Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Best way to automatically link Gene Entrez ID with Gene Symbol in TCGA

I am trying to figure out how to link Gene Entrez ID with Gene Symbol, for TCGA dataset. So far, I have found this ftp directory with Gene info updated daily. But, for Entrez ID 728661, I have found ...
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Referencing the homologous chromosomes

There exist a co-ordinate system from chromosomes like "12p11.3". In this system, first integer range from 1 to 23 i.e it takes homologous chromosomes as a pair. If we want to distinguish among ...
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How is the number of histones being related to the number of chromosomes [closed]

Please name me at least one reason. I am referring to rats and to humans, as well.
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What do genotoxic scoring (Sa) values mean?

The genotoxic scoring is an estimator of genotoxic potency whose values range from 100 to -100. What is the interpretation of those different positive and negative values? (for instance ethanol Sa= ...
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What is neutral genetic differentiation?

What is neutral genetic differentiation? Presumably it's a measure of the distance between organisms in terms of their genetics, but what does 'neutral' refer to?
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Randomized experimental design in genetic experimentation.

I am struggling to find out if randomization is used in traditional genetic breeding experimentation with model organisms, especially in lab contexts? And why this should be so? This is part of a ...
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Can mammals from different species reproduce?

I'm curious on how genetically different can two animals be in order to reproduce. Could they belong to different species? One example is the mule which is the offspring of a donkey and a horse, in ...
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156 views

Extreme examples of protein translation/use coupling/decoupling?

What are known extreme examples of protein translation/effect coupling/decoupling? For example, examples of proteins that are immediately used at the time the have been translated and vice versa, ...
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How many pandemic H1N1 2009 virus sequences were submitted by the Indian NIV as of May 10, 2010? [closed]

The handout I was following is maddening. It says; "Go to the NCBI home page and select 'All Resources (A-Z)' and choose GenBank. Follow the NCBI Flu Resource link to determine how many pandemic H1N1 ...
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102 views

How to find Dmax (genetics problem) [closed]

My attempt: I'm not sure this is right but this is what i did. I found the allele frequencies to be: A=0.4 B-0.3 a=0.1 b=0.2 I think to find Dmax I just multiply the two alleles with the larges ...
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227 views

Why is offspring of identical twins not identical?

When identical twins marry identical twins, the children of the couples will be full genetic siblings but why are they not genetically identical?
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1k views

How many nucleotide pairs code one gene?

As I know three nucleotide pairs (triplus) code one gene. But I have found next information in the "Molecular biology of the cell" by Bruce Alberts: Mycoplasma genitalium: it has only about 480 ...
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430 views

Are there examples of the green beard effect in humans?

Green-beard effects are genes that: Produce an effect that can be detected Produce preference to others with the same effect Are there any examples of this in humans?
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Genetically speaking, are dogs exactly similar to humans and chimps both?

Richard Dawkins mentions in his book The Greatest Show on Earth that dogs are exactly similar to both humans and chimps. Supposing that a cell contains the genetic similarity between 2 species, he ...
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Are chromosomes from each parent split between gametes with equal probability (esp. in humans)?

I've recently read a little on Wikipedia about genetics, but I can't find a direct answer to this question. My rough understanding is this: Both males and females have pairs of chromosomes, one ...
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3answers
58 views

What is the purpose of DNA? [closed]

My very basic understanding is DNA gets transcribed into RNA by effectively replacing thymine with uracil, then RNA is translated to make proteins. Looking at it from an engineering perspective, it ...
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31 views

can recessive alleles produce codominance?

Maybe I'm confused by the term "codominance", but I wondering if codominance only occurs with two dominant alleles. Can two recessive alleles produce codominance in an individual? Likewise, can two ...
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2answers
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Is the poly(A) tail added while transcription is still underway?

I read in Campbell that ....splicing and poly A tail addition may also occur while transcription is still under way. How can the poly(A) tail be added while transcription is still going on?
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1answer
49 views

Defining: Evolutionary (quantitative) Genetics and Population Genetics

How do we define the fields that are Evolutionary (quantitative) genetics and population genetics. What set these two fields apart? Can you try to provide definitions? To my intuitive understanding, ...
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57 views

DNA adaptation in human life

Does our DNA adapt by human lifetime? Or do we have the same genetic information from birth to death? I mean: What is usually called "evolution" means "natural selection" like this: ...
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1answer
124 views

How can synonymous mutations lead to cancerous or tumorous phenotypes?

After analyzing DNA sequences of an oncogene from many human cancer patients, you found that synonymous substitutions occur in a specific codon of this oncogene. Assuming that these synonymous ...
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1answer
495 views

Are Italians genetically separated from other Europeans?

I was reading this Wikipedia article about the genetic history of Italy, and I found it interesting. There are however a few things that puzzle me, because they seem to contradict each other. For ...
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2answers
106 views

Gene Circuits; experiments

First, my background - I'm a newcomer to biology. What is a gene circuit, and how might I simulate one in a laboratory? Thank you.
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111 views

What do you call the non-Wild Type allele?

Can I have a list of suggestions, such as the mutated allele, other allele, etc. ? Are there any blatantly missing ones on my short list?
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Sewall Wright for dunces

[This is one more post in my growing "X for dummies/idiots/morons/etc." series.] I've been enjoying Provine's The origins of theoretical population genetics for the last couple of days, but I must ...
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Autosomal Recessive Trait when skipping one generation

I learned recently that given a pedigree it is possible to tell whether a disease is autosomal recessive by observing if the trait skips a generation. If the disease does skip a generation, then the ...
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1answer
110 views

Schedules of mating for men

It’s simple deductive logic to follow that for a species to survive it must provide it’s offspring with the best possible conditions to ensure it’s survival – either that or to reproduce in such ...
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60 views

what is the biggest known functional distance between an enhancer and its target gene (TSS) in cis?

since the title seems self explanatory; It would be nice if anybody could provide a reference. I'm looking for a paper that I belive stated around 1.5 Mb but anything above will be cordialy welcomed. ...
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52 views

How can a recessive allele propagate until they manifest?

Suppose a specific gene has two possible alleles. In a given population all members have only the dominant one. By a mutation on member receives the first recessive allele of that population. Is it ...
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Quantitative Traits Genetics

Can someone please help with this question? I'm not so sure whether part A should be 11 inches or something else. Also, is part B correct
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77 views

Gene pool simulation [closed]

this simulation, you sampled the gene pool without replaceing beads in the beakerafter you drew each one. Thus, f(A) and f(a) in the gene pool changed slightly after each bead was drawn. For example, ...
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47 views

probability of having normal daughter

If father has hemophilia, mother is a carrier of the disease, then what is the probability of having a normal daughter ? My question: Should the probability of having a daughter be also ...
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101 views

Rh factor and dominance of gene

"Formation of Rh antigen is controlled by dominant gene(R) and its absence by recipient gene(r).People having this antigen with genotype (RR or Rr) are called Rh positive and those whose blood ...
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2answers
85 views

Identifying the inheritance pattern

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426 views

What is the difference between SNP and STR?

I thought that these were just different format of the same data. But it seems there isn't a way to convert SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data to STR (short tandem repeat) data. Am I right? ...
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2answers
59 views

Telomeres in cloning experiments

In whole animal cloning ( eg. Dolly ) the nucleus is taken from a somatic cell. So isn't shortening of telomeres a problem ?
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Why were dinosaurs not as smart as we are?

According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur, Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for 135 million years. They had a lot of time to evolve. My question is: why were dinosaurs not ...
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76 views

What are the allowed evolution operators (on protein encoding sequences)?

What are the evolution operators, meaning allowed actions on the DNA sequence that encodes a protein. I assume all evolution of genes is a result of duplication errors. So an answer could look ...
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Periods of Heavy Speciation

I have a set of microRNA ages with corresponding labels suggesting which clade they first emerged from. For instance, for hsa-mir-1, let's say, it would have an age of Eutheria. I have several peaks ...
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47 views

Pedigree analysis : autosomal or mitochondrial

I have tried a to decide if this is a autosomal dominant, recessive or a mitochondrial disorder. Is it possible to know for sure, or do you have to use probability? (English is not my native ...
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1answer
32 views

What information do microarray image convey?

OK I have read that a cell generates 4 kinds of digital (to be precise discrete) data namely DNA, RNA, Protein (sequences that can be encoded as string sequences of nucleotides/ amino acids) and micro ...
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Possible Genotypes — Linked Genes

Please consider the following question: Genes A and B are located on the same chromosome. If two individuals with the genotype shown below are crossed, which genotype could be formed? Let / ...
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1answer
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Property of E.coli harboring F element

From Genetics by Ursula Goodenough E.coli harboring an F element are endowed with a number of phenotypic traits : 1.They are sensitive to infection by ssRNA phages and certain ssDNA phages. ...
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59 views

Advantages of pain sensation?

The hazards of congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) are well-known. This question is about the obverse: what selective advantage, if any, does the normal sensation of pain confer? I'm thinking of ...
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1answer
121 views

What is the significance of and biological mechanisms demonstrated in lac operon?

I would appreciate it someone could explain clearly how the genes in the lac operon of E coli are activated to allow the bacteria to metabolize lactose? The part that I really don't understand is ...
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1answer
89 views

PedigreeAnalysis Genetics [duplicate]

Hello! I need help with this exercise question. I am not really sure which pedigree diagram is autosomal and which is not. But, is question b 1/2. Can someone give an explanation? Thanks very much ...
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1answer
112 views

A basic example of the interactions of 2 or more non-identical alleles leading to an advantageous outcome for an individual organism

Could someone help me out with a basic example of the interactions of 2 or more non-identical alleles leading to an advantageous outcome for an individual organism? Based on empirical research OR on a ...
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1answer
148 views

Need of X or Y chromosome protein after meiosis

After meiosis each spermatid get either the X chromosome or the Y chromosome. I know that the 4 spermatids formed from 1 spermatogonia are connected by cytoplasm and so the proteins made by X or Y ...
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Function of ER in reviewing mutated proteins

At least in the case of Cystic Fibrosis it happens that a mutant protein (which could actually function!) is held in the ER because the ER detects it as misfolded. Does this happen in every type of ...
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1answer
392 views

When can a virus modify DNA in every cell of a living organism?

I've recently heard about experiments with brain tissue, where a virus is introduced in a rats brain, causing a "glow when electric charge is present" protein to be created. This protein then helps to ...