Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Why didn't Mendel ever see the recombination?

I saw a video on youtube of a professor saying it's because of the quantity of peas. So Mendel would never have published his work if by any chance he had found a pea with recombination. Someone can ...
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20 views

The drawing of genetic crosses

I'm preparing myself for the GRE. The quantitative stuff has all been going well. I'm aiming for a geology grad scheme. In the event of having to take subject specific tests, I'm teaching myself a few ...
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34 views

Human Demography - Where can I find this statistic?

In "An Introduction to Genetics" by David J. Merrell, copyright 1975 by W.W. Norton + Co., p. 742, in the Chapter "Genetic Counseling and Eugenics," the author states: "... 50% of the women produce 85%...
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211 views

What do the letters 'p' and 'c' mean in mutation descriptions?

Example: NM_000525.3(KCNJ11):c. 67A>G ( p. Lys23Glu) AND Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus Does "p" stand for "polymorphism"? What does the letter "c" stand for?
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81 views

Are all genetic instructions in DNA?

Wiki says DNA is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. What ...
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15 views

Why can dogs not have a pink(ish) coat color?

In yellow dogs, there is a mutation in the MC1R gene which leads to a nonfunctional receptor. This leads to the production of pheomelanin which is pink/red (depending on concentration) instead of ...
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What's the difference between “mixing” and “combination” of chromosomes? [closed]

What's the difference between "mixing of chromosomes" and "combination of chromosomes" ?
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39 views

ExAC Browser: What does a “dubious variant annotation” actually mean? [closed]

I wonder how a "dubious" variant annotation is exactly defined in ExAC. I couldn't find any further information neither at the variant's page nor in the FAQs. Link to ExAC browser. Link to variant ...
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12 views

Is there any technique other than restriction enzymes to introduce staggered cuts into DNA?

I'm curious about introducing staggered cuts into DNA, but wonder if there is a way to do this in vivo in E. coli, as I heard introducing restriction enzymes on a plasmid would end up just shredding ...
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40 views

Is it possible to create the “perfect plant” at home? [closed]

I am starting a hydroponics farm/garden and I am interested in creating something like the perfect lettuce. I want attributes like crunch factor and shelf life. Is this a possibility that I could do ...
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17 views

How do you technically perform the Ames test?

Is it necessary to take into account the volume of gm-agar(bottom) in the concentration determination, or is that determined only by the concentration in the top agar? I found several articles that ...
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26 views

Can restriction sites be used as PCR primers?

I have a DNA fragment that contains the gene of interest sandwiched by restriction enzyme sites. Then, can PCR amplify the entire fragment, recognizing the restriction enzyme sites?
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47 views

Why People have skin color between fair and dark?

According to Mendel's laws traits do not show any blending. So according to his laws people only with fair or dark skin should exist. Do the alleles in this case blend? And why?
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36 views

Why was the study of “Concordance of Monozygotic and Dizygotic twins for traits” designed in this way? [on hold]

I am confused by the twin study 'Concordance of Monozygotic and Dizygotic twins for traits.' My questions arose from 3:17-4:17 of the video And this is the related data I have referred I have ...
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1answer
18 views

How to recognise the type of allele by pedigree analysis diagrams?

It was said that this interference pattern is due to dominant allele. I fail to see that. In general how to recognise the type of allele by pedigree analysis diagrams?
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20 views

Hybridization of an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and a Tibeto-Burmese ethnic group

The state in which I reside houses these two distinct ethnic groups. Physical Traits of the Indo-Aryan group Height:Medium Eyes:does not posses epicanthic fold Nasal bones:is not flat and broad ...
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1answer
24 views

Are antibiotic-resistant bacteria necessarily less virulent than their original strain?

In the absence of antibiotic treatment, is there a reduction in the average severity of disease caused by resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria compared to wild-type ones? I would assume that ...
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53 views

What´s the origin of junk DNA?

Most eukaryotes posses a certain amount of junk DNA in their cell nuclei. What is (are) the origin(s) of this junk DNA, And is it realy junk (superfluous)?
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29 views

How do I know if the tRNA gene is under purifying selection from looking at a sequence dataset?

I'm having trouble figuring out how to tell if a tRNA gene is under purifying selection, just by looking at its sequence dataset. Such as this one:
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3answers
148 views

How is the size of a gene defined?

Is there an agreed definition as to how many nucleic acid bases constitute a gene? If not, why not? I'm not sure I understand how the exact sizes of genes are defined.
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52 views

Perplexing by the way of estimating the shared or different genes between humans and chimps

We share 98.5% genes with chimps (it means we have 98.5% same DNA sequeces ),so there is about one percent difference .It means we can approximately differ from them by one base pair every hundred ...
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25 views

What is the effective population size of a simple two deme metapopulation?

I am confused as to how to compute the effective population size $N_e$ of a theoretical structured population. Let's consider here a simple case study. Imagine a 2-deme metapopulation. Each deme is ...
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43 views

Is there an evolutionary advantage associated with migraine? [duplicate]

I have read Wikipedia article on Genetics of migraine headaches and I don't buy it Because genetics influence susceptibility to migraine, it can be shaped by evolution. Fitness-impairing ...
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19 views

What does high level science actually say about the gay gene? [duplicate]

There is a lot of talk about genetics in the contemporary debate on the morality of homosexual behavior (and bisexual behavior, hereafter implied). As I understand the issue, the thought is not that ...
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25 views

What is the relationship between independent assortment and cross over?

During meiosis, the independent assortment will be made first and then cross over will be made. I am so confused, what is the difference between this two process? I looked at the diagram on internet....
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45 views

What types of species can produce genetically identical offspring? [closed]

Talking about identical twins, triplets, etc. I'm curious which types of species are able produce genetically identical offspring. Let's limit the scope to species that reproduce sexually and ...
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137 views

The human has 46 double chromosomes or simple chromosomes?

What I mean: does the human cell have 46 of these: or 46 of these: Thank you in advance.
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19 views

Effects of pulverizing liquid nitrogen frozen tissue by by pestle and mortar

Does RNA, DNA or protein molecule break during pulverizing (liquid nitrogen) frozen tissue by pestle and mortar. As I want to make cDNA for qPCR, this is very important to me to know this.
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84 views

How likely is it that a person's progeny has an inheritable disorder based on this pedigree?

Case study: A person (let's just call him "John") had 3 aunts that died back in the 1950's in early childhood due to an unknown form of neuromuscular disorder. One died at birth, one at 2 years and ...
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50 views

Can we infect with “bad” genes other organisms? [closed]

We know that some organism's DNA stay with human for life (Herpes) and we also can, i think, design such "gene" that can interact with human's DNA-polymerase very intensive. If we attached this gene ...
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40 views

Has a restriction enzyme ever been tagged?

As part of an experiment that I am preparing, it would seem necessary for me to tag a restriction enzyme (HaeIII to be exact) with GFP. I began researching its domains to determine whether to tag the ...
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2answers
64 views

Are heterozygotes always fitter than homozygotes? Can inbreeding be beneficial?

Inbreeding is mostly not very good because when there is a 'disease' in one allele, the other could/would take over the function. But when you have two of the same genes/alleles, do they, or could ...
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93 views

Can animals also get Down syndrome?

I heard that animals cannot get Down syndrome or trisomy. Is that true and why can't they get it? They also have chromosomes.
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Difference in associated SNPs in GWAS

I noticed that when GWAS studies are being replicated, some SNPs near a gene known to cause a trait are enriched in frequency in those with the trait. However, among the different studies, the most ...
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H is the set of all possible Diplotypes that are consistent with genotype data

I am new to Biology.SX. I have a statistics background, and have almost zero knowledge in genetics. I am trying to understand some things related to genetics in a certain paper of biostatistics. ...
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33 views

Distribution of Exon and Intron Sizes

Goal I am trying to get a distribution of Exons and intron sizes in Three-Spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Data downloaded I downloaded some data from Ensembl. More precisely, I went ...
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104 views

How to retrieve logical expression (KO based) for reactions from KEGG?

Whether a module is complete or not can easily be checked by evaluating the Definition entry associated with the module; e.g. in module M00010, it is given by <...
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29 views

What is the genetic difference between two cone branches?

As we can see on this larch, male and female cones are sometimes directed to grow on the opposite side of the branch. We were told in school that this mechanism works against self-fertilization. Also ...
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16 views

What do recessive/dominant alleles actually mean in terms of modern genomics? [duplicate]

In Mendelian genetics, we discuss phenotypes, which are specified by the alternative versions of genes called alleles. In terms of peas, the phenotype "round pea" encoded by one allele of a gene is ...
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1answer
46 views

Current state of Gene Therapy [closed]

I am interested in learning about attempts to treat adult individuals suffering from a genetic disease in which the underlying changes in the DNA of the gene are understood. (i) Are there approaches ...
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37 views

What are silent carrier traits? [closed]

I couldn't find a definition but I have come to know the following from google search: People who are carriers of a thalassemia gene show no thalassemia symptoms and might not know they're ...
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76 views

What are sex linked traits?

Which of the two definitions of sex-linked trait is correct? Traits controlled by genes present on the non-homologous region of sex chromosomes are called sex-...
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18 views

Links between Genetics and Personality Types

This topic was visited briefly in the thread, Genetic Effects on Personality, but I was surprised not to find more on it. (Is there a taboo I don't know about? What's the ethical stance on this ...
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61 views

Mutating a protein without mutating the gene?

Is it possible to mutate a region of a protein (says about 300 amino acids long) without actually mutating the gene? One possible way that I can think of is to use RNAi and specifically block that ...
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20 views

Lyonization and Turner's syndrome

If lyonization is basically inactivation on X chromosome, and Turner's syndrome patients have only one existing X chromosome, what is the difference between healthy women with inactivated X chromosome ...
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586 views

3 flaws of genes from the perspective of a programmer [closed]

Having a double helix structure seems like a waste of space. In programming you would have a single array and just before mitosis you would double the single helix. Having an exact copy of a cromatid. ...
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2answers
38 views

What is gene density?

As per wikipedia definition, gene density is defined as: "In genetics, the gene density of an organism's genome is the ratio of the number of genes per number of base pairs, usually written in ...
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1answer
65 views

What are Codominant vs Dominant Genetic Markers?

When talking about types of genetic markers, the adjective "dominant" and "codominant" are often used. I don't fully understand their definitions and found contradicting definitions. Foll and ...
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17 views

Statistical genetics: Allele frequencies that follow a Dirichlet distribution

From Foll and Gagiotti (2008) (software BayeScan). They consider a model where several subpopulation are derived from a unique ancestral population. We consider a set of $I$ loci and let $K_i$ be ...
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57 views

Mendel Genetics: Homework question [on hold]

I'm looking at a question right now about Mendel genetics..... Q) When Mendel crossed a large number of tall pea plants with short pea plants, all F1 plants were tall. The F2 generation was created ...