Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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How do I make conclusions from the autoradiograph of a Southern blot?

Here's another question taken from "Concepts of Genetics," Klug et al (10ed), revolving around a paternity test. PCR and a Southern blot were carried out in order to determine whether 3 chimpanzees ...
2
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1answer
32 views

GWAS: why is replication in another cohort so crucial?

Almost all the landmark GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) reviews agree that, for a GWAS finding to be valid, it needs to be replicated in an independent cohort. What exactly is the rationale ...
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19 views

Genetic Relationship Matrix

The classical definition of the Genetic Matrix G = ZZ'/2p(1-p) where Z = M - P where P = 2(p-0.5) I don't have a background in biology but understand Maths and ...
3
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1answer
23 views

Forensic genetics- why is mtDNA comparison sometimes better than nDNA comparison?

Why is (in forensic genetics) in some cases more appropriate comparison of nuclear DNA but in some other cases comparison of mitochondrial DNA? Is it because geneticists are sometimes unable to find ...
2
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1answer
16 views

Term for a leaf in a family tree

Imagine a family pedigree. Mathematically it is a graph, which consists of nodes and edges. Nodes being family members, and edges - their relationships. In a clinical setting, what is the proper ...
2
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1answer
27 views

What governs the distribution of blood vessels?

Whenever someone is sick, doctor places 2 fingers on wrist & observes the heart-beat-rate by feeling pulses of a certain artery. To me it seems the distribution of blood vessels are pretty ...
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31 views

How can the phenotypic effects of a tumor suppressor mutation be silenced?

I've been reading a little about the "two-hit" hypothesis for tumor suppressor genes here, which mentions that some genes exhibiting haploinsufficiency are exceptions to the hypothesis. I've read ...
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1answer
24 views

How to tell if a given gene is a tumor suppressor or oncogene?

This is a problem taken from "Concepts of Genetics", Klug et al, 10e. I'm given the following table about the mutations in the BRCA1 gene: $$\begin{array}{c|c|c|c|c} ...
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1answer
30 views

DIY storing family DNAs' samples for future uses (eg medical)

I have a question I could not get an understandable reply from Google and I am no expert in the matter, so my plead to you is if you could give me practical and relatively easy to follow advice. With ...
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1answer
557 views

Why didn't a concept like “pointers” in Computer Science evolve in the genome?

I see that the genome contains large regions of repeating sequences called interspersed or dispersed elements. The long dispersed elements (LINES) such as LINE-1, can reach up to 6-8 kb in length. ...
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40 views

Where to find gene manipulation video (or photos)

I hope Im not asking a dumb question! Where can i find video of gene manipulation in action under microscope? Like extracting a gene from a cell, fixing gene mutations, putting the gene in a vector, ...
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53 views

Swapping genes?

So, gene therapy is to take out a gene, correct its mutation, and put the corrected one back into the organism, right? Is it also possible to take out a gene from an organism and put in a totally ...
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29 views

Do The Traces Genetic Diseases Remain in families?

I know that there are certain diseases that are predominant on genes. But, is there any sort of surety that if parents are suffering from a disorder then their offspring has to suffer from the same. ...
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1answer
30 views

Genetic Imprinting and Cell differentiaion

It does not seem possible that these two processes can coexist: 1) Genetic imprinting is the phenomenon where genes are expressed differently depending on the parent of origin: 1a. Methylated ...
2
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1answer
53 views

Are genotypes with the same two alleles equivalent even if the alleles come from different parents?

I am looking at the following question If $m$ alleles may occur at a given locus, how many distinct diploid genotypes are possible at that locus? The obvious answer is that there their is $m$ ...
3
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1answer
50 views

Hardy-Weinberg Color-blind

In a city, 4% of male population have color blindness. How many of the female are (a) color blind carrier, (b) color blind? Suppose the city holds Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. My progress: 4% of male ...
2
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1answer
45 views

Markers for human genetic mapping

For human genetic mapping several different types of markers are used: RFLPs (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms) VNTRs (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) such as mini- and microsatellites ...
2
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1answer
48 views

Horizontal Gene Transfer

I understand the different ways bacteria can undergo horizontal gene transfer (transformation, transduction (phages), conjugation (plasmids)). Is there an experimental method to tell how a specific ...
5
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1answer
140 views

Where do amino acids get attached to tRNA and where is it synthesized?

Some very basic parts of transcription/translation seem to be left out in various literature. I can't find the answer to this anywhere: How exactly is tRNA synthesized? I realize that mRNA is ...
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13 views

Solid mouse (C57BL/6) WT primers

I am trying to get a good pair (or better yet, library of pairs) of primers that give me one band in WT mice (C57BL/6). Do you know where I could find such a thing? Alternatively, I thought of just ...
9
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1answer
97 views

Circadian Clock During a Flight

I am interested to know how does our Circadian Clock respond (and its resultant changes if any) when we are traveling across Time Zones?
4
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1answer
25 views

Epistasis Across Chromosomes and Individuals 'Homozygous for Interactions'

Apologies for any failures in nomenclature. I'm a mathematician who is making a foray into genetics for a masters thesis. Specifically, I'm generating artificial diploid genetic sequence data and ...
5
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1answer
116 views

Are there any mutagens that can undo the mutations they cause?

I was reading a section from my textbook about tautomeric shifts, and it seems to suggest that there are some mutagens that can be directly responsible for the phenomenon. The section is mainly ...
5
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1answer
74 views

Understanding recombination scoring in family pedigrees

I am having some problems understanding recombination, and I am not sure what element I am missing here. This figure is an example from my text book. The pedigree belongs to a family with an autosomal ...
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Are there mechanisms that limit the amounts of time conjugation and F-plasmid transfer can happen? If yes, what are they?

Not all bacteria have acquired F-plasmids through conjugation. Some of the mechanisms for this are unsuccesful conjugation events (mechanical disruption), no transfer due to integration in bacterial ...
3
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2answers
29 views

RNA polymerase question

In this question we are examining a bacterial RNA polymerase that elongates at 20 codons per second. Question 1: How long will this RNA polymerase take to transcribe the Lac Z gene at 3510 base pairs? ...
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3answers
155 views

Splice in with CRISPR/Cas

I need to splice a gene into a human cell genome, with highest rate possible. I mean, doesn't really matter where the gene enters, nor does it matter if some cells die as a result of this. CRISPR ...
9
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1answer
108 views

Why does polyploidy give an evolutionary advantage?

I would like to know what advantages polyploidy holds. I have come across a few examples during my research of polyploidy, for example human adults' hearts contain 27% diploid, 71% tetraploid and 2% ...
4
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1answer
56 views

Why don't all bacteria have F-plasmids by now?

Some bacteria can undergo gene transfer by conjugation. Conjugation is a form of horizontal gene transfer, meaning from one (unrelated) bacterium to another (in contrast to vertical gene transfer, ...
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1answer
25 views

Why does allele linkage cause disproportionate phenotypic ratios? [closed]

I was learning about allele linkage in Biology class and I got confused by the resultant phenotypic ratios. Say you have a dihybrid cross BbGg x BbGg. The Punnett square would look like the ...
2
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1answer
28 views

Understanding conclusions that functional regions are under negative selection?

I am reading in notes for a comparative annotation lecture that : all DNA is subject to mutations most functional regions are under negative selection (ie., mutations are often deleterious) The ...
3
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1answer
133 views

Possible genotypes for blood types?

If I am blood type B, what are all the possible genotypes that could be expressed by my parents? I think it might be 16 but I was reading online and saw this: Similarly, someone who is blood type ...
5
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1answer
21 views

Is it possible that a woman possessing 1 mutated allele show attenuated color vision deficiency?

Women possess 2 X chromossomes, however, during development, when the embryo has about 32~64 cells, one of these chromosomes is randomly inactivated (in each cell) by a lncRNA named Xist. As a ...
3
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1answer
31 views

How to determine genotype?

In humans, the ability or inability to roll the tongue is a single gene trait. The allele for tongue rolling (R) is dominant to the allele for not being able to roll the tongue (r). Whether ...
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1answer
30 views

Is there a genomic code for nucleosome positioning?

What does a genomic code for nucleosome positioning in eukaryotes actually mean? By the code is it right to think that specific DNA sequences favour nucleosomes and others don't? I see that there for ...
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2answers
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Can molecular genetics make a boolean variable from a continuous variable?

In the same kind of idea than this question. Gene expression are regulated through complex interactions. The concentration of enhancers and repressors is an important aspect that dictate the level of ...
3
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1answer
25 views

Obvious phenotypic inheritance markers in humans

In humans, are there phenotypic markers that prove parenthood? For example, if mother and father have <trait characteristic> (let's say, specific ear lobe ...
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3answers
47 views

Why autosomal trisomy has more adverse effects than sex choromosome monosomy or trisomy?

Autosomal Trisomy syndromes are usually lethal but sex chromosome number related abnormalities do not lead to that much fatality. why?
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34 views

Barr body Giemsa staining

Why not all the female cheek cells show Barr Bodies when stained with Giemsa stain?? only 30 to 40 % female cells showed Barr Bodies . Why?
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2answers
53 views

C. elegans are either male or hermaphrodites, but why aren't there any females?

From my understanding C. elegans are mainly hermaphrodites but are occasionally males to increase genetic variation. Why is it that random females aren't born instead to achieve he same goal (genetic ...
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Is (are) there any crucial gene(s) for the formation of flower in flowering plants? [closed]

I am interested in qualitative (flowers of some plants have petal or sepal, but some plants have not) and quantitative (number of flowers of plants) differences between flowers of different plants. ...
4
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2answers
52 views

How can (or did) Deinococcus radiodurans continue to evolve after developing resistance to mutation?

Deinococcus radiodurans has a remarkable ability to resist damage to its DNA due to radiation, dehydration or (to my knowledge) any other source. It keeps multiple copies of its genome and has a ...
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93 views

What are genome wide functional linkages?

There are two types of interaction classifications used to describe Protein-protein interactions, namely physical and functional. Whilst physical interactions are obvious in nature and methodological ...
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2answers
214 views

Do transcription factors bind to both strands of DNA?

Do transcription factors (or generally proteins) bind to only single strand of DNA or both strands? Since it can have non covalent bonds to both strands in theory. I would like to know the mechanism. ...
7
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1answer
63 views

Do DNA repressors exist?

I know about enhancers and the mechanism that lead them to increase the gene expression of their targets but I was wondering if similarly DNA repressors exist. I know about protein repressors but I am ...
6
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1answer
66 views

“Enhancers” of enhancers?

I am looking for examples (if any) of genomic regions which regulates the activity of enhancers, either augmenting or reducing it. Essentially some kind of enhancers (or repressors) of enhancers to ...
0
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1answer
51 views

Incubation time of Antarctic Phosphatase in lab [closed]

Antarctic Phosphatase is used to catalyze the removal of 5' phosphate from DNA. If I'm using it in the lab on a sample of 1-5 micrograms of digested DNA, how would I figure out how long to incubate ...
5
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1answer
73 views

Doubt on genomic code for nucleosome positioning?

I was reading "A genomic code for nucleosome positioning" (by Eran Segal et al). And I am having 2 doubts. The figure(b) in this image from the paper shows the graph of fraction (3-bp moving ...
4
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1answer
46 views

DNA sequencing problem

First off, let me start by outlining the problem: Your laboratory has established a technique for examining DNA replication in a cellular extract. To the cellular protein extract, you add ...
5
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1answer
101 views

Can human mRNA be translated in vitro by prokaryotes?

As the genetic code is universal, can mRNA from a human cell be correctly translated by a prokaryote in a in vitro translation system?