Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Is it possible to estimate how much variation in common phenotypes is predicted by genetics?

Phenotypes such as; skin color, eye color, nose shape, lip size, limb proportions, and skull shape. Im trying to find a source for this quote. "If you ask what percentage of your genes is reflected ...
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51 views

How did the Chromosome #2 Fusion propagate?

There is strong evidence that chromosome 2 in humans is a fusion of two chromosomes of a common ancestor of chimps and humans as explained at wikipedia here Was it necessary for the common ancestor ...
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regarding genetic disorders related to protein production

I am not completely familiar with biology, but i had a genetics course in college along with practicals. Forgive me if there is something wrong with my question. Is there a genetic disease which ...
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Could an annual plant be genetically modified to be a perennial?

My chives, asparagus, oregano, and rhubarb come back every year like clockwork. Suppose I want my bok choy to join the party - is there an "I'll be seeing you next year!" gene that can be modified to ...
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Valid comparison of gene expression between several genes in several cell lines

We have gene expression data (Affimetrix mRNA gene expression results) for several cell lines, over a set of genes. Our goal would be to be able to compare relative gene expression for genes over the ...
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In genome research, what is the problem in Mapping that may be caused by reads being too short?

In the following scenario: You were given short sequence reads of plant RNA obtained from a next-generation sequencing machine (fragments of 20–30 nucleotides in length). You attempt to map them back ...
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Why does the stability of YAC increase with size?

From Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry : The stability of YAC increases with size (up to a limit). Those with inserts of less than 100000 are gradually lost during mitosis. Why does this ...
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186 views

List of heritability estimates in humans?

Many people on this site ask questions that directly or indirectly have to do with heritability in human. Do you know a list of estimates of heritability of various traits in humans? Or could you try ...
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189 views

Troubleshooting for Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

SI ran my 2% agarose gel on constant voltage (100 V). For a few times it worked at CV but, after a week or so the machine would automatically switch to constant current by itself. And this only ...
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50 views

How can a YAC be screened against a cDNA library and a cosmid library of genomic DNA to find a gene?

I am reading fw2.2: A Quantitative Trait Locus Key to the Evolution of Tomato Fruit Size (doi: 10.1126/science.289.5476.85). The authors are trying to find the gene that makes tomatoes bigger. As far ...
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85 views

How usable is the Human Metabolic Model to predict biomass?

In order to use the Human Metabolic Model for Flux Balance Analysis of specific cancer cell lines, we would like to know what sort of flux values have been determined for the Human Metabolic Model. ...
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55 views

Determining whether X chromosome from sperm or egg

Is there any way of determining which X chromosome a female inherited from her father and which from her mom ?
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How can Southern blotting be used to establish gene copy number?

I am reading a paper on a certain marine microorganism that can eat alkanes and therefore might be useful for cleaning up oil spills, etc. This sentence struck me as odd (although I am sure that the ...
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96 views

How HIV Affects and Its Treatment using Combination Therapy

Can someone please help me with the following questions. I've written my specific questions right after the text question. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus. Its genome is a single ...
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219 views

How does electroporation mediated recombination work?

For yeast and other organisms, DNA can be readily taken up into the cell naturally or through membrane disruption. What does applying a voltage to cells do exactly that allows more recombination to ...
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What is genomic imprinting?

What is a genomic imprint? How does genomic imprinting take place? If I say that "this" allele is maternally imprinted does it mean that the allele of the gene is passed only by the mother? If a ...
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Difference between viral and human genetic material

I have heard that there is a difference between viral and human genetic material. What is that difference? If I take my cells and take DNA out of them and insert only a small part of it having a ...
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251 views

How do PLINK files and HapMap Phased files differ?

I know that PLINK and HapMap files show the same information, but can you give a thorough explanation of how exactly they differ.
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Transcription factor binding site located in intron

I have noticed that some TF binding sites are located in the introns of the genes. I am puzzled about whether the TF only binds to DNA in the initiation stage of transcription and will detach during ...
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What is the mechanism of regulation of PER /CRY genes?

I've read multiple descriptions of biological/circadian clocks and they all mention PER, CRY and CLOCK genes. While I kinda get how they are connected, what interests me is how these actually regulate ...
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166 views

What's the difference between a free chromosome fragment and an extrachromosomal array?

This is reference to a review on C. elegans mosaic analysis by Yochem and Herman, in which the authors make a distinction between free chromosome fragments and extrachromosomal arrays. For the ...
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Can a new Y-chromosome be created?

The major gene of the Y-chromosome is SRY. Would it be possible to get the X-chromosome and add SRY to create a "fuller" Y-chromosome? What advantage does the skinny Y-chromosome give an individual ...
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36 views

Mitochondrial D-Loop

I know that the D-loop is a DNA complex in which the strands of double helix DNA molecule are separated for a stretch and held apart by a third strand of DNA. Usually, this third strand has a base ...
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Help reading gene markers

I'm sorry if "gene markers" is not the correct word. An edit could be appreciated but I don't study in an English speaking country unfortunately. Question overview: In a family, there is a genetic, ...
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Horizontal Gene Transfer

I understand the different ways bacteria can undergo horizontal gene transfer (transformation, transduction (phages), conjugation (plasmids)). Is there an experimental method to tell how a specific ...
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Are there multiple meanings to “clone” as in “clone a gene”?

I originally thought that cloning a gene meant to put it into bacteria and have them express it. But sometimes I see it used and it seems like it's just a synonym for "identify the sequence and/or ...
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In insects, does the Alanine repeat occur on the homeodomain sequence of the abdomen or does it occur on a different sequence?

By "Alanine repeat", I am referring to the suppression of the formation of extra insect legs due to Ubx gene suppression through Distal-less repression.
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G>T transversion VS. T>G transversion?

So I'm reading about how mutations in DNA can be caused by oxidative damage. An example of a product of oxidative damage is given: 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine My textbook says that this product ...
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Limb polarity such as writing handedness, golf handedness and natural football foot

Define the term "limb polarity" to mean things such as writing handedness, golf handedness, throwing ball arm preference and natural boxing hand. I avoid using the term "handedness" because of its ...
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Definition of Sexual Selection?

How do you define Sexual Selection (SS)? (One might want to subdivide SS into intra- and inter- SS to answer) Is SS clearly different from Natural Selection (NS)? Is SS nested within NS or are NS ...
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46 views

Drosophila grey / yellow

I am studying biology by myself via distance-learning. I have been trying to solve the following problem for a while now and hoped you could help me. As this is "homework" I would appreciate hints ...
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How are new chromosomes replicated into the next generation via sexual reproduction?

If an individual has a new chromosome, which is very unlikely to happen, he will not have any luck in finding a sexual partner with this same trait. How will the offspring inherit this trait. And ...
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Cosmid genomic library, or genomic cosmid library?

Which usage is better for referring to a "cosmid library of genomic DNA fragments"?
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39 views

Knockout Rat Phenotype Database?

Is there a database where I might list the phenotype of a certain rat knockout and/or search for other similar phenotypes? There is a International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium, which has the goal ...
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Maintaining purebred pedigrees and how to lessen chance of getting disease?

Many breeds of dogs are known for a high incidence of genetic disorders. German shepherd and Saint Bernard dogs are predisposed to developing a crippling condition called hip dysplasia. Q: What ...
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Epistasis when interacting loci are codons within a single gene

There is epistasis when the effect on the phenotype of one gene is influenced by one or more other genes (called modifiers). Is there a similar concept when the effect on the phenotype of one site ...
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Can a plant be programmed to produce any arbitrary object?

I'm wondering if a plant can be programmed (by modifying its genes) to grow into any shape that it's programming instructs. I understand that a plants genes are its instructions of how to convert the ...
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Is the book “Bioinformatics for Geneticists” outdated?

I am going to be working with genetics data in my organization's data warehouse next year and helping our biotechnology department. I work in academic research, but I have very little genomics ...
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What are the methods for infering genetic interactions?

Is there a classification of methods for inferring genetic interactions? I mean some work published, utilizes genetical genomics data. Is this possible with expression data alone? And how about ...
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Genetics: pedigree following a rare trait autosomal recessive

I have two questions pertaining to this pedigree I believe it to be an autosomal recessive trait. The probability that individuals IV-1 and IV-2 would give rise to an affected individual would ...
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Determination of gene direction

I have one sequence that composed of sequences of three genes. I should determine the direction of each gene, but two of these genes are disrupted, and I can't determine the initial codon. Does anyone ...
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What is the point of being selection-free?

I'm reading "Highly efficient endogenous human gene correction using designed zinc finger nucleases" by Urnov et al. They propose a way to use zinc finger proteins for gene therapy. They repeatedly ...
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Have there been any experiments that duplicate chromosome copies from 23*2 to 23*3 or 23*4?

Deinococcus radiodurans is an amazing bacterium with a fantastic survival rate. It can survive to high doses of radiation, in a complete vacuum and in hydrochloric acid. How does this bacterium ...
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What do breeders call the effect when a breed resists modification?

It is impossible to breed a blue rose or a cat with a bulldog shape. This is because breeding is limited by gene variations in the population. What do breeders call this effect? UPDATE I guess ...
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Recessiveness of allele for protection of organism

Heterozygous organisms profit from pairs of gene alleles. Harmful alleles when being recessive can be carried without any harm for the organism. Only when two harmful recessive alleles form a gene the ...
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Can DNA test of my grandparent's brother reveal my heritage from that branch of the family?

I'm thinking about doing that DNA test on all my grandparents to know where their genes come from. They are getting very old and I don't want to let the opportunity pass to gather more knowledge about ...
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Problem involving selfing (inbreeding it with itself) a plant to generate purebred lines

I am working on a past exam problem where the first bit is as follows A plant is repeatably selfed to generate inbred lines. Let $\mathbb{P}(He|He)$ denote the probability that a heterozygous ...
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Do The Traces Genetic Diseases Remain in families?

I know that there are certain diseases that are predominant on genes. But, is there any sort of surety that if parents are suffering from a disorder then their offspring has to suffer from the same. ...
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Genetic Imprinting and Cell differentiation

It does not seem possible that these two processes can coexist: 1) Genetic imprinting is the phenomenon where genes are expressed differently depending on the parent of origin: 1a. Methylated ...
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Are the Chromosomes organized in any meaningful way? [closed]

So my major is in pharmacy but both my master and my (currently in progress) doctoral degree are both in theoretical chemistry. My thesis is about quantum chemistry and proteins, but it has a certain ...