Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Do only one or both pairs of homologous chromatids exchange genetic material during the process of crossing over?

To be specific: Assume chromosomes A and B are homologous. They've both replicated into A1, A2 and B1, B2 and have formed a tetrad at the equator (synapsis). Most textbooks show either A1 and B1 OR A2 ...
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40 views

How can a haploid plant be bisexual?

According to Wikipedia: Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half. This process occurs in all sexually reproducing single-celled and multicellular ...
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2answers
69 views

Infer gene frequency within a species over time

I was reading Karlsson et al. (2014) and I came into this: A selected variant that increases rapidly in frequency in the past ~250,000 years can be detected as an unusual reduction in genetic ...
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1answer
39 views

DNA replication : binding

Regarding an activator, does the C amp cap complex, bind to the coding strand, the template strand, or both?
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74 views

Can difference in the expression potential of alleles lead to dominance?

Several hour ago I was in thoughts what allele dominance really means on molecular level. As we know from basic genetics, if the organism had Aa type of some gene ...
2
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1answer
103 views

Could an annual plant be genetically modified to be a perennial?

My chives, asparagus, oregano, and rhubarb come back every year like clockwork. Suppose I want my bok choy to join the party - is there an "I'll be seeing you next year!" gene that can be modified to ...
0
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1answer
21 views

Measuring tumor heterogeneity [closed]

I would like to ask if there's any method (established or not) in order to quantify heterogeneity found in mutations occuring in primary neoplasms and metastatic lesions (either common or private) and ...
3
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2answers
159 views

Are gametes determined by the sex of an organism?

In the Wikipedia article for biological sex, I read the following sentence. "The gametes produced by an organism are determined by its sex:..." However, is it not through the gametes produced by ...
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1answer
42 views

No. of genes in chromosomes. phenotype

Why do cells need all the genes of all the 22 pairs (excluding the 2 X- or Y-chromosomes) of autosomes in every somatic cell, when each and every cell which is specialised for its function does not ...
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43 views

Is $F_{ST}$ a probability and a correlation coefficient?

$F_{ST}$ is one of the most famous and most important statistics of all of evolutionary biology. Yet, many people misunderstand it or misuse the classical results from the literature on $F_{ST}$ ...
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24 views

How do genetic logic gates work?

Recently researchers at MIT have developed genetic logic gates which can be built into programs. How do these "genetic logic gates" work? "The language is based on Verilog, which is commonly used to ...
2
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1answer
35 views

Heritability of trait stronger from one sex over another?

Given a trait that can be expressed (and measured) in both parents (e.g weight, height, strength, speed), are there ever traits in the child that correlate better with one sex parent than the other? ...
6
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2answers
290 views

What is the relative power of GWAS studies in different species?

I would like to know of any publication studying the relative power of GWAS studies in different species. For example, I've seen reports that say genotyping and GWAS in dog breeds is much more ...
4
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2answers
83 views

How to safely conserve my current DNA methylation marks?

I read the Wikipedia article on DNA methylation Let's say I want to extract and then stock my current DNA methylation marks somewhere so that I can use it safely 20 years in the future for a medical ...
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0answers
47 views

mutant and variant differentiation

Can anyone clearly differentiate between a variant and a mutant in genetics. I am confusing these terms a bit, as the evolutionary aspect also comes to my mind.
6
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1answer
118 views

Effect of sex-ratio on the effective population size

As stated on this wikipedia article, the effective population size $N_e$ when the sex ratio differs from $\frac{1}{2}$ is $$N_e = \frac{4N_mN_f}{N_m+N_f}$$ I understand the biased sex-ratio ...
6
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2answers
115 views

Are alleles equally sized?

If alleles occur at the same locus on a chromosome, does that mean they are of the same size? I was under the impression that they were, but I saw a gel electrophoresis testing different alleles of ...
6
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1answer
5k views

Difference between mutation and DNA damage

What is the strict difference between mutation and DNA damage? As far as I understand it, a mutation is an alteration in the genetic sequence, having "tricked" the repairing machinery and thus ...
9
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1answer
114 views

How can I find the mRNA sequence for a specific prokaryotic gene?

What I want to find out is the start of the transcription for a specific gene, how long the UTR is before the actual coding sequence starts. I've looked at various databases like NCBI Gene, Refseq or ...
4
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2answers
54 views

Grouping OMIM disease codes

I have ~100 sets of genes, and each set includes between 2 and 70 genes. I'd like to perform an enrichment analysis on each of these sets to test if they're enriched for OMIM disease labels. However, ...
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24 views

Do any gaps in DNA during cell division (meiosis in particular) lead to crossover?

I have some gaps in the knowledge abour crossover. I know, that crossover is connected with reparation process. I'd like to know if all gaps in chromosomes lead to crossover (reparation based on 2d ...
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3answers
18k views

Do apes and humans share 99% of DNA or 99% of genes? What is the difference?

I made an answer on the Scifi.SE that can be read here. It is about how the characters in the story Jurassic Park might have gotten DNA for all the species shown. In my answer, I said this: Apes ...
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2answers
50 views

Do plants have distinctive DNA genomes from each other like humans do?

Can exact same species of plant have a distinct genome from others of same exact species growing nearby or in a different place/country etc. ? Can a leaf be traced to the the exact plant based on DNA ...
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4answers
15k views

How many genes do we share with our mother?

Somewhere I have read we share more than 99% of our genes with every other other person and 98% of our genes with chimpanzees. What does this mean? Don't we share 50% of our genes with our mother and ...
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1k views

Do men have a higher genetic variance than women?

I've heard that with the distribution of our genome women have less variation on the bell curve than men. Is there any basis for this? It was my understanding that women have more genetic variation ...
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2answers
62 views

Basic Genotyping

As a disclaimer, I'm from a computer science / statistics background, working on some bioinformatics problems. I've got some genotyping data (VCF from Exome Sequencing), and I'm struggling to get my ...
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409 views

Is the human biological clock genetically programmed or learnt?

Argument favouring learning: A newborn sleeps for 20-22 hours. But overtime (s)he learns to focus sleeping time to night time, according to his or her needs and family needs. Some sleep from 1 am to 7 ...
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65 views

Are identical twins clones? [closed]

Identical twins have the same genetic make up but they differ in development so are they in a way clones?
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16 views

What is the best test for SNV clustering?

I am looking for a method to cluster single nucleotide polymorphisms based on clinicopathologic data (mainly receptor immunoistochemistry). So far, I've came up with only two that handle dummy ...
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0answers
48 views

Which disorders are fully concordant?

I work in neuroscience, mostly Alzheimer's disease (AD), with some work in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The work is in gene regulation and epigenomics. I'm familiar with monozygotic twin (MZ) ...
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1answer
3k views

On average how many genes / alleles do people share?

I am curious about how much more a child can be alike to one parent than the other. If a child were to inherit all the alleles that are shared between both parents from one parent, but inherit all ...
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1answer
76 views

How the chaotropic agents help in purification of DNA molecule?

Those plants which are rich in secondary metabolites and polysaccharides DNA isolation can be done using certain chaotropic agents? can any one explain how it works?
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25 views

Predicting alternative transcript sequence and probability from a single SNV

I am currently studying a small number of non coding SNPs in terms of their contribution to the cancer phenotype. All are obtained from massive parallel sequencing on a specific gene panel, utilizing ...
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2answers
41 views

Trouble understanding overlapping genes.

I read the wikipedia passage on overlapping genes. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overlapping_gene The Tandem overlaps they speak of make sense to me, as I understand that their are different reading ...
6
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1answer
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What is Mendelian Randomization, and how is it used to infer causality in epidemiology?

Studies of human traits and diseases are inherently confined to observational studies, known as epidemiological studies. This can make it very hard to determine what actually causes a particular ...
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1answer
35 views

Why are some genomic regions sequenced more than the others?

We have to normalise read count data from RNA-Seq experiments in order to account for the fact that some genomic regions are mapped more than others. i.e. we get the tags per million reads (TPM). In ...
0
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1answer
27 views

Synthesis of an additional DNA in Pachytene and Zygotene [closed]

I've read, that in Pachytene and Zygotene additional DNA material is synthesized, about 0,3, 0,1% respectively. Why is it so?
3
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31 views

Are all genes transcribed in differentiated cells?

My textbook tells me that it’s specific transcription factors that allow for a different set of genes to be expressed in different cells (differential gene expression). My book gives the example of ...
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1answer
68 views

An experiment to test if a bacterial resistance gene is on the plasmid or chromosome?

So I have an E.coli strain phenotypicall resistant to the antibiotics ampicillin and rifampicin. How do I test if the AmpR gene is carried on a plasmid and not on the chromosome? In summary, I ...
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1answer
19 views

Molecules, Targets and Isoforms

I have a question. Given a molecule A and two isoforms of a gene X, Y, and the knowledge that A targets X. Can I infere from this anything about whether A targets Y? As a motivation think about ...
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1answer
32 views

Obtaining a mapping of RefSeq ACs to Uniprot ACs

I am trying to obtain a mapping for RefSeq Accession Numbers to Uniprot Accession Numbers. I can write a script to do this for a list of RefSeq ACs like this: ...
3
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1answer
68 views

Is a bone marrow transplant limited by sex?

Can a female patient get transplanted with bone marrow of a male donor and vice versa?
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29 views

How can the following data regarding flower phenotypes be explained?

$$\begin{array}{c|c|c} \hline \text{Parents} & F_1 & F_2\\ \hline \text{Blue}\:\times \text{white} & \text{All blue} & \text{196 blue, 63 white} \\ \text{Blue}\:\times \text{pink} ...
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0answers
19 views

Coefficient of Inbreeding - calculating for very large family tree

I have a very comprehensive family tree of many thousands of horses going back dozens of generations. I now wish to calculate the COI for every animal in the entire tree. I have seen that there are ...
1
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1answer
40 views

Cloning Ice Age Lion Cubs

It was just on the news that scientists discovered "Two cubs in Russia's Sakha Republic last August in a near-perfect state". And the South Koreans and Russians are attempting to clone these extinct ...
3
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1answer
28 views

Gemini usage of --sample-filter

I am using gemini to query databases made from vcf files, which contain data from multiple samples. However, I need to query data only from one sample, (for which I currently use grep to filter the ...
4
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2answers
101 views

Is it possible to create a restriction map using python? [closed]

I have some fragments of DNA from single and double digests using three different restriction enzymes. I'm trying to construct a restriction map of a linear fragment of DNA. The map needs indicate the ...
5
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1answer
184 views

What is the difference between a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and a plasmid?

Is it just that a BAC is generally larger and artificially constructed? Or are there any other differences?
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4answers
11k views

What's a non-allelic gene?

Non-allelic or non-alletic I stumbled across the term in my Human Genetics textbook. It didn't explain it there, and a quick google search only showed scientific papers that refer to 'recombinations ...
3
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42 views

How can a mutator gene can cause a mutation when it is shut off? [closed]

defination of "Mutator" - a gene that increases the rate of mutation of one or more other genes. However, in the book "Molecular Biology of the Cell" (bruce alberts) it states that when a mutator is ...