Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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How do you merge SNP data with a reference genome?

My Data I have a 23andMe file listing SNPs in the form: ...
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Evolutionarily speaking, why do humans have 46 chromosomes

In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. Monkeys, chimpanzees, and Apes have 24 pairs (twenty-four pairs), for a total of 48. What caused humans to have 46? ...
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On average how many genes / alleles do people share?

I am curious about how much more a child can be alike to one parent than the other. If a child were to inherit all the alleles that are shared between both parents from one parent, but inherit all ...
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Why do ladybugs have a different number of points on their backs

Everytime I see a ladybug I ask myself this question. Why does every ladybug have a different amount of points on its back? Is it because of its age? Or because of its genes? Is it inheritable?
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Genetics: pedigree following a rare trait autosomal recessive

I have two questions pertaining to this pedigree I believe it to be an autosomal recessive trait. The probability that individuals IV-1 and IV-2 would give rise to an affected individual would ...
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103 views

Could a sperm be altered to contain a female's genetics?

while discussing with a friend a while back on the likelihood a Funtari (a woman with both fully developed and functioning sets of genitalia) existing in real life we got into a discussion of weather ...
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Definition of species - location of gene

I know that species have been classified on basis of reproduction , DNA similarity , niche, etc. Has there been a classification based on locus of genes ? What are the drawbacks/shortcomings of ...
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73 views

Gene perturbation, what is it used for, explain to computer scientists? [closed]

I am trying to build a gene regulation network, and I need some basic knowledge of it. So, in gene research, we perturb genes. Such as knock down them? Can people tell 2 or 3 experiment methods to ...
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1answer
32 views

Drosophila grey / yellow

I am studying biology by myself via distance-learning. I have been trying to solve the following problem for a while now and hoped you could help me. As this is "homework" I would appreciate hints ...
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50 views

In genome research, what is the problem in Mapping that may be caused by reads being too short?

In the following scenario: You were given short sequence reads of plant RNA obtained from a next-generation sequencing machine (fragments of 20–30 nucleotides in length). You attempt to map them back ...
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1answer
30 views

What information do microarray image convey?

OK I have read that a cell generates 4 kinds of digital (to be precise discrete) data namely DNA, RNA, Protein (sequences that can be encoded as string sequences of nucleotides/ amino acids) and micro ...
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37 views

What is the current scientific position on the issue of human race?

Race is perhaps one of the most controversial and sensitive issues in anthropology, biology, and other related fields. As a non-scientist, I've used google to probe the disparity between the positions ...
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37 views

Is there a possibility that medicine will affect the efficiency of natural selection?

I mean, saving sick people means that they possibly can propagate something that nature does not allow. I know that there is already something that operate at genetical level producing alteration, ...
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1answer
115 views

Do there exist publicly available Genome sequences of a family?

I would like to explore the genome sequence of a publicly available genome sequences of a family (like mother, father, son, daughter...). If such human genome sequences are not publicly available at ...
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1answer
52 views

What does chromosome CHR_Un, CHR_MT in the ftp site of NCBI mean?

I am not a biologist. But need some genetic data. So I searched internet and reached NCBI's website. I came to know from the FAQ page that I can the complete genome data of organisms from ...
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2answers
208 views

Correlation between genome size and mutation rate?

Martin Nowak in his book "Evolutionary Dynamics" talks about a given correlation between genome size and mutation rate. What correlation does exactly exist between these two concepts? Is it a ...
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29 views

Why only able to close one eyelid? Genetic reason?

Eye-dominance is a critical thing with bows: right-eye-dominant is recommended to do the aiming on the right eye here otherwise inaccuracy. This made me think whether all people are even able to do ...
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63 views

Help explain multi alleles in terms of actual genetic code

I understand that someones genetic makeup at an allele is usually denoted as (AA,Aa,aa). That means that instead of an A-T pair you get a C-G pair on none, 1 or 2 copies. Now, what exactly happens ...
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55 views

Selection on linked loci in a diploid population

Let’s consider two linked loci $A$ and $B$ that are both bi-allelic. In consequence, we have four different possible haplotypes $A_1B_1$, $A_1B_2$, $A_2B_1$, $A_2B_2$, which frequencies are $X_1$, ...
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examples of chromosomal aberrations with lack of sexual chromosomes?

Are there any examples in animals where individuals survive having no copies of their sexual chromosomes?
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15 views

Why does the stability of YAC increase with size?

From Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry : The stability of YAC increases with size (up to a limit). Those with inserts of less than 100000 are gradually lost during mitosis. Why does this ...
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1answer
57 views

How well supported is the hypothesis that aging is mainly caused by the number of mutations in tissues?

I heard the hypothesis, that the (main) reason of aging is the increasing number of mutations in body tissues. The higher the number of mutations is, the older tissue is. Is this true? And how well ...
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1answer
25 views

Cosmid genomic library, or genomic cosmid library?

Which usage is better for referring to a "cosmid library of genomic DNA fragments"?
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77 views

Activation Of Embryonic Genome

Embryonic gene activation is a process by which the embryo begins to transcribe its newly formed genome.As the embryonic gene activation occurs during early stages the paternal genome may not have any ...
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28 views

Book Recommendation: Complex Traits and Complex Genetic Architecture

I am looking for a book (or any good source of information) that offers an in-depth discussion and models about the evolution and analysis of complex traits and complex genetic architecture. Do you ...
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1answer
41 views

Defining: Evolutionary (quantitative) Genetics and Population Genetics

How do we define the fields that are Evolutionary (quantitative) genetics and population genetics. What set these two fields apart? Can you try to provide definitions? To my intuitive understanding, ...
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1answer
63 views

Why are hybrids infertile?

Let's take a quote from Wikipedia about zebroids. Donkeys are closely related to zebras and both animals belong to the horse family. These zebra donkey hybrids are very rare. In South Africa, they ...
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1answer
159 views

How does chromosome cross-over occur?

I have heard that during meiosis, homologous chromosomes from each parent "cross-over", which enables the off-spring to inherit some alleles from the mother and some alleles from the father. The ...
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Are people genetically predisposed to being interested in specific fields/ideas? How does specialization occur?

I'm not sure if I formulated my question well, but I'm curious about a couple statements made by Steven Pinker and and James Heckman. In this interview: ...
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1answer
61 views

What is the current molecular explanation of Mendel's pea cross?

With reference to the simplest Punnet square for Mendel's pea plant experiments it occurred to me that I could not connect the little I know about genetics to the little I know about molecules. The ...
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1answer
27 views

Effect of the health of the male parent at the time of conceiving

Does it matter at all in determining the traits of a baby what the current health of the father is? For example, let's say I got diabetes at the age of 40 because of the poor lifestyle choices. Will ...
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48 views

Effect of natural selection on phenotypic variance

Short background Theoretically speaking, natural selection causes a decrease in genetic variance and because the environmental variance should remain unchanged, natural selection causes a decrease of ...
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1answer
36 views

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless?

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless? Please explain the broad principles and not the technicalities.
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35 views

How do exon tandem exon duplications occur in the genome?

By this I mean in cases where tandem exons are introduced by replication slippage how would a DNA polymerase by chance duplicate an entire exon cleanly (i.e. from exact start to exact end) when it ...
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58 views

Publicly available genotype data?

I am a statistician and I'd like to test my new method on biological data. For this I am looking for genotype data for a number of individuals. That is, I am looking for something like this: ...
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Is it reasonable to assume that RNA polymerase would bind preferentially to the promoter of the long allele of the SERT gene?

I'm trying to come up with an idea for a school project (a hypothetical research study). I'm looking at depression and the serotonin transporter gene, which is highly expressed in the human ...
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1answer
41 views

List of heritability estimates in humans?

Many people on this site ask questions that directly or indirectly have to do with heritability in human. Do you know a list of estimates of heritability of various traits in humans? Or could you try ...
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1answer
39 views

How are new chromosomes replicated into the next generation via sexual reproduction?

If an individual has a new chromosome, which is very unlikely to happen, he will not have any luck in finding a sexual partner with this same trait. How will the offspring inherit this trait. And ...
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59 views

Punnett square and hybrid cross [closed]

A plant breeder crossed two plants, one with red flowers, and the other with white flowers. Red is dominant. Calculate the phenotype and genotype ratios of the F2 generation of this cross. Is this a ...
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Book recommendation on population/evolutionary genetics?

I have recently been involved in collaborations that require me to model the population genetics of eukaryotic populations. I fear I may either be "re-inventing the wheel" or making conceptual ...
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1answer
67 views

How does GC-content evolve?

Background GC-content refers to the frequency of base pairs that are either C or G in the genome, or in other words the number of GC base pairs divided by the addition of the number of GC base pairs ...
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Heterozygosity under genetic drift

The wright-Fisher model of genetic drift is: $$p_{ij} = \binom{2N}{j}\left(\frac{i}{2N}\right)^j \left(1- \frac{i}{2N}\right)^{2N-j} $$ ,where $\binom{2N}{j}$ is a binomial coefficient. From this ...
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1answer
70 views

Troubleshooting for Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

SI ran my 2% agarose gel on constant voltage (100 V). For a few times it worked at CV but, after a week or so the machine would automatically switch to constant current by itself. And this only ...
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Did the eugenics program in Nazi Germany have a measurable effect?

Did the killing or sterilisation of people considered as living a "life unworthy of life" in Nazi Germany have any measurable effect on the "average health" of Germany? Is there any statistical ...
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Is it possible for a brown eyed parent to have blue eyed child?

Here's the story: A young man has stunning blue eyes. On his mother's side are lots of instances of blue eyes, but on his father's side is no history of blue eyes. When he was born with these bright ...
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133 views

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium: To compute probability of finding two siblings (random mating)

I've been working a little with M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics (Dover, 1979) and cannot see how to properly compute half of one question. This should be a basic probability computation, but I ...
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Which disorders are fully concordant?

I work in neuroscience, mostly Alzheimer's disease (AD), with some work in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The work is in gene regulation and epigenomics. I'm familiar with monozygotic twin (MZ) ...
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1answer
100 views

Genetics problem-Height of a plant

An inbred strain of plants has a mean height of 24cm. A second strain of the same species also has a mean height of 24cm. When these plants are crossed the F1 are also 24cm in height.However, when the ...
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Why is the human body hair not uniformly colored?

Most of my body hair is black however my lip hair is light brown/blonde the rest of my beard region is black. Since hair color is genetic what causes this?