Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Artificial Gene Alteration [on hold]

Is artificial alteration/"correction" of genes conceivable? I know viruses can manipulate DNA or RNA to replicate itself, but its only temporary, right? If this were possible, how would it be gone ...
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Eukaryotes and Genetic Modification [on hold]

Assuming endosymbiotic hypothesis on Mitochondria evolution, is it feasible that humans could Genetically modify ourselves ... As far as it comes to a cell producing Mitochondria, are they present in ...
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How does non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) work?

I was reading about non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in my molecular biology of the gene textbook but the explanation provided in the text was rather vague to me, and I was not able to understand it ...
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Can sealed epiphyseal growth plates theoretically be restored via epigenetic or genetic methods?

I know that epiphyseal growth plates seal up once people become young adults and that it is currently impossible to restore them to actively produce new bone growth but, is it theoretically possible ...
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How does being Rh positive lead to terminated pregnancies? [closed]

Hi my name is Daniella I am Rh positive and I was told by my doctors that this may be a reason for miscarrying in two pregnancies. How does being Rh positive affect pregnancy, and how would treatment ...
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55 views

Is it possible for a child to grow taller than their tallest parent?

I have heard that off spring can't grow taller than either of their parents but I've also heard that sometimes some gene activation can skip generations. Is it possible for a child to grow taller than ...
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32 views

What is the result of meiosis?

Is the result of meiosis ONLY the sex gametes (male and female) which later meet to form a somatic cell? Sometimes I feel as if my book is hinting towards meiosis is the process where sperm cells meet ...
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33 views

Incomplete Dominance and Probability

I have a follow-up question about an in-lecture question (this is not a homework question). As you can see I have already answered the question and the question is closed to further submissions. ...
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1answer
29 views

Why do our epiphyseal plates close up in our late teens or early twenties?

What causes our epiphyseal plates close up in our late teens or early twenties? I realize that one's genetics plays the main role in this. I assume there is a gene that controls the epiphyseal plates ...
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39 views

Possibility of Human cloning

Techonology has evolved so much as to clone animals. But, what about human cloning? Is it really possible to create humans in lab? Or is it that technology has not advanced to that level..? Why cant ...
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38 views

How to identify genes?

You and me are different at DNA level. My eye color gene is different from yours. So, my DNA is different from yours. How can a scientist identify a certain gene in a chromosome (and its function) if ...
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26 views

How TCGA CNV values are calculated?

When I download CNV SNP array data for ovarian cancer from TCGA data portal, I see some very small numbers like -5, -6 in the "Segment_Mean" column of the segmentation data files. I am very new to ...
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40 views

What is the difference between a fixed substitution and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)?

I recently read a report that stated "We found 430 fixed substitutions […], with an additional 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) fixed within individual patients." What is the difference ...
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31 views

Definitions of robustness and canalization

The concepts of robustness and canalization are fashionable today in the biology literature. However, I am not sure of their definitions and I am not sure either that all authors actually use the same ...
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19 views

How loss of heterozygosity influence expression levels of a gene ?

I am looking at a genomic region associated with a vascular diseases; this region have loss of heterozygosity. I am wondering how the expression level of the genes in the regions will be affected ...
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65 views

At what rate do chromosomal rearrangements occur?

How often does chromosomal rearrangements occur? i.e. what is the rate of chromosomal rearrangements? I am interested about these kind of chromosomal rearrangements that are passed on to the ...
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61 views

New vs classical genome editing methods

I would like to inquire on the differences between the old classical genome editing method in comparison to the new genome editing methods such as CRISPR/Cas9. By old classical method i mean the use ...
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1answer
19 views

What is the difference between a DPY-10, DPY-11, and DPY-13?

My TA mentioned these three mutations of C. elegans since we started working with the worms but seems to skip over what the differences are...
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27 views

Are there anatomical differences between male and female mammal brains before action of hormones?

is there any evidences of these differences during development stages prior to hormone driven sexual differentiation? mice studies ?
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154 views

How to calculate relatedness in haplodiploid organisms (mainly full sisters and full brothers)?

I have tried to calculate the relatedness for haplodiploid organisms, but cannot understand the calculations behind full sister and full brother. (taken from Wikipedia: haplodiploidy I have managed ...
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34 views

Definition of “structural underdominance”?

In Stathos and Fishman (2014), the authors refer to the concept of structural underdominance. The first time they mention it is in the first paragraph of the second page (left column) and the term is ...
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23 views

Where can I upload non-human Genotype data?

I have genotype data from few chicken population and I want to (need to) upload them somewhere online with free access. I have searched the web but I haven't found any place for non-human genotype ...
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1answer
31 views

Is there an association between environmental and mutational robustness?

The robustness of a genotype is the ability of this genotype to resist (always produce the same phenotype) to various parameters such as mutations and environment. The ability of a genotype to resist ...
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11 views

Mutation-drift equilibrium and among loci variance in heterozygosity

At mutation-drift balance, the increased heterozygosity brought by new mutations is exactly equal to the loss of heterozygosity due to genetic drift. At equilibrium, the expected heterozygosity for a ...
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Can two Hfr strains of E. coli conjugate?

Genetics textbooks (and some internet searching) yield abundant examples of Hfr strains conjugating with F- cells, but these sources are surprisingly silent regarding the results of an Hfr ...
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126 views

Fisher's Geometric Model for Dummies

Fisher's geometric model is still today one of the most important and fundamental model in evolutionary biology but it seems to me that most student in evolutionary biology don't really understand it ...
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35 views

An unknown band appearing in my gel electrophoresis

I am having trouble understanding what is the source of band "2" in the following gel-electrophoresis: In this experiment, we took an E.coli transformant colony and ran its nucleic acids in the ...
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Why aren't introns found on the ends of pre-RNA?

We recently learned in genetics class that exons always cap the ends of nascent RNA. I have been trying to figure out the reason why introns can't instead be found on the ends instead of exons. The ...
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60 views

What is the point of DNA sequencing?

This is a very very basic question. I've looked at methods such as chromosome sequencing and shotgun sequencing. Wikipedia says that: ...
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32 views

Why do we use DNA sequencing methods such as shotgun?

I am learning about DNA cloning for the first time. What I understand is that, in order to clone DNA, we break-up the original gene into shreds. Then try to piece it back together. Why exactly do we ...
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Do the eggs for larger litters come from the same meiosis events, or different ones?

There are some species of animals that give birth to more than one pup at a time. In these species, are the fertilized eggs all from one or a limited group of meiosis processes, or are they from ...
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31 views

Components of the concept of Developmental Noise?

Developmental noise is a concept that correspond to the amount of possible phenotypic variance of a given genotype in a given environment. Intrinsic noise (aka Cellular noise) is a component of ...
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27 views

What is the protein used in retrotransposon in human?

I was wondering what protein is used in human for reversely transcribing the RNA intermediate to DNA in human being. and another Q is that what kind of cell produce this protein and when will it be ...
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21 views

Segregation Analysis for predicting age-specific cancer risk

I am relatively new to the world of genetics research and have been tasked with presenting to my lab the potential value of a paper that uses Complex Segregation Analysis for a risk analysis. The hope ...
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47 views

Influence of temperature on protein binding and decay rates

For computer modeling purposes, I am looking for some referenced quantitative measurements of the effect(s) of temperature on the dynamic of biochemical reactions. Question In particular, my ...
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50 views

Trisomy 21 XXY & X-inactivation

I read that X-inactivation doesn't tend to happen in males, but then when someone is XXY, they are a male because of the Y. However these individuals tend to live. So does that mean that ...
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Is the mutation rate in organisms in general consistent over the genome?

Coming from computer science with an interest in genetic programming (a process emulating evolution) I'm curious about whether the rate of mutation is homogeneous across the whole genome, or if some ...
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55 views

Influence of temperature on transcription, protein binding and decay rates

I am the kind of biologist who doesn't know much about molecular genetics and about the dynamic of biochemical reactions. Question My question concerns the influence of temperature on the dynamic of ...
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Stress-responding enhancer?

I wonder if anyone knows a well characterized human enhancer which has been shown increased activity (in e.g. reporter assays) under stressed conditions, such as DNA damage, hypoxia, ...
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36 views

Chromatids in metaphase?

Please see the following picture: In my book, the author claims that these chromosomes are in metaphase (a metaphase stopped by cholchicin). I don't understand why they don't have two ...
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Is epilepsy more heritable from maternal side?

I am thinking if paternal or maternal genetic line is the risk factor. Mitochondrial DNA is coming from maternal line. I do not know the pathogenesis of epilepsy so well that I could answer my ...
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Collective name for the X- and Z-chromosomes

Chromosomes are grouped as sex chromosomes or autosomes, with the X, Y, Z and W all falling in to the former category. The Z and X are present both in the homogametic and heterogametic sexes, and the ...
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Microsatellite shifts (peak calling) GeneMapper! Thesis help!

I'm a masters student attempting to conduct a parentage analysis on a population of fish for my thesis. My advisor and post-docs haven't been very helpful, so I need some help! I have dinucleotide ...
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Does the Y chromosome carry structural information, or only switches + traceable ID?

The Y chormosome almost doesn't crossover with the X chromosome, and so the evolution of anything it encodes must be much slower, because by the Hill–Robertson effect beneficial mutations must occur ...
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what is the modern, molecular explanation of independent assortment of alleles?

in case it isn't obvious i'll begin by stating that i'm a layman, trying to understand something about this subject from reading books. the books i've looked at so far give murky and confusing ...
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1answer
50 views

How do I interpret this graph regarding introduced genes and virus-infected cells?

This graph appeared in a practice test for the MCAT. I am trying to interpret it, but it confuses me a bit. On the x-axis we have some introduced genes, and on the y-axis we have % of cells ...
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115 views

Why has grey hair evolved?

A vast majority of humans get at least some grey hair as they age. As far as I know this applies to both genders and all races. Presumably this means that at least some grey haired humans have ...
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(How) can a pink grasshopper exist?

I saw this foto on Reddit recently: Is this possible? How can a grasshopper become like this? Is this just natural genetic mutation?
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sex limited genome transmission

In general, for dioecious species, a large portion of the genome passed from parents to offspring of both sexes - in mammals the X-chromosomes and autosomes are passed from a mother to both daughters ...