Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Quantitative Trait Locus process?

I do not seem to understand the concept of Quantitative Trait Loci(QTL's), can anyone explain it to me in detail? Reading the wikipedia article helped somewhat, but I do not understand it well. What ...
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27 views

The future of human evolution [on hold]

While in college I read a book that said human have stopped evolving internally, but rather we now evolve externally in the form of technology, ie instead of growing claws we make a knife. Is this ...
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In human females one X chromosome is inactivated forming Barr Body. Then How exactly Haemophilia is dominant? check description for details

Suppose a female has one X chromosome normal and one chromosome with Haemophilic gene. Now suppose if the X chromosome which is normal is inactivated will the female show haemophilia?
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Y Chromosome in Ovary Cancer Data

I have been analyzing TCGA Ovary Cancer data. In Somatic Mutation data, there is data of mutations in all the chromosomes (1-22 and X), but amazingly, I have found one (just one) row of Y Chromosome ...
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35 views

what is linkage disequilibrium supposed to measure?

During reading about genetics I came across with the term of linkage disequilibrium, and I do not really understand what it supposed to mean. What is linkage disequilibrium? My current understanding ...
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24 views

Help reading gene markers

I'm sorry if "gene markers" is not the correct word. An edit could be appreciated but I don't study in an English speaking country unfortunately. Question overview: In a family, there is a genetic, ...
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Help reading chromatogram

A genetic variation is found in this chromatogram: It says that the "reference sequence" is the top line and that I can use the general genetic code to find the reading frame. I can see that there ...
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36 views

“bead” on a string theory of genetics, source?

Thomas Hunt Morgan was a pioneer in genetics and proposed the now false model of genes being "beads" on a string. These beads being indivisible and responsible for a single phenotype, if I understand ...
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What is the explanation for forensic samples with abundant suspect's nDNA and no suspect's mtDNA at all? [on hold]

What is the explanation when DNA tests on the same biological trace show a perfect STR markers match for a person's nDNA but his mtDNA cannot be found in the same sample? And degradation must be ...
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370 views

Did cats evolve from monkeys ? or vice versa?

Did cats evolve from monkeys ? or vice versa ? How similar are the genes of cats and monkeys ? What is the proof that they are related or that they are not related ? Most monkeys climb in trees and ...
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Do sodium channels keep renewing themselves with new subunits made by genes?

genes make alpha beta gamma subunits (proteins) to be used in making sodium channels... If I understand correctly? And so, since the genes keep making those subunits, does that mean new sodium ...
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Do genes keep coding for sodium channels functions throughout life and not just once at beginning? [on hold]

Regarding the genes for sodium channel functions. Do the genes determine sodium channels functions and behaviors for life when the organism is an embryo? Or do genes continue coding how the sodium ...
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58 views

Is it possible to knock out a gene in adults?

gene knockout is mainly used in creating newborn animals... right? Well can you do it to already-adult animals or humans so that they themselves would experience change in their body and not just ...
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What is the most reliable tumour suppressing gene for NSCLC?

I was looking at some tumour suppressing genes that can be helpful in diagnosing lung cancer (particularly NSCLC - Non-small-cell lung carcinoma) at an early stage. I came across a few such as p53, ...
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2answers
67 views

Non Coding DNA and its effect on evolution

I had a discussion with a friend of mine; from his understanding, bacteria and other small organisms have higher amounts of "coding" DNA and, as such, are able to evolve much faster than organisms ...
2
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21 views

How do I make conclusions from the autoradiograph of a Southern blot?

Here's another question taken from "Concepts of Genetics," Klug et al (10ed), revolving around a paternity test. PCR and a Southern blot were carried out in order to determine whether 3 chimpanzees ...
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47 views

GWAS: why is replication in another cohort so crucial?

Almost all the landmark GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) reviews agree that, for a GWAS finding to be valid, it needs to be replicated in an independent cohort. What exactly is the rationale ...
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20 views

Genetic Relationship Matrix

The classical definition of the Genetic Matrix G = ZZ'/2p(1-p) where Z = M - P where P = 2(p-0.5) I don't have a background in biology but understand Maths and ...
3
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1answer
24 views

Forensic genetics- why is mtDNA comparison sometimes better than nDNA comparison?

Why is (in forensic genetics) in some cases more appropriate comparison of nuclear DNA but in some other cases comparison of mitochondrial DNA? Is it because geneticists are sometimes unable to find ...
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1answer
17 views

Term for a leaf in a family tree

Imagine a family pedigree. Mathematically it is a graph, which consists of nodes and edges. Nodes being family members, and edges - their relationships. In a clinical setting, what is the proper ...
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28 views

What governs the distribution of blood vessels?

Whenever someone is sick, doctor places 2 fingers on wrist & observes the heart-beat-rate by feeling pulses of a certain artery. To me it seems the distribution of blood vessels are pretty ...
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How can the phenotypic effects of a tumor suppressor mutation be silenced?

I've been reading a little about the "two-hit" hypothesis for tumor suppressor genes here, which mentions that some genes exhibiting haploinsufficiency are exceptions to the hypothesis. I've read ...
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26 views

How to tell if a given gene is a tumor suppressor or oncogene?

This is a problem taken from "Concepts of Genetics", Klug et al, 10e. I'm given the following table about the mutations in the BRCA1 gene: $$\begin{array}{c|c|c|c|c} ...
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32 views

DIY storing family DNAs' samples for future uses (eg medical)

I have a question I could not get an understandable reply from Google and I am no expert in the matter, so my plead to you is if you could give me practical and relatively easy to follow advice. With ...
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559 views

Why didn't a concept like “pointers” in Computer Science evolve in the genome?

I see that the genome contains large regions of repeating sequences called interspersed or dispersed elements. The long dispersed elements (LINES) such as LINE-1, can reach up to 6-8 kb in length. ...
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40 views

Where to find gene manipulation video (or photos)

I hope Im not asking a dumb question! Where can i find video of gene manipulation in action under microscope? Like extracting a gene from a cell, fixing gene mutations, putting the gene in a vector, ...
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Swapping genes?

So, gene therapy is to take out a gene, correct its mutation, and put the corrected one back into the organism, right? Is it also possible to take out a gene from an organism and put in a totally ...
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Do The Traces Genetic Diseases Remain in families?

I know that there are certain diseases that are predominant on genes. But, is there any sort of surety that if parents are suffering from a disorder then their offspring has to suffer from the same. ...
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31 views

Genetic Imprinting and Cell differentiaion

It does not seem possible that these two processes can coexist: 1) Genetic imprinting is the phenomenon where genes are expressed differently depending on the parent of origin: 1a. Methylated ...
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55 views

Are genotypes with the same two alleles equivalent even if the alleles come from different parents?

I am looking at the following question If $m$ alleles may occur at a given locus, how many distinct diploid genotypes are possible at that locus? The obvious answer is that there their is $m$ ...
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51 views

Hardy-Weinberg Color-blind

In a city, 4% of male population have color blindness. How many of the female are (a) color blind carrier, (b) color blind? Suppose the city holds Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. My progress: 4% of male ...
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48 views

Markers for human genetic mapping

For human genetic mapping several different types of markers are used: RFLPs (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms) VNTRs (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) such as mini- and microsatellites ...
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1answer
48 views

Horizontal Gene Transfer

I understand the different ways bacteria can undergo horizontal gene transfer (transformation, transduction (phages), conjugation (plasmids)). Is there an experimental method to tell how a specific ...
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142 views

Where do amino acids get attached to tRNA and where is it synthesized?

Some very basic parts of transcription/translation seem to be left out in various literature. I can't find the answer to this anywhere: How exactly is tRNA synthesized? I realize that mRNA is ...
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Solid mouse (C57BL/6) WT primers

I am trying to get a good pair (or better yet, library of pairs) of primers that give me one band in WT mice (C57BL/6). Do you know where I could find such a thing? Alternatively, I thought of just ...
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118 views

Circadian Clock During a Flight

I am interested to know how does our Circadian Clock respond (and its resultant changes if any) when we are traveling across Time Zones? UPDATE 24th April I am reopening this question as the ...
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Epistasis Across Chromosomes and Individuals 'Homozygous for Interactions'

Apologies for any failures in nomenclature. I'm a mathematician who is making a foray into genetics for a masters thesis. Specifically, I'm generating artificial diploid genetic sequence data and ...
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116 views

Are there any mutagens that can undo the mutations they cause?

I was reading a section from my textbook about tautomeric shifts, and it seems to suggest that there are some mutagens that can be directly responsible for the phenomenon. The section is mainly ...
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Understanding recombination scoring in family pedigrees

I am having some problems understanding recombination, and I am not sure what element I am missing here. This figure is an example from my text book. The pedigree belongs to a family with an autosomal ...
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Are there mechanisms that limit the amounts of time conjugation and F-plasmid transfer can happen? If yes, what are they?

Not all bacteria have acquired F-plasmids through conjugation. Some of the mechanisms for this are unsuccesful conjugation events (mechanical disruption), no transfer due to integration in bacterial ...
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RNA polymerase question

In this question we are examining a bacterial RNA polymerase that elongates at 20 codons per second. Question 1: How long will this RNA polymerase take to transcribe the Lac Z gene at 3510 base pairs? ...
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Splice in with CRISPR/Cas

I need to splice a gene into a human cell genome, with highest rate possible. I mean, doesn't really matter where the gene enters, nor does it matter if some cells die as a result of this. CRISPR ...
9
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1answer
111 views

Why does polyploidy give an evolutionary advantage?

I would like to know what advantages polyploidy holds. I have come across a few examples during my research of polyploidy, for example human adults' hearts contain 27% diploid, 71% tetraploid and 2% ...
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Why don't all bacteria have F-plasmids by now?

Some bacteria can undergo gene transfer by conjugation. Conjugation is a form of horizontal gene transfer, meaning from one (unrelated) bacterium to another (in contrast to vertical gene transfer, ...
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Why does allele linkage cause disproportionate phenotypic ratios? [closed]

I was learning about allele linkage in Biology class and I got confused by the resultant phenotypic ratios. Say you have a dihybrid cross BbGg x BbGg. The Punnett square would look like the ...
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Understanding conclusions that functional regions are under negative selection?

I am reading in notes for a comparative annotation lecture that : all DNA is subject to mutations most functional regions are under negative selection (ie., mutations are often deleterious) The ...
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1answer
149 views

Possible genotypes for blood types?

If I am blood type B, what are all the possible genotypes that could be expressed by my parents? I think it might be 16 but I was reading online and saw this: Similarly, someone who is blood type ...
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1answer
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Is it possible that a woman possessing 1 mutated allele show attenuated color vision deficiency?

Women possess 2 X chromossomes, however, during development, when the embryo has about 32~64 cells, one of these chromosomes is randomly inactivated (in each cell) by a lncRNA named Xist. As a ...
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How to determine genotype?

In humans, the ability or inability to roll the tongue is a single gene trait. The allele for tongue rolling (R) is dominant to the allele for not being able to roll the tongue (r). Whether ...
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Is there a genomic code for nucleosome positioning?

What does a genomic code for nucleosome positioning in eukaryotes actually mean? By the code is it right to think that specific DNA sequences favour nucleosomes and others don't? I see that there for ...