Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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What is the purpose of DNA? [closed]

My very basic understanding is DNA gets transcribed into RNA by effectively replacing thymine with uracil, then RNA is translated to make proteins. Looking at it from an engineering perspective, it ...
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can recessive alleles produce codominance?

Maybe I'm confused by the term "codominance", but I wondering if codominance only occurs with two dominant alleles. Can two recessive alleles produce codominance in an individual? Likewise, can two ...
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Is the poly(A) tail added while transcription is still underway?

I read in Campbell that ....splicing and poly A tail addition may also occur while transcription is still under way. How can the poly(A) tail be added while transcription is still going on?
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Defining: Evolutionary (quantitative) Genetics and Population Genetics

How do we define the fields that are Evolutionary (quantitative) genetics and population genetics. What set these two fields apart? Can you try to provide definitions? To my intuitive understanding, ...
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DNA adaptation in human life

Does our DNA adapt by human lifetime? Or do we have the same genetic information from birth to death? I mean: What is usually called "evolution" means "natural selection" like this: ...
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How can synonymous mutations lead to cancerous or tumorous phenotypes?

After analyzing DNA sequences of an oncogene from many human cancer patients, you found that synonymous substitutions occur in a specific codon of this oncogene. Assuming that these synonymous ...
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Are Italians genetically separated from other Europeans?

I was reading this Wikipedia article about the genetic history of Italy, and I found it interesting. There are however a few things that puzzle me, because they seem to contradict each other. For ...
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Gene Circuits; experiments

First, my background - I'm a newcomer to biology. What is a gene circuit, and how might I simulate one in a laboratory? Thank you.
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What do you call the non-Wild Type allele?

Can I have a list of suggestions, such as the mutated allele, other allele, etc. ? Are there any blatantly missing ones on my short list?
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Sewall Wright for dunces

[This is one more post in my growing "X for dummies/idiots/morons/etc." series.] I've been enjoying Provine's The origins of theoretical population genetics for the last couple of days, but I must ...
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Autosomal Recessive Trait when skipping one generation

I learned recently that given a pedigree it is possible to tell whether a disease is autosomal recessive by observing if the trait skips a generation. If the disease does skip a generation, then the ...
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Schedules of mating for men

It’s simple deductive logic to follow that for a species to survive it must provide it’s offspring with the best possible conditions to ensure it’s survival – either that or to reproduce in such ...
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what is the biggest known functional distance between an enhancer and its target gene (TSS) in cis?

since the title seems self explanatory; It would be nice if anybody could provide a reference. I'm looking for a paper that I belive stated around 1.5 Mb but anything above will be cordialy welcomed. ...
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How can a recessive allele propagate until they manifest?

Suppose a specific gene has two possible alleles. In a given population all members have only the dominant one. By a mutation on member receives the first recessive allele of that population. Is it ...
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Quantitative Traits Genetics

Can someone please help with this question? I'm not so sure whether part A should be 11 inches or something else. Also, is part B correct
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Gene pool simulation [closed]

this simulation, you sampled the gene pool without replaceing beads in the beakerafter you drew each one. Thus, f(A) and f(a) in the gene pool changed slightly after each bead was drawn. For example, ...
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probability of having normal daughter

If father has hemophilia, mother is a carrier of the disease, then what is the probability of having a normal daughter ? My question: Should the probability of having a daughter be also ...
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Rh factor and dominance of gene

"Formation of Rh antigen is controlled by dominant gene(R) and its absence by recipient gene(r).People having this antigen with genotype (RR or Rr) are called Rh positive and those whose blood ...
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Identifying the inheritance pattern

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What is the difference between SNP and STR?

I thought that these were just different format of the same data. But it seems there isn't a way to convert SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data to STR (short tandem repeat) data. Am I right? ...
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Telomeres in cloning experiments

In whole animal cloning ( eg. Dolly ) the nucleus is taken from a somatic cell. So isn't shortening of telomeres a problem ?
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Why were dinosaurs not as smart as we are?

According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur, Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for 135 million years. They had a lot of time to evolve. My question is: why were dinosaurs not ...
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What are the allowed evolution operators (on protein encoding sequences)?

What are the evolution operators, meaning allowed actions on the DNA sequence that encodes a protein. I assume all evolution of genes is a result of duplication errors. So an answer could look ...
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Periods of Heavy Speciation

I have a set of microRNA ages with corresponding labels suggesting which clade they first emerged from. For instance, for hsa-mir-1, let's say, it would have an age of Eutheria. I have several peaks ...
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Pedigree analysis : autosomal or mitochondrial

I have tried a to decide if this is a autosomal dominant, recessive or a mitochondrial disorder. Is it possible to know for sure, or do you have to use probability? (English is not my native ...
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What information do microarray image convey?

OK I have read that a cell generates 4 kinds of digital (to be precise discrete) data namely DNA, RNA, Protein (sequences that can be encoded as string sequences of nucleotides/ amino acids) and micro ...
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Possible Genotypes — Linked Genes

Please consider the following question: Genes A and B are located on the same chromosome. If two individuals with the genotype shown below are crossed, which genotype could be formed? Let / ...
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Property of E.coli harboring F element

From Genetics by Ursula Goodenough E.coli harboring an F element are endowed with a number of phenotypic traits : 1.They are sensitive to infection by ssRNA phages and certain ssDNA phages. ...
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Advantages of pain sensation?

The hazards of congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) are well-known. This question is about the obverse: what selective advantage, if any, does the normal sensation of pain confer? I'm thinking of ...
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What is the significance of and biological mechanisms demonstrated in lac operon?

I would appreciate it someone could explain clearly how the genes in the lac operon of E coli are activated to allow the bacteria to metabolize lactose? The part that I really don't understand is ...
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PedigreeAnalysis Genetics [duplicate]

Hello! I need help with this exercise question. I am not really sure which pedigree diagram is autosomal and which is not. But, is question b 1/2. Can someone give an explanation? Thanks very much ...
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147 views

Need of X or Y chromosome protein after meiosis

After meiosis each spermatid get either the X chromosome or the Y chromosome. I know that the 4 spermatids formed from 1 spermatogonia are connected by cytoplasm and so the proteins made by X or Y ...
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46 views

Function of ER in reviewing mutated proteins

At least in the case of Cystic Fibrosis it happens that a mutant protein (which could actually function!) is held in the ER because the ER detects it as misfolded. Does this happen in every type of ...
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329 views

When can a virus modify DNA in every cell of a living organism?

I've recently heard about experiments with brain tissue, where a virus is introduced in a rats brain, causing a "glow when electric charge is present" protein to be created. This protein then helps to ...
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337 views

TCGA data, and bioinformatics design questions for SNP/ mirna analysis

It's my first time posting to this forum but was looking for some help on the data aspects of this project. My tools of choice would be in python/R . Goal: I'm looking to create a disease specific ...
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223 views

Definition of Dye- Reduction Test?

Can some one give a simple explanation or definition on what a dye-reduction test is.
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Does the Y chromosome carry structural information, or only switches + traceable ID?

The Y chormosome almost doesn't crossover with the X chromosome, and so the evolution of anything it encodes must be much slower, because by the Hill–Robertson effect beneficial mutations must occur ...
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coevolution by physical interaction between RNA sequences

There are several items that relate to the concerted evolution between pairs of sencuencias (especially structural) rRNA as a consequence of physical interaction in tertiary, or even quaternary ...
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What is the current scientific position on the issue of human race?

Race is perhaps one of the most controversial and sensitive issues in anthropology, biology, and other related fields. As a non-scientist, I've used google to probe the disparity between the positions ...
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Why only able to close one eyelid? Genetic reason?

Eye-dominance is a critical thing with bows: right-eye-dominant is recommended to do the aiming on the right eye here otherwise inaccuracy. This made me think whether all people are even able to do ...
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Why does the stability of YAC increase with size?

From Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry : The stability of YAC increases with size (up to a limit). Those with inserts of less than 100000 are gradually lost during mitosis. Why does this ...
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Effect of natural selection on phenotypic variance

Short background Theoretically speaking, natural selection causes a decrease in genetic variance and because the environmental variance should remain unchanged, natural selection causes a decrease of ...
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How do I determine the parental type here?

Please consider the following question: You cross Drosophilia and receive the following offspring: 965 wild-type, 944 black- vestigial, 206 gray- vestigial, and 185 black- normal. Explain your ...
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Paracentric Inversion and Mutations Question Help Needed

Would someone please be able to help with questons 3 or 4. (one of the at least please) please don't report his as off-topic. first, this is NOT a homeowork question. It's a practice question I am ...
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Southern/Western blot analysis and pedigree diagram? Help needed. [duplicate]

Hello everyone. I urgently need help with this question please. I have filled in the blanks using the results in the figure provided in the sheet. However, for number (b) is a little hard to ...
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Gene linkage/mapping

I need some help with this question in the image posted. As you can see in the instructions, I'm asked to map the genes. So the first thing I did is write out the alleles corresponding to each ...
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Genetic Linkage/Mapping question Help

Hello everybody! I need some help with this question in the image posted. As you can see in the instructions, I'm asked to map the genes. So the first thing I did is write out the alleles ...
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gamete frequency of recombination

A female genotype, shown as abc / +++ produces 100 meiotic tetrads. Among these, 68 showed no cross over (NCO) events; 20 showed single crossover (SCO1) between a and b; 10 showed single ...
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How do you amplify a specific AFLP marker?

I'm trying to clone a specific AFLP marker out of Medicago truncatula. I know the selective bases I need for the end of the primers. My problem is that all the AFLP cloning kits I have found are ...
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A basic example of the interactions of 2 or more non-identical alleles leading to an advantageous outcome for an individual organism

Could someone help me out with a basic example of the interactions of 2 or more non-identical alleles leading to an advantageous outcome for an individual organism? Based on empirical research OR on a ...