Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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What is an epistasis group?

I have been trying to wrap my head around the concept of epistasis for a couple of days now, and I think I understand it, at least at a basic level, but I still don't understand some of the ways that ...
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86 views

What accounts for size variation in breeds of dogs?

My assumption is that dogs vary so much in size because of artificial selection pressures coming from human breeders, but are there genetic loci that roughly determine approximate size? Do other ...
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113 views

What are Haplogroups?

What exactly does the term Haplogroup or Haplotype means? How is it claimed that people belonging to the same haplogroups have common ancestors?
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Mutating a protein without mutating the gene?

Is it possible to mutate a region of a protein (says about 300 amino acids long) without actually mutating the gene? One possible way that I can think of is to use RNAi and specifically block that ...
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41 views

DNA replication : binding

Regarding an activator, does the C amp cap complex, bind to the coding strand, the template strand, or both?
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56 views

Does DNA polymerase I require a $3^\prime$ end?

DNA polymerase III adds nucleotides in the $5^\prime \rightarrow 3^\prime$ direction because it can only add nucleotides to the $3^\prime$ end of the previous nucleotide. This is why it requires a ...
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92 views

What does the “*” in haplogroup I2A1* mean?

I have been told that the "asterisk" in the Haplogroup 12A1* means it doesn't move down stream? What exactly does that mean in layman's terms?
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59 views

What is meant by “the degree to which a gene is expressed” in an individual?

Here is an excerpt from a text that I was reading, Here is an example of microarray data. The idea is to take a group of different individuals and for each of them, you measure how much they ...
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139 views

How do eukaryotes terminate transcription? (clarification on Campbell Biology)

I'm having trouble understanding how eukaryotes terminate transcription. Studying Campbell Biology (pg. 342, 10th ed.), I read: In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II transcribes the polyadenylation ...
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234 views

How does Cro protein expressed by lambda phage kill its host?

I read that the DNA segment of lambda phage integrated in host DNA could switch between lysogenic state where cI represses the expression of Cro and lytic state where Cro expression takes over and ...
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73 views

Write the haplotypes of the family

I'm doing old exam assignments to prepare for my finals on Monday and I've stumbled on one assignment that I'm not sure how to tackle. A family with 2 children is examined for cataracts using PCR ...
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61 views

Terminology for inefficacy of selection on recessive alleles

I am wondering is there some proper terminology which is used to say that deleterious recessive alleles might be able to hide, reducing the the efficacy of selection, in diploid organisms/chromosomes. ...
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48 views

Obvious phenotypic inheritance markers in humans

In humans, are there phenotypic markers that prove parenthood? For example, if mother and father have <trait characteristic> (let's say, specific ear lobe ...
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789 views

After how many generations descendant is not more related to ancestor, than to a random individual in an ancestral population?

Descendant of n generation has on average 1/2n DNA of ancestor. (For example children have 1/2 DNA of parents and 1/4 DNA of Grandparents, After 10 Generation 1/1024 DNA and after 100 Generations ...
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285 views

Which is better against genetic mutations? Asexual or Sexual Reproduction?

In terms of genetics, which type of reproduction is better against adverse mutations? I understand a bit of Muller's Ratchet—in which asexual organisms accumulate a number of deleterious mutations in ...
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235 views

What is the difference between a DPY-10, DPY-11, and DPY-13?

My TA mentioned these three mutations of C. elegans since we started working with the worms but seems to skip over what the differences are...
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179 views

Are people genetically predisposed to being interested in specific fields/ideas? How does specialization occur?

I'm not sure if I formulated my question well, but I'm curious about a couple statements made by Steven Pinker and and James Heckman. In this interview: ...
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100 views

Heterozygosity under genetic drift

The wright-Fisher model of genetic drift is: $$p_{ij} = \binom{2N}{j}\left(\frac{i}{2N}\right)^j \left(1- \frac{i}{2N}\right)^{2N-j} $$ ,where $\binom{2N}{j}$ is a binomial coefficient. From this ...
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83 views

How do mosquitoes maintain telomere length?

While the vast majority of eukaryotic organisms maintain their chromosome ends (telomeres) via telomerase, an enzyme system that generates short, tandem repeats on the ends of chromosomes, other ...
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459 views

Possible Genotypes of 4 Alleles of Adh

There are four alleles of Adh which are Adh-1, Adh-2, Adh-3 and Adh-4. Their respective frequencies are 0.11, 0.84, 0.01 and 0.04. What are the Hardy-Weinberg frequencies of the possible 10 ...
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71 views

How diverse are dogs in their traits other than appearance?

I've asked this question about dogs not so long ago, and the short answer was - dogs are the most diverse looking species of mammals because they got a small number of genes that have a big impact on ...
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181 views

Chromatin shearing: what is it and what are the effects of high-sensitivity?

I am reading a paper which discusses a complex (MSL-DCC) involved in dosage compensation of the drosophila X-chromosome. Descriptions of the complex's structure and function are given in the papers ...
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4answers
196 views

How did the activities of protocells become inheritable?

I have learned that first a protocell came to exist and its characteristics came to be passed on by genetic material. So how come genes for all the activities come to incorporate into genetic ...
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101 views

Low complexity region and relaxed selection

I'm reading a text (Wagner, 2007) on identifying positive selection. In paper, the author says that low complexity regions are known to be associated with relaxed selection. I'm trying to understand ...
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540 views

What factors govern the variable age of onset in Huntington's Disease?

"Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and psychiatric problems." As we all know, this genetic disease ...
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75 views

Historical recovery from mass extinction events

Is there a way to generally characterize how species "regrew" after the various mass extinction events happening periodically from 450 Ma to 65 Ma. Would the surviving species just start back where ...
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30 views

Mutation in axillary buds of trees overcoming self-incompatability?

I seem to recall from either reading or lecture that there have been instances of trees that are self-incompatible accumulating enough mutations in an axillary bud that the resulting branch was able ...
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Predictable microchimerism

I read in New Scientist recently that microchimerism occurs between previously born siblings and grandparents, not just the mother. Do we know which parts of the genome are likely to be transferred? ...
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29 views

Gemini usage of --sample-filter

I am using gemini to query databases made from vcf files, which contain data from multiple samples. However, I need to query data only from one sample, (for which I currently use grep to filter the ...
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174 views

Are gametes determined by the sex of an organism?

In the Wikipedia article for biological sex, I read the following sentence. "The gametes produced by an organism are determined by its sex:..." However, is it not through the gametes produced by ...
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75 views

How C. Elegans is used for siliencing genes

The experiment that is using C. Elegans to silence the Genes. I have a question about Why and how C. Elegans can use the DNA plasmid that is generated with the gene of interest in the bacteria by ...
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86 views

How could one calculate the gene flow between two populations?

Imagine there are two populations X and Y, and for each population you have the genotypes of each individual in that population (e.g. Aa, AA, aa, etc.), but for multiple loci (e.g. AABb). How could ...
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31 views

Fruit Fly Hybrids

I have a food waste bin in which I put fruit scraps. The fruits come from all over the world, mainly Europe though. I'm in the UK. I assume the fruit Fly eggs are already in the fruit, in which ...
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44 views

Quantitative Trait Locus process?

I do not seem to understand the concept of Quantitative Trait Loci(QTL's), can anyone explain it to me in detail? Reading the wikipedia article helped somewhat, but I do not understand it well. What ...
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42 views

Forensic genetics- why is mtDNA comparison sometimes better than nDNA comparison?

Why is (in forensic genetics) in some cases more appropriate comparison of nuclear DNA but in some other cases comparison of mitochondrial DNA? Is it because geneticists are sometimes unable to find ...
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Horizontal Gene Transfer

I understand the different ways bacteria can undergo horizontal gene transfer (transformation, transduction (phages), conjugation (plasmids)). Is there an experimental method to tell how a specific ...
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107 views

Why do some animals try to imitate other animals?

There is a tendency of some animals (including people!) to be "copy-cats" and try to imitate members of their own, and sometimes other, species. The most obvious example is a parrot copying human ...
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196 views

Horizontal gene transfer versus convergent evolution

There are several often noted examples of convergent evolution (eyes, bat/bird wing evolution etc.) How do we rule out horizontal gene transfer in these cases?
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765 views

How does GC-content evolve?

Background GC-content refers to the frequency of base pairs that are either C or G in the genome, or in other words the number of GC base pairs divided by the addition of the number of GC base pairs ...
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70 views

Brainbow fluorescence labeling technique

I have this picture describing the Brainbow system here: The paper I am reading says it uses Cre-lox recombination to express a certain color. If the cell in question was expressing a yellow ...
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Activation Of Embryonic Genome

Embryonic gene activation is a process by which the embryo begins to transcribe its newly formed genome.As the embryonic gene activation occurs during early stages the paternal genome may not have any ...
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What are treatable foetal conditions during pregnancy?

What are different foetal conditions during pregnancy that could be treated with appropriate prenatal genetic testing? I only know that pregnant women are encouraged to take certain supplements to ...
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Predicting progeny of recessive mutations using recombination

I was asked this question on a test and got it wrong, but I'd like to know how to do it. The answers are shown in the blanks below: You are studying two recessive mutations in the fruit fly D. ...
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Breeding Southern Right Whales Genetics

I don't know much about biology. I just like watching David Attenborough videos and this made me curious. I just watched this video about breeding Southern Right Whales, and these two quotes puzzled ...
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Is $F_{ST}$ a probability and a correlation coefficient?

$F_{ST}$ is one of the most famous and most important statistics of all of evolutionary biology. Yet, many people misunderstand it or misuse the classical results from the literature on $F_{ST}$ ...
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Are all genes transcribed in differentiated cells?

My textbook tells me that it’s specific transcription factors that allow for a different set of genes to be expressed in different cells (differential gene expression). My book gives the example of ...
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47 views

How can a mutator gene can cause a mutation when it is shut off? [closed]

defination of "Mutator" - a gene that increases the rate of mutation of one or more other genes. However, in the book "Molecular Biology of the Cell" (bruce alberts) it states that when a mutator is ...
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Why is down syndrome more common than other trisomies? [duplicate]

Why is Down syndrome more common than say trisomy 18? Is chromosome 21 easier to replicate? Or is it because those babies are more viable?
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56 views

RAD sequencing: choosing the appropriate enzyme?

I’m studying Darwin’s finches genome and I say in some articles that the researchers used restriction enzymes to cut the DNA in their double digest RAD protocol. They are using EcoRI and MseI (GAATTC ...
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Diffusion approximation to genetic drift

I am reading from the classical textbook Principles of Population Genetics, Hartl and Clark (pdf here). Introduction Let $f(p,x,t)$ denote the distribution of allele frequency $x$ at time $t$ ...