Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Why does all life use the same macromolecules in their genetic code?

There is no biochemical constraint of any sort, so why doesn't some other code work? Why is it specifically RNA/DNA?
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In human females one X chromosome is inactivated forming Barr Body. Then How exactly Haemophilia is dominant? check description for details

Suppose a female has one X chromosome normal and one chromosome with Haemophilic gene. Now suppose if the X chromosome which is normal is inactivated will the female show haemophilia?
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Overcoming Inbreeding Depression

When inbreeding depression occurs, a genetically unrelated individual is mated with the animal to introduce genetic variability and remove homozygosity. In this case either outbreeding or ...
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325 views

In which phenomena does one gene pair hide the effect of other unit?

This question was asken in an exam, The answer they are saying is "Epistasis". But I think "Dominance" fits better, because it is not mentioned whether genes of same allele are to be considered or ...
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577 views

What exactly is extreme heterozygosity and how does it work?

What does the concept of "extreme heterozygosity" mean? I first encountered this concept in "The Drunken Botanist". They describe that when planting a seed from, say, a 'red delicious' which was ...
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94 views

Nature of Dengue Fever Genetic Material

Once the genetic material for Dengue Fever is inserted into the human DNA, would the Dengue Fever molecular material be in the form of its own isolated DNA fragment or will it be inserted directly ...
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Evolution of a Population

Scientists observe a newly established population of sexually reproducing plants growing on the shore of a small island. An observable trait of the plant has two possible phenotypes. It is determined ...
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406 views

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Question

I have four questions concerning H-W Equilibrium: (i) In a population of mice, the presence of black spots is the result of a homozygous recessive condition. If the frequency of the allele for this ...
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43 views

Is it possible to amplify every single piece of DNA through PCR?

Is there a way to perform non-specific PCR amplification for the purpose of amplifying every piece of DNA present?
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Why is mRNA needed in the Protein translation?

The original question was to predict the basic requirements for information storage. Then the discussion moved to why is it necessary to include mRNA in the protein translation process. Why can't ...
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Function and Mechanism of Height Genes

I have an inquiry regarding the exact function of height genes. To my knowledge, although they are heavily regulated by epigenetic factors, height genes can have either an "on" or an "off" allele, ...
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33 views

There are 6 classifications of CFTR mutations. Is a causal relationship to the sweat test known?

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene for the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The CFTR mutations are classified in 6 classes. The sweat test is ...
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How is genetic speciation defined?

What determines speciation at a molecular level? At what point does a scientist determine two lineages are different enough to be considered separate species? Does it have a margin of error?
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132 views

Definition of “essentially diploid”

While researching the F12 cell culture medium (Ham, 1965), I came across the term "essentially diploid Chinese hamster ovary cells". The terms "subdiploid" and "near diploid" were also used to refer ...
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Chromosome 17-Ancestry question

I did the 23andme genotyping and was going over my ancestry. I mostly have ancestors that came from the UK which dominates most of my chromosomes. However, just a little bit (~1.4%) of my DNA is ...
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1answer
213 views

Why do almost all SNPs have two alleles?

Reading the Wikipedia page for SNPs I find the sentence "Almost all common SNPs have only two alleles." This is consistent with terminology elsewhere, such as the therm "Minor allele frequency", which ...
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308 views

How much salt [NaCl] is too much in DNA precipitation?

In DNA extractions, how much is too much salt in a CTAB extraction buffer? Protocols hover around 2.5 molar; if you go over this (e.g. 25 molar), will you saturate your solution, and precipitate the ...
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32 views

Fruit Fly Hybrids

I have a food waste bin in which I put fruit scraps. The fruits come from all over the world, mainly Europe though. I'm in the UK. I assume the fruit Fly eggs are already in the fruit, in which ...
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246 views

Math behind the Genetic Relationship Matrix

The genetic relationship matrix (GRM) can estimate the genetic relationship between two individuals (j and k) over m SNPs and i representing a specific SNP. What I dont understand from their equation ...
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168 views

How can a chromosome translocation in somatic cells lead to disease?

Looking at this picture... ...I get the impression that the part of chromosome is attached to other chromosome, but it is not mutated. When we assume that all genes in the translocated part are ...
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1answer
159 views

Explanation about cytogenetic notation

What is the correct meaning of cytogenetic notation "inv(4)(p13q22)" ? Inversions at chromosome 4, at the p arm 13 is inverted AND at q arm 22 is inverted OR Inversions at chromosome 4, the ...
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128 views

Within and Between Allelic Class Diversity

I am reading Charlesworth et al. 1997. They talk about diversity within and between allelic classes. Nucleotide diversities ($π$) at each neutral site were estimated from the mean of $2 \sum z_t (...
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1answer
98 views

What is the C765-Gal4 driver? [closed]

What is a gene driver and what does C765 stand for? Is Gal4 a transcription factor? Source: "Dynamics of Dpp Signaling and Proliferation Control"
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1answer
61 views

Are genes uniformly dispersed throughout the genome?

I think that telomeres and centromeres are regions with a very low gene content (= regions that contain few genes). To the exception of telomeres and centromeres, are genes uniformly distributed ...
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Is it possible to merge the genomes of photosynthesizing and electron-transporting bacteria to make an electric cell?

I had an idea of making electric current from bacteria. There are some bacteria that can photosynthesize, and some others are capable of transmitting electrons through each other. Is it possible that ...
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546 views

How many copies of a gene?

I am studying mathematical models of transcription and translation and I am wondering: In a particular genome, how many copies of a gene coding for one particular protein should one expect? Are they ...
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How do catenanes form when DNA replicates?

So I am taking a course in DNA replication and repair. And we are talking about catenanes forming when DNA replicates (two circles of dsDNA interlinked) How is this possible?
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How does the MET gene work and what happens when the promoter region gets mutated?

I am doing research on inherited risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders(ASD) due to common Copy Number Variants(CNVs) One of the mutations is the 'CC' variant of Rs1858830 in the promoter region of the MET ...
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Why are nitrogenous bases of DNA hydrophobic if they can hydrogen bond?

Why are nitrogenous bases of DNA hydrophobic if they can hydrogen bond? Is it that they are only relatively hydrophobic? This forum explains it but does not give an example of the structure.
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Genetic Imprinting and Cell differentiation

It does not seem possible that these two processes can coexist: 1) Genetic imprinting is the phenomenon where genes are expressed differently depending on the parent of origin: 1a. Methylated ...
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358 views

Why are female clones more often produced

As a student of biology when ever I come by artificial cloning, I always find examples of females being cloned - Dolly the sheep, CopyCat, Daisy, etc. The only male I could see was Fibro mouse and a ...
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67 views

Are dogs affected by dwarfism?

My husband and I noticed a dog today that looked like a smaller version of a purebred Border Collie, although it didn't appear to be a puppy. It made us wonder if other animal species experience ...
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1answer
76 views

Genetic Diversity in Mitochondria

As I was studying for my GRE exam, I was reading on Mitochondria. I then remembered that they undergo replication similar to bacteria. So I googled for info and found on Wikipedia that there is a " ...
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What happens when a genome is shorter than the other? [closed]

Say there were 2 creatures of the same species. Creature 1 has a longer genome than creature 2, it may be just a few base pairs, but what would happen when the genes were crossed to create creature 3 (...
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112 views

Evolution of the Redundancy of the Genetic Code

In short Looking at the genetic code, it appears that most redundancy is on the third letter rather than on the first or the second letter of the codon. Why has it evolved this way? Longer version ...
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Difference between genetic engineering and synthetic biology

I've recently seen the term synthetic biology being used to describe research involving genetic modification of organisms. What is the difference between synthetic biology and genetic engineering? Is ...
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Can a same gene stretch from one chromosome to another separate chromosome?

Can a gene continue on from one chromosome to another separate chromosome? For example, can part of an eye colour gene be on one chromosome and the rest of it be on the next chromosome?
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Is the discovery of dominant and recessive genes the only reason Mendel matters?

We've known that offspring inherit various traits from their parents since (at least) Aristotle. In The Elements of Plant Hybridization, Gregor Mendel treats that fact as common knowledge. Clearly, we ...
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What are some (bioinformatic) methods to characterize potentially novel gene transcripts?

I am working with a few novel transcripts of genes- before I confirm their existence experimentally, I would like to perform some bioinformatic analysis. I have already considered coding potential, ...
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How do sex biased genes evolve?

I am wondering how do genes become sex-biased? that is, how does a gene evolve expression which is regulated in a sex-specific manner (assuming no effect from sex-limited Y/W chromosomes). I ...
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115 views

What fraction of sites are expected to be polymorphic?

Question Consider a very long (eventually infinite) DNA sequence of neutral sites. Consider a panmictic population of constant size $N$ with a per site mutation rate of $\mu$ where all individuals ...
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1answer
257 views

How to calculate the percentage of heterozygous cells based on a gene map

I've encountered the following question and am quite stumped by it. A female with genotype AABBCC has been hybridized with a male that has the genotype aabbcc. The first generation (F1) has been ...
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Can a woman possessing 1 mutated allele show attenuated color-vision deficiency?

Women possess two X chromosomes. However, during development, when the embryo has about 32 - 64 cells, one of these chromosomes is randomly inactivated (in each cell) by an lncRNA named Xist. As a ...
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Color vision across species

Is it true that color vision is sex-linked for all species with binary sexes? Is there an evolutionary significance to the fact that color vision is X-linked in humans? E.g., only female humans can be ...
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Why does a gene have two alleles? [closed]

Why does a gene have two alleles? When there is a gene for producing the color pigment for a flower, why are there there two alleles, producing either same color or different color (homozygous and ...
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181 views

Sense and anti sense strand

Why the sense strand is only involved in transcription though the antisense strand just has the compliment strand of the sense strand?
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37 views

DNA dependent RNA polymerase

How does a RNAP locate a specific gene? For instance, growth hormone has to be produced and the RNAP has to locate the gene. But the promoter (TATA box) will also be present infront of all cistrons. ...
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why not classify organisms based on genetic distance? [duplicate]

When learning about "families of animals" in mid-primary school, my son asked me if there is not a better way to classify animals than by looking at them (they were taught that animals are grouped ...
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Do genetic modifications exist to enhance the taste of tomatoes?

GM tomatoes seem less tasty. Has there been any research on GMOs with regard to taste? Can scientists introduce a gene to, let's say, tomatoes, which would enhance the flavour? If not, why?
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Plasmid gene knockout

How do delete a single gene encoded in an operon on a plasmid using E. coli? Could you use the same principle as when knocking out a gene from the bacterial chromosome which is e.g. suicide vector-...