Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Effect of sex-ratio on the effective population size

As stated on this wikipedia article, the effective population size $N_e$ when the sex ratio differs from $\frac{1}{2}$ is $$N_e = \frac{4N_mN_f}{N_m+N_f}$$ I understand the biased sex-ratio ...
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1answer
114 views

Why do humans have 46 chromosomes? [duplicate]

Humans have approximately 25000 genes. Why are these genes on 46 chromosomes? Why not 40 or 50?
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17 views

Difference Between Gene Delivery and Gene Therapy

What is the specific difference between gene delivery and gene therapy? As far as I understand, gene delivery is the first step of gene therapy, but where does gene delivery end and gene therapy ...
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33 views

Diffusion approximation to genetic drift

Textbook I am reading from the classical textbook Principles of Population Genetics, Hartl and Clark (pdf here). Introduction $f(p,x,t)$ is the distribution of allele frequency $x$ at time $t$ ...
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2answers
733 views

Are fishes evolving?

As far as I know, Fishing has been one of the important occupation since early ages, and infinite number of fishes have already been captured. As the time passes, they must've developed some sort of ...
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1answer
81 views

How many genes does D. melanogaster have?

Obviously there is no 100% exact number, but I came across this on flybase, the gold standard for annotation. I am confused now. "Genes located to the genome", is that what I am looking for? If so, ...
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36 views

“Signal Advance”: Unsure of meaning or contextual use

I am reading through Recombinant DNA; Genes and Genomes - A Short Course - Third Edition by James D. Watson, et. al. and I came across this paragraph in the discussion about discrete factors of ...
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30 views

Is it possible to have raw ngs data to practice

I'm looking for raw human ngs data to practice in bioinformatics. Better if it is from different machines (illumina, roche, pacsbio, etc). Panels, exomes and genomes. Anyone knows something?
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2answers
121 views

Can an argument be made that humans are 90% bacterial?

On the blog, All about Scientist in Microword: Microbiology, I read the post We are 90% bacteria, actually, which says that humans are 90% bacterial cells. If this is the case, then why don't we ...
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1answer
79 views

Colorblindness in females and random X chromosome inactivation

From Annenberg Learner: Because the X is inactivated randomly in cells, one cell could have the maternal X inactivated, while the adjacent cell could have the paternal X inactivated. This causes ...
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29 views

What is the Genetic Cause of Homosexuality? [duplicate]

So, I'm just wondering about this because I read the following in my Biology textbook about fruit fly genes: "Normal male and female flies express distinct forms of the fru gene. When females are ...
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65 views

HIV and open reading frames

In Wilk et al. 2001 I saw that HIV has 3 open reading frames. In the Watts et al. 2009, I noticed they mentioned HIV has 9 open reading frames. I don't understand this very well. e.g. ...
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1answer
78 views

What is the difference between a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and a plasmid?

Is it just that a BAC is generally larger and artificially constructed? Or are there any other differences?
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1answer
97 views

What does it mean to have a Y-DNA Haplogroup “R-M512”? [closed]

I did a DNA test to learn about my origins, but the results are highly technical. I see I have a Y-DNA Haplogroup R-M512 and a mutation (zero marker in DYS448). I Googled these terms and came across ...
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1answer
59 views

What does it mean to clone a gene?

When I look up information related to the identification of disease genes, texts will often refer to the gene being "first cloned." What does "clone" mean in this context? Is it simply a synonym for ...
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43 views

Sexual selection and genotypes [closed]

I have question about genetics and sexual selection. This is re-worded from a problem that was posed to help me and others understand what is going on here. Say you have a fictional species on an ...
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26 views

Why are we supposed as unable to change our intrinsic behaviour? [closed]

People say that habit can be changed but not the intrinsic behavior of an individual. One can control it for a certain period but eternal control or refrain is not possible. Is that true? If yes why? ...
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46 views

Math backbone in biology/genetic

Are there any good books, that shows some advanced models in genetics particularly? The problem is i don't see any good math model in genetics interactions exept combinatorics. I'd like to know what ...
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16 views

Amputation of part of the cytoplasm of the amoeba? [closed]

We ampute a part of the cytoplasm of the amoeba many times and we observe that amoeba is not divided This experience allows to deduce the cause of the division of amoeba Do that have relation with ...
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1answer
23 views

genetic complementation problem

I've attached the picture of the problem. SO, based on the information I managed to assemble two large cistrons. (if the combination of two mutants yield (-) mutations are on the same chromosome) ...
2
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1answer
21 views

Gemini usage of --sample-filter

I am using gemini to query databases made from vcf files, which contain data from multiple samples. However, I need to query data only from one sample, (for which I currently use grep to filter the ...
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2answers
788 views

What is the instructional language of DNA?

DNA carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses (Wikipedia). Is it already know how ATCG's ...
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1answer
36 views

Difference between micro RNA and short-interfering RNA and CRISPR Cas 9 system?

I read this article https://www.quantamagazine.org/20150206-crispr-dna-editor-bacteria/ and am slightly puzzled as to why the CRISPR/Cas 9 system is seen as being so revolutionary. It seems like the ...
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28 views

Gel Electrophoresis

we add Etbr within the agarose gel but we do not add Etbr directly in native PAGE ?when we make agarose gel, we add Etbr before its solidification but we do not add Etbr when the native PAGE gel is in ...
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2answers
90 views

Are gametes determined by the sex of an organism?

In the Wikipedia article for biological sex, I read the following sentence. "The gametes produced by an organism are determined by its sex:..." However, is it not through the gametes produced by ...
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25 views

Fur genetics - what are the causes of fur colour decision?

This Australian Shepherd puppy's father is a black-tri; mother is a blue merle. What would cause this dog to have so much white color? Are there any general explanations as to why this might ...
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1answer
40 views

Coefficient of Inbreeding - implementation issue

The formula for the coefficient of inbreeding is as follows... I have a family tree going back 9 generations. Say I find a common ancestor X in the 4th generation on the mothers side and in the 5th ...
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117 views

Are non-coding RNAs introns?

I am slightly confused as to what part of the genome codes for non-coding RNAs. Is it the introns? This would make sense to me as to why they are not transcribed as the introns are not transcribed. Or ...
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1answer
24 views

Inheritance patterns in individuals with triploidy

If you search on the genetics of Down's Syndrome, you'll find plenty of results explaining the genetic mechanisms which can result in triploidy. However, I can't find any information on the ...
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46 views

How to find name of the gene

Considering the kegg page, this page contains the description of the gene Edwardsiella tarda EIB202: ETAE_0074 . Now this gene has a name given in the page as : wabG. Now considering another gene 1 ...
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1answer
166 views

Lac operon: How can lactose enter the cell in the absence of lactose permease?

My textbook states that lactose permease...transports lactose into the cell and When lactose is added to the growth medium, the lactose molecules bind to the other site on the repressor ...
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2answers
37 views

Animal gene in plants

Usually only microbes, specifically bacteria are used to express genes of other species for various functions. But, it is possible to try and express an animal gene into a plant. Bacteria like ...
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2answers
70 views

Question about proto-oncogenes and oncogenes?

My textbook says: Growth-promoting genes are called proto-oncogenes. Some can be changed into oncogenes by a point mutation that alters the ability of the proto-oncogene to be switched off. They ...
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1answer
46 views

When does a chromatid become a chromosome?

When chromosomes lie on the metaphase plate, they have the characteristic X shape. But these are actually two chromatids that are held together at the centromere. If separation fails and both ...
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How can I find the mRNA sequence for a specific prokaryotic gene?

What I want to find out is the start of the transcription for a specific gene, how long the UTR is before the actual coding sequence starts. I've looked at various databases like NCBI Gene, Refseq or ...
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1answer
45 views

Human Endogenous Retroviruses

I am reading this paper, which shows that a Human Endogenous Retrovirus (HERV) K provirus is present at the orthologous position of gorilla and chimpanzee genomes but absent in the human genome. If ...
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1answer
52 views

What does the “*” in haplogroup I2A1* mean?

I have been told that the "asterisk" in the Haplogroup 12A1* means it doesn't move down stream? What exactly does that mean in layman's terms?
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1answer
45 views

Can we create custom gene/protein?

Does it possible to create any custom gene or protein we want with current technology? I have a protein sequence or a gene sequence about 4000 bp write down on my computer, is there anyway to "print" ...
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1answer
47 views

Using evolution of bacteria against themselves

We know that mutations happen regularly in bacteria and also that one bacteria might get the mutation and become stronger than the others and thus survive, causing antibiotic resistance as well. Can ...
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1answer
191 views

Why does size decrease across the sequence of human chromosomes?

The following graph shows a decrease in the amount of base pairs per chromosome across the sequential set of human chromosomes: Is this because chromosomes were originally numbered by their size on ...
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308 views

Can bacteria release free DNA into their environment?

Natural transformation AKA natural competence involves the uptake of DNA into a competent bacterium (for horizontal gene transfer or as a food source). My question is about where this extracellular ...
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134 views

Electroporation vs gene guns [closed]

What are the pros and cons of using electroporators (left) and gene guns (right) for transformation in terms of: Price Target organism Efficacy Ease of use Maintenance
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1answer
89 views

Have there been any “chopstick gene” mistakes in genetics? [closed]

I've heard of the "chopstick gene" fallacy - wrongly assuming an association between genetics and some characteristic, confounded by non-genetic factors. Has this fallacy happened in real life? I'm ...
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2answers
42 views

Do eukaryote cells contain DNA that isn't part of a chromosome or located in the mitochondria?

I specify eukaryote in the title, but I'm also interested if this question isn't applicable to eukaryote cells in general but is to humans. I was reading "RNA-seq: An assessment of technical ...
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1answer
114 views

Which of the two chromosomes in a pair is expressed?

I have completely dummy question. I have 23 pairs of chromosomes in the cells 23 single coming from my mother and 23 single from my father. So how my cell choose which chromosome, mother's or ...
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1answer
44 views

Query from a ppt slide

I came across this slide: Now I haven't understood what the last two grey colored lines mean. Can't ORFS be of any size? What is overlapping frames here?
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1answer
15 views

When performing mutagenesis for an assay, how do you decide on the sample size of individuals to be mutated such that all genes are covered?

If I want to study, say, gustatory response of salmons to a bile acid, I need to mutagenize a sample of salmon males. However, given that there are many genes involved in this response, what is ...
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2answers
112 views

Please explain this disrepancy about ageing

We read that ageing is related to cell death when we run out of telomeres at the end of our DNA molecules. Humans live roughly for 70 years - the traditional three-score years and ten. This compares ...
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2answers
115 views

What is the difference between fixation and loss of alleles in a population?

When running a simulation in PopG, with parameters: Population size: 100 AA fitness: 1.0 Aa fitness: 1.0 aa fitness: 1.0 Mutation A to a: 1.0E-6 Mutation a to A: 1.0E-6 Migration rate between ...
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53 views

Problem on Probabilty of a restriction enzyme cutting a random DNA sequence

I think its a silly question to ask here. When I came to this site all I could see were the questions which asked detailed explanation behind a phenomenon and reasoning was there at first place. I am ...