Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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What does high level science actually say about the gay gene? [duplicate]

There is a lot of talk about genetics in the contemporary debate on the morality of homosexual behavior (and bisexual behavior, hereafter implied). As I understand the issue, the thought is not that ...
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1answer
29 views

What is the relationship between independent assortment and cross over?

During meiosis, the independent assortment will be made first and then cross over will be made. I am so confused, what is the difference between this two process? I looked at the diagram on internet....
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48 views

What types of species can produce genetically identical offspring? [closed]

Talking about identical twins, triplets, etc. I'm curious which types of species are able produce genetically identical offspring. Let's limit the scope to species that reproduce sexually and ...
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4answers
144 views

The human has 46 double chromosomes or simple chromosomes?

What I mean: does the human cell have 46 of these: or 46 of these: Thank you in advance.
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21 views

Effects of pulverizing liquid nitrogen frozen tissue by by pestle and mortar

Does RNA, DNA or protein molecule break during pulverizing (liquid nitrogen) frozen tissue by pestle and mortar. As I want to make cDNA for qPCR, this is very important to me to know this.
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1answer
85 views

How likely is it that a person's progeny has an inheritable disorder based on this pedigree?

Case study: A person (let's just call him "John") had 3 aunts that died back in the 1950's in early childhood due to an unknown form of neuromuscular disorder. One died at birth, one at 2 years and ...
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1answer
50 views

Can we infect with “bad” genes other organisms? [closed]

We know that some organism's DNA stay with human for life (Herpes) and we also can, i think, design such "gene" that can interact with human's DNA-polymerase very intensive. If we attached this gene ...
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41 views

Has a restriction enzyme ever been tagged?

As part of an experiment that I am preparing, it would seem necessary for me to tag a restriction enzyme (HaeIII to be exact) with GFP. I began researching its domains to determine whether to tag the ...
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2answers
68 views

Are heterozygotes always fitter than homozygotes? Can inbreeding be beneficial?

Inbreeding is mostly not very good because when there is a 'disease' in one allele, the other could/would take over the function. But when you have two of the same genes/alleles, do they, or could ...
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2answers
100 views

Can animals also get Down syndrome?

I heard that animals cannot get Down syndrome or trisomy. Is that true and why can't they get it? They also have chromosomes.
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15 views

Difference in associated SNPs in GWAS

I noticed that when GWAS studies are being replicated, some SNPs near a gene known to cause a trait are enriched in frequency in those with the trait. However, among the different studies, the most ...
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14 views

H is the set of all possible Diplotypes that are consistent with genotype data

I am new to Biology.SX. I have a statistics background, and have almost zero knowledge in genetics. I am trying to understand some things related to genetics in a certain paper of biostatistics. ...
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1answer
38 views

Distribution of Exon and Intron Sizes

Goal I am trying to get a distribution of Exons and intron sizes in Three-Spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Data downloaded I downloaded some data from Ensembl. More precisely, I went ...
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1answer
104 views

How to retrieve logical expression (KO based) for reactions from KEGG?

Whether a module is complete or not can easily be checked by evaluating the Definition entry associated with the module; e.g. in module M00010, it is given by <...
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2answers
30 views

What is the genetic difference between two cone branches?

As we can see on this larch, male and female cones are sometimes directed to grow on the opposite side of the branch. We were told in school that this mechanism works against self-fertilization. Also ...
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0answers
17 views

What do recessive/dominant alleles actually mean in terms of modern genomics? [duplicate]

In Mendelian genetics, we discuss phenotypes, which are specified by the alternative versions of genes called alleles. In terms of peas, the phenotype "round pea" encoded by one allele of a gene is ...
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1answer
58 views

Current state of Gene Therapy [closed]

I am interested in learning about attempts to treat adult individuals suffering from a genetic disease in which the underlying changes in the DNA of the gene are understood. (i) Are there approaches ...
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1answer
43 views

What are silent carrier traits? [closed]

I couldn't find a definition but I have come to know the following from google search: People who are carriers of a thalassemia gene show no thalassemia symptoms and might not know they're ...
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2answers
105 views

What are sex linked traits?

Which of the two definitions of sex-linked trait is correct? Traits controlled by genes present on the non-homologous region of sex chromosomes are called sex-...
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20 views

Links between Genetics and Personality Types

This topic was visited briefly in the thread, Genetic Effects on Personality, but I was surprised not to find more on it. (Is there a taboo I don't know about? What's the ethical stance on this ...
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2answers
62 views

Mutating a protein without mutating the gene?

Is it possible to mutate a region of a protein (says about 300 amino acids long) without actually mutating the gene? One possible way that I can think of is to use RNAi and specifically block that ...
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23 views

Lyonization and Turner's syndrome

If lyonization is basically inactivation on X chromosome, and Turner's syndrome patients have only one existing X chromosome, what is the difference between healthy women with inactivated X chromosome ...
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2answers
590 views

3 flaws of genes from the perspective of a programmer [closed]

Having a double helix structure seems like a waste of space. In programming you would have a single array and just before mitosis you would double the single helix. Having an exact copy of a cromatid. ...
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2answers
46 views

What is gene density?

As per wikipedia definition, gene density is defined as: "In genetics, the gene density of an organism's genome is the ratio of the number of genes per number of base pairs, usually written in ...
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1answer
95 views

What are Codominant vs Dominant Genetic Markers?

When talking about types of genetic markers, the adjective "dominant" and "codominant" are often used. I don't fully understand their definitions and found contradicting definitions. Foll and ...
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1answer
18 views

Statistical genetics: Allele frequencies that follow a Dirichlet distribution

From Foll and Gagiotti (2008) (software BayeScan). They consider a model where several subpopulation are derived from a unique ancestral population. We consider a set of $I$ loci and let $K_i$ be ...
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2answers
38 views

When was the first exception to Mendelian genetics discovered?

In addition to the the question in the title I'd like to know , how scientists reacted to the exceptions?
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33 views

Given the number of individuals who have a recessive disorder, how can one calculate the probability that the disorder was inherited? [closed]

Just to be clear, this is not homework. Suppose a biological family has five children, two of whom have a certain recessive genetic disorder that is not sex-linked. The parents themselves do not have ...
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41 views

Do trees have genes for stopping the grow?

Do trees have genetically encoded to stop growing at some height, to keep dividing the cells only to a certain amount, or to pump nutritions only till it's advantageous because they've already ...
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1answer
73 views

Standard notation for dominant and recessive allele

I'm reading through some science that could come up in my GRE equivalency. I've never been much of a biologist, more of a chemist/geologist....though it does interest me massively! I'm just seeing ...
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1answer
58 views

Is there selection against long proteins and long genes?

Background thought Titin and TTN Titin is the largest protein in the human genome with 33423 amino acids. Titin is coded by the gene TTN that must be at least $3 \cdot 33423 \approx 100kb$ long. ...
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1answer
56 views

autosomal recessive population numbers

This question is background research for a science fiction / fantasy novel, my knowledge of genetic is very basic. It seems obvious to me that for genetic disorders that are autosomal recessive, if ...
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24 views

How does epigenetics affect the birth conditions via alcohol?

Recent study has shown that epigenetics can play role in male-caused infertility and it cites for example studies which showed an enhancing of silent genes when drinking alcohol. Since the study ...
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2answers
57 views

Genetics - Ancestry DNA relationships

If my uncle and I both got our DNA tested and compared ancestry results, should we have 50% or 25% similarity? I get normally it would be 25% but since the mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome are (...
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25 views

What tell a plant to have one/a lot of flower(s)? [closed]

some plants just have one flower and some have more. This is the question. please simply tell me how? which genes or pathways control this in various plants?
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48 views

How do chromosome pairs get “paired up” for protein synthesis?

If my understanding is correct, during interphase a normal human cell will have 46 chromosomes scattered about in the cell nucleus. These chromosomes can be thought of as pairs: there are two copies ...
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1answer
55 views

Why do mutations in Drosophila dsx (double sex) affect both males and females?

Reason: Loss-of-function mutation of dsx gene in female embryo leads to production of a nonfunctional protein that fails to repress male specific gene expression. So somatic characters of both the ...
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26 views

Mendelian genetics - How can we infer the number of genes in play in this scenario?

So this is a practice question I got from school but I kinda lost here. So the question is: In Drosophila , four new recessive mutations have been found all of which produce purple eye ...
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27 views

Why would worker bias sex-ratio toward workers?

This question prompts for explanation on a topic, an interpretation of this topic is given. A simplified question statement is also given at the end for those who do not wish to read. Topic In the ...
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1answer
66 views

How do harsh conditions cause an increase in the male birth ratio?

I've heard that in harsh conditions more human baby boys are born than girls because a bigger ratio of them will die before reproductive age. But in which aspects of the random gene combination while ...
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2answers
53 views

Recessive is Dominant to Dominant?

If a gene has for instance three alleles, p, q, and r, then could p be dominant to q, q be dominant to r, but r be dominant to p? Can a gene that is recessive to one allele not be dominant to another ...
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1answer
47 views

Determination of genes to be modified in epigenetics [closed]

It seems that during reproduction particular genes are targeted for modification (mutation, deletion, insertion, etc.) given environmental inputs of either or both of the parents. If a creature was ...
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1answer
25 views

Is there any clear relationship between physical characteristics and patterns in the genome?

Given that for example humans have five fingers on each hand, is there a region in the genome with a sequence of five similar subregions, one for each finger? Is the region on the genome that encodes ...
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3answers
46 views

Difference between null and recessive allele?

I get that in a single gene locus, an individual can have RR, Rr, or rr as the two alleles ...
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1answer
64 views

Is it possible to remove one strand of double stranded DNA in vivo?

Assume we do have a double stranded DNA sequence in human cells, say ...ATCGATATCGATATTGCAGAGCATAGCTATAA... ...TAGCTATAGCTATAAGCTCTCGTATCGATATT... Now I want to ...
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2answers
66 views

Why must DNA be packed into chromosomes during mitotic phase?

Why does DNA have to be packed into chromosomes? Why can't DNA just divide itself evenly?
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97 views

Does Cas9 require a nuclear localization signal (NLS) for it to work in a Eukaryote?

I'm trying to establish if it's required to add a NLS to Cas9 when expressed (or transfected) in a Eukaryotic cell. Several papers report using a viral NLS, but is it absolutely necessary? Could ...
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1answer
37 views

Relationship between genetic diversity within and between species

Here is a quote from Wagner (2008) A second line of evidence [against neutralism] comes from the relationship between the mean number of polymorphic differences between alleles within a species, $\...
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1answer
64 views

Has anyone done a GCTA of leg length? [closed]

There is extensive genomic research on height, but nobody seems to have done a gcta of leg length.
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Dihybrid Cross Help Please

lobe eyes female x crossveinless wing male F1 Progeny: Female lobe eyes: 5023 Male Lobe eyes: 4931 F2 progeny: Female wild: 1241 Male wild:630 Female lobe eyes:3803 Male lobe eyes:1892 ...