Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Reconstituting genomes of archaic tribes of humans

Will it be logically possible for genome studies to reconstitute the genomes of our local human populations as they were 2000 and 4000 years ago? What is the mathematical precision and science for ...
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Why do we need to replicate incomplete DNA fragments by PCR from crime scene?

If the DNA from crime scene is damaged ,why would it be helpful to replicate it by PCR(polymerase chain reaction)? I mean even we get billions of that copies ,it is still incomplete,isn't it ? How ...
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Crick’s Central Dogma — Counter Cases

I was recently reading about non-coding RNAs being a counter example to Central Dogma of Biology. Can someone add more cases which violate the Central Dogma? Thanks! UPDATE - Reference of lncRNAs ...
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Finding diploid neanderthal alignment data, looking for ambiguity codes

I'm using Neanderthal alignment data from here: http://www.eva.mpg.de/neandertal/draft-neandertal-genome/data.html Specifically, the .bam files. I would like to find alignments for neanderthal ...
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One blue and one brown eye. What's up with that? [on hold]

I am studying Mendelian genetics -> Punett Square , but no match is there for below: One of my best friends in elementary school had one blue and one brown eye. What's up with that?
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X-linked Traits in Males and Their Effect

Let's say you're a male and you're hemizygous for an x-linked recessive trait (i.e. Haemophilia), will you express that trait? A question from my textbook can be paraphrased as follows, Tom and ...
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25 views

Why does the cloned cat, CC, exhibit mosaic fur color?

Since fur color in this cat is from a sex-dependent gene, I see how calico cats occur. However, I don't fully understand why it happens in cloned cats. When the cat is cloned, the DNA is taken from a ...
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Genetic diversity of Archae attributable to viral transduction?

I recognize that bacteriophages have the ability to accidentally trap host Bacteria DNA upon assembly. This allows the transduction of one bacterium's DNA into other bacteria when the virus ...
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A and AB blood types from B and O?

My grandma is O- blood type, my grandpa is B+, but my mother is A+ and my aunt is AB+. Is that possible? I've just looked at different sources like this and all of them are saying that from O and B, ...
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Quantifying the number of fragments from RAD library

I have a series of single-end reads from a RAD library of 48 uniquely tagged individuals in fastaq format. The data comes from a small MiSeq run. I want to know the number of unique fragments per ...
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What is the name of the method used for solving the problem?

Problem: A Drosphila sp. heterozygous female of the X-linked recessive traits encoded by alleles a,b and c is crossed with a male that is phenotypically a,b and c. If offprings occur in the ...
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Is blunt end repair and A-tailing necessary when adaptors can be custom made?

I'm planning on creating a RADseq library, which naturally involves digesting genomic DNA following P1 adaptor ligation. I've read a few protocols that require any over-hangs resulting from ...
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179 views

Why does human chromosome 19 have the second highest number of protein-coding genes?

While chromosome 19 only is the 19th largest autosomal chromosome, it contains 1440 protein-coding genes, and thus has the second highest number of protein-coding genes of any human chromosome. For ...
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35 views

Crossing over : Holliday model

In this figure out of the two heteroduplexes formed one is considered to be non-recombinant product(left) and the other recombinant product(right). My question is despite the exchange of middle DNA ...
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51 views

What are the exceptions of Mendel's laws?

What are the exceptions of $-$ Law of dominance Law of independent assortment Law of segregation My knowledge: Exception of law of dominance: Incomplete dominance: Unlike dominance in ...
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21 views

A question about cat coat colour genetics

I have a question about cat coat colour genetics. Concretely, the breed Russian Blue comes in several colours. The desired colour is "blue" which is black diluted and is recessive. See for example ...
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24 views

Confusion over equations for population's heterozygosity vs. heterozygous individuals

On page 24 of Gillespie's Population Genetics, 2nd ed, an equation for $H$, the probability that two randomly drawn alleles are different by state, is given. $H$ is stated to be similar to the ...
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32 views

Problems with housekeeping genes

I have tried several housekeeping genes to analise the relative expresion of a cytokine for measure the inflamatory local response in mice ears, all the housekeeping genes I have tried are not stable (...
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32 views

Can you knockout a gene specifically in the dorsal root ganglion in adult mammals?

Since the dorsal root ganglion is so small, would that be easier than the entire body?
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39 views

What is heteroduplex?

I fail to understand the what exactly is heteroduplex due to unavailability of a suitable diagram. According to wikipidea: A heteroduplex is a double-stranded (duplex) molecule of nucleic acid ...
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33 views

Is it possible to have a random un-mutation of genes?

According to this article: Gene mutations can be classified in two major ways: Hereditary mutations are inherited from a parent and are present throughout a person’s life in virtually ...
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78 views

How Much DNA do Siblings whose Parents are First Cousins Share?

On average, two siblings generally share 50% of their genome. How much does this increase if the siblings' parents are first cousins?
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18 views

How does gene editing in one cell affect other cells?

I have read about gene editing and I have some questions concerning this technology: With gene editing, are we correcting the genes in all the cells or a single cell? If the gene editing is done ...
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23 views

Is brachydactyly due to mutation?

I have this so called "clubbed thumbs"also known as brachydactyly. It is of D-type. I searched for it on internet and found that it is a dominant inherited disease. But to my surprise,none of my ...
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Are all prokaryotic promotor regions the same, or do they differ depending on the product of the transcript?

Are all prokaryotic promotor regions the same or do they differ depending on the protein encoded by the mRNA being transcribed? What I am thinking is that if activator proteins are a method of ...
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49 views

Passing on Alleles

Just a basic question on alleles, I am just trying to learn the basic concepts. So if we are to screen two parents, both with one dominant and one recessive allele for a given characteristic e.g. eye ...
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When was it discovered XY chromosomes decide the sex of a child in humans?

Several stories are told from before-genetic-age (books and movies are my reference, the one present in my mind is Marie-Antoinette by Copola) in which we can always see that women are blamed for ...
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14 views

Allele-specific bisulfite sequencing

When evaluating methylation status at various CpG sites after sequencing, how much consideration should one give to random single base pair insertions and deletions. Suppose there is a CA dinucleotide;...
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15 views

What are chemical candidates for replicator molecule?

I have read Selfish gene by Richard Dawkins and idea is that at random some molecule was synthesized that had a property if there is enough 'materials' to construct ...
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26 views

“Genotype structure”?

What does a geneticist mean when they write "genotype structure", e.g. the sentence "...represents continuous allele frequencies for both tumor and normal samples, while leveraging the expected ...
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17 views

Genetic screening understanding requisites

I am a mathematics and philosophy undergraduate student studying a bit of a biology as part of a philosophy research project on genetic screening. I have not studied biology since I was 16 and I was ...
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Is there a place or tool from which I can find or generate genome data for epistasis detection?

I am busy researching a school project for my honors in Electrical Engineering. The project is to create a deep neural network to detect epistasis. I have very little knowledge in the bioinformatics ...
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62 views

Why didn't Mendel ever see the recombination?

I saw a video on youtube of a professor saying it's because of the quantity of peas. So Mendel would never have published his work if by any chance he had found a pea with recombination. Someone can ...
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24 views

The drawing of genetic crosses

I'm preparing myself for the GRE. The quantitative stuff has all been going well. I'm aiming for a geology grad scheme. In the event of having to take subject specific tests, I'm teaching myself a few ...
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38 views

Human Demography - Where can I find this statistic?

In "An Introduction to Genetics" by David J. Merrell, copyright 1975 by W.W. Norton + Co., p. 742, in the Chapter "Genetic Counseling and Eugenics," the author states: "... 50% of the women produce 85%...
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245 views

What do the letters 'p' and 'c' mean in mutation descriptions?

Example: NM_000525.3(KCNJ11):c. 67A>G ( p. Lys23Glu) AND Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus Does "p" stand for "polymorphism"? What does the letter "c" stand for?
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105 views

Are all genetic instructions in DNA?

Wiki says DNA is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. What ...
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Why can dogs not have a pink(ish) coat color?

In yellow dogs, there is a mutation in the MC1R gene which leads to a nonfunctional receptor. This leads to the production of pheomelanin which is pink/red (depending on concentration) instead of ...
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ExAC Browser: What does a “dubious variant annotation” actually mean? [closed]

I wonder how a "dubious" variant annotation is exactly defined in ExAC. I couldn't find any further information neither at the variant's page nor in the FAQs. Link to ExAC browser. Link to variant ...
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Is there any technique other than restriction enzymes to introduce staggered cuts into DNA?

I'm curious about introducing staggered cuts into DNA, but wonder if there is a way to do this in vivo in E. coli, as I heard introducing restriction enzymes on a plasmid would end up just shredding ...
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How do you technically perform the Ames test?

Is it necessary to take into account the volume of gm-agar(bottom) in the concentration determination, or is that determined only by the concentration in the top agar? I found several articles that ...
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27 views

Can restriction sites be used as PCR primers?

I have a DNA fragment that contains the gene of interest sandwiched by restriction enzyme sites. Then, can PCR amplify the entire fragment, recognizing the restriction enzyme sites?
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51 views

Why People have skin color between fair and dark? [closed]

According to Mendel's laws traits do not show any blending. So according to his laws people only with fair or dark skin should exist. Do the alleles in this case blend? And why?
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Why was the study of “Concordance of Monozygotic and Dizygotic twins for traits” designed in this way? [closed]

I am confused by the twin study 'Concordance of Monozygotic and Dizygotic twins for traits.' My questions arose from 3:17-4:17 of the video And this is the related data I have referred I have ...
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25 views

How to recognise the type of allele by pedigree analysis diagrams?

It was said that this interference pattern is due to dominant allele. I fail to see that. In general how to recognise the type of allele by pedigree analysis diagrams?
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Hybridization of an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and a Tibeto-Burmese ethnic group

The state in which I reside houses these two distinct ethnic groups. Physical Traits of the Indo-Aryan group Height:Medium Eyes:does not posses epicanthic fold Nasal bones:is not flat and broad ...
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32 views

Are antibiotic-resistant bacteria necessarily less virulent than their original strain?

In the absence of antibiotic treatment, is there a reduction in the average severity of disease caused by resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria compared to wild-type ones? I would assume that ...
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57 views

What´s the origin of junk DNA?

Most eukaryotes posses a certain amount of junk DNA in their cell nuclei. What is (are) the origin(s) of this junk DNA, And is it realy junk (superfluous)?
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How do I know if the tRNA gene is under purifying selection from looking at a sequence dataset?

I'm having trouble figuring out how to tell if a tRNA gene is under purifying selection, just by looking at its sequence dataset. Such as this one:
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How is the size of a gene defined?

Is there an agreed definition as to how many nucleic acid bases constitute a gene? If not, why not? I'm not sure I understand how the exact sizes of genes are defined.