Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Possibility of Human cloning

Technology has evolved so much as to clone animals. But, what about human cloning? Is it really possible to create humans in lab? Or is it that technology has not advanced to that level..? Why cant ...
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Modified Mendelian Ratios Problem

I'm studying modified Mendelian ratios. I've got a theoretical problem that I'm stumped on: A species of bird may have normal wings, or a mutation that causes frazzled wings. I do 15 identical ...
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(how) is it possible to choose the biological sex of a child? [closed]

I recently read of a study that investigated the ethics of child's biological sex choice in humans, and now I want to find out how this can/could be done. Does anyone know of scientific papers or ...
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If gene differs between chromosome pair does individual get a mixture of protein shapes?

Do diploids such as humans end up with a mixture of two different shaped proteins where the appropriate gene is expressed differently in the two halves of a chromosome pair or is there some governing ...
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Is there an online gene library? [closed]

Is there an online library that includes all known genes in stored in their nucleotide form of all living organisms? Note I am not necessarily looking for a human only database. If such a database ...
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Do human cells contain only one copy of the genome?

Does each cell contain only a single copy of its genome? Or are there ever 'extra' copies present. Reason behind question: Wondering whether gene mutations could be corrected by referencing a ...
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Where can I upload non-human Genotype data?

I have genotype data from few chicken population and I want to (need to) upload them somewhere online with free access. I have searched the web but I haven't found any place for non-human genotype ...
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How is incomplete dominance different from codominance?

Ok let me start with the definitions of incomplete dominance and codominance. incomplete dominance - The situation in which the phenotype of heterozygotes is intermediate between the phenotypes of ...
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25 views

Ways to measure effectiveness of a gene therapy trial?

I understand that Fluorescence in situ hybridisation can be used to measure the effectiveness of a gene therapy experiment/trial. But what are some other genetics techniques to measure the ...
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86 views

Restriction Mapping - Homework question

I have trouble in solving this exercise. Exercise A circular plasmid of 10,000 base pairs (bp) is digested with two restriction enzymes,A and B, to produce a 3000 bp and a 2000 bp bands when ...
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50 views

RNAs arising from intergenic regions

Which type of RNA molecule is coded for in intergenic regions? I think it must be a non-coding RNA but I'm unsure which type.
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What is 'independent assortment'?

What is the definition of 'independent assortment'. I tried researching this term but came back with two results: alleles assort themselves independently of different alleles the alignment of ...
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Is there an association between environmental and mutational robustness?

The robustness of a genotype is the ability of this genotype to resist (always produce the same phenotype) to various parameters such as mutations and environment. The ability of a genotype to resist ...
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Looking for a gene in my raw genetic data. What are the possible causes for this?

Obviously, I barely know what I am talking about. But I want to find the "MUC5B promoter polymorphism rs35705950" in my RAW genetic data from 23andMe. (see this ...
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444 views

Why is the DNA codon table “equal” to the RNA codon table

Before anything else please pay attention of the double quotes on the "equal" in the title - I know they are not equal, but you will understand in a bit. If I look at the DNA codon table here or in ...
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During bridge amplification of DNA sequences, why aren't sequences amplified in both orientations?

During bridge amplification, when sequences attached to adapters on the surface form "bridges" and are replicated, it seems like sequences with either end attached to the surface will be created. For ...
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How to identify genes required for biofilm formation

This is just a homework question: Q: Let’s assume that there is an unknown set of E. coli genes that are required for biofilm formation. Describe a genetic experiment you could perform to try to ...
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97 views

Will genetically modified food affect our health?

It's a popular public sentiment that - GM foods like tomatoes (flavr savr) will affect our health.. Is there any logical scientific explanation behind this?
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Nature of plasmids [closed]

What are the plasmids composed of?? Genomic DNA or non-genomic DNA ? I think, the answer should be "genomic DNA"...but am not too sure...
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regarding genetic disorders related to protein production

I am not completely familiar with biology, but i had a genetics course in college along with practicals. Forgive me if there is something wrong with my question. Is there a genetic disease which ...
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40 views

What is this bizarre in-growth in this red bell pepper?

I just chanced upon a rather strange red bell pepper (or capsicum?): The green formation is bulbous to touch, just the like the outside of the bellpepper, and it has the same smell as one. I'm no ...
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423 views

Book Recommendations: GRE Subject Test In Biochemistry, Cell And Molecular Biology

There are probably a lot of really good answers that may vary significantly in terms of content. I'm looking for a set of books that I can read in preparation for the GRE Subject Test In ...
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Is it possible to genetically modify a plant at home?

Would I be able to genetically modify a plant at home? What equipment will be necessary? I think it might be a fun change from the 'norm' of regular hybridisation, to try some inter-family gene ...
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197 views

Paralogous genes in genome-wide association studies?

Has anybody tested if paralogous genes are over-represented among the genes identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS)? For example, if a GWAS study finds 200 genes associated to the ...
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Centriole genes Knock-out Experiment in Common experimental animals?

Anyone know of any experiments that have knocked out the genes for producing centrioles in a worm, mouse, fish, fly or whatever animal? Are the genes for centrioles even identified? It has been shown ...
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Where do I purchase a fly with the collagen tagged?

Where can I purchase a fly with tagged collagen? My senior undergraduate research paper is observing the collagen in larvae with normal diet compared to larvae with an experimental diet. I need ...
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Do human visual functions degenerate due to genetic factors or by external factors?

Does eyesight primarily deteriorate 'naturally' due to genetics (genomic/epigenomic factors), or due to external factors such as normal wear and tear, or disease? By normal wear and tear I include ...
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Why was it so hard to decode the corn genome?

My teachers growing up told me it was impossible to decode the maize genome. But yet its been done. Why was decoding the genome so significant, and what made it so difficult?
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Need of X or Y chromosome protein after meiosis

After meiosis each spermatid get either the X chromosome or the Y chromosome. I know that the 4 spermatids formed from 1 spermatogonia are connected by cytoplasm and so the proteins made by X or Y ...
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Which is better against genetic mutations? Asexual or Sexual Reproduction?

In terms of genetics, which type of reproduction is better against adverse mutations? I understand a bit of Muller's Ratchet—in which asexual organisms accumulate a number of deleterious mutations in ...
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Word denoting genetic state

Is there a single word, or brief phrase, that denotes the state of the total genetic machinery (genome + transcriptome + proteome + ...) of a cell or organ or organism at a particular point in time?
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Mechanisms of Gene*sex / Genotype*sex interactions

I'm looking for suggestions of the mechanistic level at which genotype/gene * sex interactions can occur. These give different phenotypes from the same geneotype dependent on the sex they are ...
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52 views

Definitions of robustness and canalization

The concepts of robustness and canalization are fashionable today in the biology literature. However, I am not sure of their definitions and I am not sure either that all authors actually use the same ...
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Results of a complete DNA sequencing - are they 100% reusable?

Is that correct that a complete DNA sequencing (the whole genome) need only to be done once (per person)? After that is done, it the complete genome can be stored and once the new genes (and their ...
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308 views

Double mutant analysis with null mutants

My professor was talking about double mutant analysis with null mutants, and how double mutant analysis won't work with hypomorphs. I really don't understand the concept of double mutant analysis. ...
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Is there are practical lower limit to gene length in E. coli?

Question is rather self-explanatory. Putting aside other post-transcriptional factors like rate of degradation of transcript, what is the smallest gene ever reported to have successfully been ...
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Heterochromatin production limitations

Currently playing with some ideas for a project and needed some guidance. I am wondering, both in Drosophila melanogaster and in general, is the amount of heterochromatin a cell/nucleus can produce ...
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Why are the genomes of some trees so large?

For example, the current longest known genome belongs to a tree: http://motherboard.vice.com/read/the-largest-genome-ever-sequenced-belongs-to-a-tree I have heard that this could potentially be ...
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694 views

How do I calculate the change in allele frequency in a haploid population under selection?

From this book For simplicity, let us consider a haploid organism and assume that the frequencies of alleles $A_1$ and $A_2$ are given by $x$ and $y=1-x$, respectively. We also assume that the ...
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What is the minimum population size that Hardy-Weinberg calculations can be applied to?

I'm trying to find out if a particular allele is in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, but the data is poor. What's the minimum population number that you can use to get any sort of respectable ...
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Hill-Roberston effects and effective population size

From this article, first page, middle of the second column: Even if harmful alleles do not become fixed, they can still reduce the efficacy of selection on neighbouring loci through a process ...
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Do men have a higher genetic variance than women?

I've heard that with the distribution of our genetic code women have less variation on the bell curve than men. Is there any basis for this? It was my understanding that women have more genetic ...
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Why is the strength of genetic drift inversely proportional to the population size?

I saw a concept on the Internet that says "the strength of genetic drift is inversely proportional to the population size". I don't know why they are inversely proportional? Can somebody explain? ...
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Physiological function of CFTR gene product? [duplicate]

I just need a clarification. If I am to talk about the physiological function of the CFTR gene product? Then what should I do research and talk about? The only physiological function that I can ...
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Why 22 amino acids instead of 64?

This question got me thinking about amino acids and the ambiguity in the genetic code. With 4 nucleotides in RNA and 3 per codon, there are 64 codons. However, these 64 codons only code for 22 ...
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Is this a valid definition of independent assortment?

"Allelic combinations separate randomly. I.e. a parent might be Aa and Bb for two traits but that doesn't necessarily mean the gametes will strictly be AB or ab but any of a number of combinations. ...
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What are non-heritable changes to genomes?

I am told that mutations are heritable changes to the genome. So this begs the question - what are non-heritable changes to genome?
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What impacts penetrance of Huntington's disease?

From Principles of Life by H. Craig Heller, David E. Sadava, Mary V. Price: From what I understand, Huntington's disease exhibits varying degrees of penetrance depending on how many times the ...
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XXY (Klinefelter's) & Trisomy 21 & X-inactivation

I read that X-inactivation doesn't tend to happen in males, but then when someone is XXY, they are a male because of the Y. However these individuals tend to live. So does that mean that ...
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Functions of the CFTR gene?

I am a senior in high school and I am studying cystic fibrosis. I don't quite get the function of the CFTR gene as this is my first time dealing with this type of heavy scientific info. I had ...