'Homozygous for Interactions'

Apologies for any failures in nomenclature. I'm a mathematician who is making a foray into genetics for a masters thesis. Specifically, I'm generating artificial diploid genetic sequence data and ...
5
votes
1answer
257 views

Where to find E.coli gene expression data?

I am searching E.coli whole genome expression data with different conditions, any suggestion is appreciated. Condition could be for example different growth temperature, different medias, etc. I have ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

How can CI repressor both activate and repress $P_{RM}$ promoter found in $\lambda$ phage?

I'm reading a paper where the authors constructed a toggle switch that uses bidirectional $P_R/P_{RM}$ promoter found in the $\lambda$ phage. There are 3 binding sites - $O_{R1}$, $O_{R2}$, $O_{R3}$ - ...
7
votes
1answer
377 views

Cytoplasmic determinants - protostomes and deuterostomes

Cytoplasmic determinants are spread unevenly in the egg, and so when embryo starts forming (cells start dividing), the determinants are also unequally divided between cell. This unequal distribution ...