Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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When was the first exception to Mendelian genetics discovered?

In addition to the the question in the title I'd like to know , how scientists reacted to the exceptions?
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Given the number of individuals who have a recessive disorder, how can one calculate the probability that the disorder was inherited? [closed]

Just to be clear, this is not homework. Suppose a biological family has five children, two of whom have a certain recessive genetic disorder that is not sex-linked. The parents themselves do not have ...
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Do trees have genes for stopping the grow?

Do trees have genetically encoded to stop growing at some height, to keep dividing the cells only to a certain amount, or to pump nutritions only till it's advantageous because they've already ...
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1answer
69 views

Standard notation for dominant and recessive allele

I'm reading through some science that could come up in my GRE equivalency. I've never been much of a biologist, more of a chemist/geologist....though it does interest me massively! I'm just seeing ...
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57 views

Is there selection against long proteins and long genes?

Background thought Titin and TTN Titin is the largest protein in the human genome with 33423 amino acids. Titin is coded by the gene TTN that must be at least $3 \cdot 33423 \approx 100kb$ long. ...
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54 views

autosomal recessive population numbers

This question is background research for a science fiction / fantasy novel, my knowledge of genetic is very basic. It seems obvious to me that for genetic disorders that are autosomal recessive, if ...
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23 views

How does epigenetics affect the birth conditions via alcohol?

Recent study has shown that epigenetics can play role in male-caused infertility and it cites for example studies which showed an enhancing of silent genes when drinking alcohol. Since the study ...
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55 views

Genetics - Ancestry DNA relationships

If my uncle and I both got our DNA tested and compared ancestry results, should we have 50% or 25% similarity? I get normally it would be 25% but since the mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome are (...
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24 views

What tell a plant to have one/a lot of flower(s)? [closed]

some plants just have one flower and some have more. This is the question. please simply tell me how? which genes or pathways control this in various plants?
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How do chromosome pairs get “paired up” for protein synthesis?

If my understanding is correct, during interphase a normal human cell will have 46 chromosomes scattered about in the cell nucleus. These chromosomes can be thought of as pairs: there are two copies ...
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45 views

Why do mutations in Drosophila dsx (double sex) affect both males and females?

Reason: Loss-of-function mutation of dsx gene in female embryo leads to production of a nonfunctional protein that fails to repress male specific gene expression. So somatic characters of both the ...
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Mendelian genetics - How can we infer the number of genes in play in this scenario?

So this is a practice question I got from school but I kinda lost here. So the question is: In Drosophila , four new recessive mutations have been found all of which produce purple eye ...
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27 views

Why would worker bias sex-ratio toward workers?

This question prompts for explanation on a topic, an interpretation of this topic is given. A simplified question statement is also given at the end for those who do not wish to read. Topic In the ...
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1answer
64 views

How do harsh conditions cause an increase in the male birth ratio?

I've heard that in harsh conditions more human baby boys are born than girls because a bigger ratio of them will die before reproductive age. But in which aspects of the random gene combination while ...
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52 views

Recessive is Dominant to Dominant?

If a gene has for instance three alleles, p, q, and r, then could p be dominant to q, q be dominant to r, but r be dominant to p? Can a gene that is recessive to one allele not be dominant to another ...
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1answer
46 views

Determination of genes to be modified in epigenetics [closed]

It seems that during reproduction particular genes are targeted for modification (mutation, deletion, insertion, etc.) given environmental inputs of either or both of the parents. If a creature was ...
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1answer
25 views

Is there any clear relationship between physical characteristics and patterns in the genome?

Given that for example humans have five fingers on each hand, is there a region in the genome with a sequence of five similar subregions, one for each finger? Is the region on the genome that encodes ...
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3answers
43 views

Difference between null and recessive allele?

I get that in a single gene locus, an individual can have RR, Rr, or rr as the two alleles ...
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1answer
49 views

Is it possible to remove one strand of double stranded DNA in vivo?

Assume we do have a double stranded DNA sequence in human cells, say ...ATCGATATCGATATTGCAGAGCATAGCTATAA... ...TAGCTATAGCTATAAGCTCTCGTATCGATATT... Now I want to ...
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46 views

Why must DNA be packed into chromosomes during mitotic phase?

Why does DNA have to be packed into chromosomes? Why can't DNA just divide itself evenly?
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Does Cas9 require a nuclear localization signal (NLS) for it to work in a Eukaryote?

I'm trying to establish if it's required to add a NLS to Cas9 when expressed (or transfected) in a Eukaryotic cell. Several papers report using a viral NLS, but is it absolutely necessary? Could ...
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1answer
36 views

Relationship between genetic diversity within and between species

Here is a quote from Wagner (2008) A second line of evidence [against neutralism] comes from the relationship between the mean number of polymorphic differences between alleles within a species, $\...
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1answer
60 views

Has anyone done a GCTA of leg length? [closed]

There is extensive genomic research on height, but nobody seems to have done a gcta of leg length.
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Dihybrid Cross Help Please

lobe eyes female x crossveinless wing male F1 Progeny: Female lobe eyes: 5023 Male Lobe eyes: 4931 F2 progeny: Female wild: 1241 Male wild:630 Female lobe eyes:3803 Male lobe eyes:1892 ...
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Cell division - meiosis

Really confused. How many chromosomes pairs do humans have in their sex cells? How many single chromosomes do humans have in their sex cells?
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About Hermaphrodite Mitochondrial Inheritance

From the textbook I've learnt that in general mitochondria are inherited maternally. However if the cross is between hermaphrodites (e.g. in C.elegans), where, in most cases, then should the ...
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Is there a term for when a detrimental gene can be positively selected for because of linkage to a very fit gene?

Let's say that some piece of DNA would be subject to extreme negative selection if it were independently inherited, but it is very closely linked to an extraordinarily fit gene, and so the complex it ...
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2answers
57 views

Are there genes in sex chromosomes that determine facial features?

My friends and I were bored enough to try out this activity. Picture a teenage boy in your mind. From this picture, remove any accessories (glasses, piercings, etc.), moustache or beard, then ...
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51 views

Assuming if height was fully determined genetically, what would be the concordance between monozygotic pairs?

I fully understand the differences between monozygotic and dyzogtic twin pairings, but I wondered how I could put into words the reasons why the concordance would be very high. Derived from same ...
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2answers
147 views

Genetic mutations and new alleles

Amongst silent, nonsense and missense genetic mutations, is the latter the only one that leads to the creation of new alleles? If we define alleles as a specific form of a gene, and a gene as a ...
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32 views

What is a “homologous pair” of chromosomes in cross joining or cross over?

I never understand if the chromatids attached at the centromere is a homologous pair, or the male and female chromosomes?
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Why would lethal genes evolve?

I've been reading through 'The Selfish Gene' by Dawkins. At a few places in the book he states that incest is damaging because it would give a very high chance of lethal recessive genes becoming ...
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29 views

How to search for all human diseases associated with a inversion on chromosome 22?

Is there any way to search for all diseases that associated with inversions on chr22? I found some online research databases like OMIM and disgenet but I don't know the correct nomenclature on how to ...
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20 views

DNA. mRNA, tRNA [closed]

Can someone explain to me how transcription and translation works, especially the part about codes. And does amino acids has code or is it the tRNA?
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57 views

What's the exact meaning of and how to derive the coefficient of the path from sire to offspring?

According to Wright's Coefficients of Inbreeding and Relationship, the coefficient of the path from sire to offspring is given as $p_{o \cdot s}=\frac{1}{2}\frac{\sqrt{1+F_s}}{\sqrt{1+F_o}}$ But ...
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2answers
55 views

CRISPR/Cas for editing the human genome [closed]

I know, that the CRISP/Cas approach for "cutting" the human genome is not completely suitable if we can't say not suitable at all. Because we have many repeats and this approach can bring to our ...
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1answer
42 views

Deducing amino acid sequence from a DNA sequence

The suggested answer to the question is the following: "M L S C D K S D Stop". I do not understand how they get that result. The question is as follows: An RNA polymerase transcribes the following ...
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Breeding Southern Right Whales Genetics

I don't know much about biology. I just like watching David Attenborough videos and this made me curious. I just watched this video about breeding Southern Right Whales, and these two quotes puzzled ...
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How genetically similar are worker ants from the same colony?

I've been reading https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant and it says If the egg is fertilised, the progeny will be female diploid; if not, it will be male haploid. Since the males have only one set ...
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Dominant model Disease SNP

Say that you have genotyped a SNP in a case control setting, and get the following result AA AB BB Cases 17 51 29 Controls 39 44 20 where A ...
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22 views

What the gene variation detection result can tell us about a cancer [duplicate]

We do a research on a particular cancer, now we have a result of the gene variation detection . What next steps do we need to do? we don't have a clear picture about this. Can you give us some ...
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2answers
36 views

How do biologists quantify “gene expression” in experiments?

I've read papers which contain statements such as "control of gene expression is critical in biological processes". How exactly does one quantify "gene expression"? Isn't gene expression an umbrella ...
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1answer
41 views

Why does meiotic recombination disrupt the independent assortment of genes on the same chromosome?

There are many sources that say that genes that are "linked" by being on the same chromosome assort with each other -- that when an allele is passed on that the gamete containing said allele will also ...
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Population size and genetic drift - What are the evidences?

Wright-Fisher model From the Wright-Fisher model of genetic drift, the random sampling of allele from one generation to the next is taken from a binomial distribution with parameters $2N$ and $p$, ...
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1answer
22 views

Methods for varying insert size in E. coli clones

I'm writing my master's thesis proposal, and I need to improve the solution-behavior of some truncated protein domains which have previously shown poor solubility when expressed in E. coli. To ...
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What further research can the result of gene variation detection be used for [closed]

We do a research on a particular cancer (for e.g. breast cancer). Now, we have a result for the gene variation detection (VCF file). What next steps do we need to do? We don't have a clear picture ...
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2answers
64 views

Which strand of a gene specifies a protein? [closed]

A gene is a segment of DNA (I hope double stranded) and each strand when transcribed form a mRNA and after being translated a protein. As from each gene there are two proteins that are being formed. ...
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3answers
81 views

Can I figure out the identity of my grandparent from this information? [closed]

I know all my family up to my grandparents, with the exception of the grandfather on my mother's side. At the time my mother was conceived, my grandmother was having an affair so no one in my family ...
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0answers
32 views

Can the restless leg syndrome may have been caused due to natural selection? [closed]

Disclaimer: I don't know how much restless the leg has to be, in order to be considered a syndrome. RLS runs not only in my family but also several people in the locality. My hypothesis is that RLS ...
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60 views

Directed evolution: Point mutation vs Insertion-Deletion vs Shuffling

When attempting enzyme function improvement via Directed Evolution I can see three different strategies to generating variation for the gene sequence: Point mutations Insertion / Deletions Shuffling ...