Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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What is the function of the RNA primer in DNA replication?

During DNA replication, RNA primase puts an RNA primer in the lagging strand. What is the function of this RNA primer? Why can't the enzymes put DNA fragments directly?
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Linkage Repulsion

"Segregation distorters such as meiotic drivers, involve two loci—a killer (drive) locus and a sensitivity (target) locus—being in strong linkage repulsion to ensure that the drive and ...
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1answer
60 views

Mutations/deletions with CRISPR

I need to stop some protein from being active and searching for some universal way to do so. In mammalians. With CRISPR it is possible to knock-out the entire gene. But it's a little complicate ...
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1answer
36 views

Genetic notations

Genetic testing revealed these two mutations (hypothetically): IVS11+6G>A and IVS11-4G>A Could you please explain every part of this notation, especially "+" and "-" signs.
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3answers
119 views

How does frame-shift mutation not absolutely ruin the organism?

I'm a bit curious as to how frame-shift mutation works. If you shift one amino acid towards another. How does this not affect the entire chromosome? Wouldn't this mean that the organism would be ...
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0answers
28 views

What will happen to transcription if histone acetyltransferases are removed from a eukaryotic cell?

If HATs are destroyed in a eukaryotic cell, how will gene expression level be affected? Will all gene expression be affected or just be slowed down and most gene will still be expressed?
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1answer
39 views

(Genetics) Is a silencer the same as gene silencing (heterochromatin)?

Is silencer the same as gene silencing? I know that gene silencing refers to those heterochromatin concentrated at the telomeres or centromere. It is also related to methylation. But what about a ...
4
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3answers
173 views

Gametes of two different species

I always wondered why gametes from two different species dont fuse together to form an offspring. eg a donkey (sperm) and a female dog (egg) I know this is not possible but I'm just curious.
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27 views

Multiplex PCR, shorter amplicon inhibiting longer amplicon?

I want to run multiplex PCRs for my genotyping, with a primer pair targeting my construct and a primer pair targeting some housekeeping gene (sort of a built-in control). I designed the control ...
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1answer
47 views

Similarity between the human genome and archea genome in deep sea hydrothermal vents?

I'm trying to find some reference that shows what percentage of the human genome is similar to some organism from the domain Archea that lives near or on deep sea hydrothermal vents. Can someone ...
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1answer
50 views

Identify chromosome location from gene nucleotide or amino acid number

I'm sure this is a basic question, but I couldn't find an answer anywhere. Let's say I'm provided with the location of an amino acid or a nucleotide (for example, which lists the location as the ACADM ...
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1answer
33 views

Synteny, genetics?

Could anyone explain the concept of Synteny relating to genetics? A picture would help. I tried read the wikipedia source along with another PDF ...
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1answer
101 views

Does the DNA of a tadpole change after it becomes a frog?

Does the DNA of a tadpole change after it becomes a frog? In other words what changes take place as a tadpole becomes a frog, and does this metamorphosis affect the DNA in any way? I would appreciate ...
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2answers
5k views

What determines if a gene is dominant or recessive?

Going back to my high school days we were taught about dominant and recessive genes. We were taught how to calculate the geneotype and pheneotype of potential offspring using a small table (forgotten ...
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2answers
22 views

How is the “fine mapping of pelvic regulatory region” done in this paper?

Could anyone please explain to be in very basic terms how Fig 2, and the associated text(located above the figure) is done? The jargon is too much for me to understand and I really need a simplified, ...
3
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0answers
32 views

Problem involving selfing (inbreeding it with itself) a plant to generate purebred lines

I am working on a past exam problem where the first bit is as follows A plant is repeatably selfed to generate inbred lines. Let $\mathbb{P}(He|He)$ denote the probability that a heterozygous ...
2
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1answer
29 views

What does it mean: carrying the stably integrated gene

Reading this study http://www.nature.com/cr/journal/v23/n10/full/cr2013122a.html They writing Multiple exogenous and endogenous genes can be simultaneously activated by CRISPR-on We tested ...
7
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2answers
553 views

Father with mutated mtDNA- why isn't his offspring at risk?

Mothers transmit their mitochondria (and therefore mtDNA) to their offspring and fathers don't. Lets assume that father had a mutation of the gene that encodes mtDNA, would then be his offspring at ...
2
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1answer
33 views

What is genodiversity good for?

I saw some documents which were trying to say that they can prove via sweat smell selected by women that humans are developed to find a partner with similar genes. At the first glance, I refused it as ...
3
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1answer
26 views

Quantitative Trait Locus process?

I do not seem to understand the concept of Quantitative Trait Loci(QTL's), can anyone explain it to me in detail? Reading the wikipedia article helped somewhat, but I do not understand it well. What ...
0
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1answer
518 views

TCGA data, and bioinformatics design questions for SNP/ mirna analysis

It's my first time posting to this forum but was looking for some help on the data aspects of this project. My tools of choice would be in python/R . Goal: I'm looking to create a disease specific ...
2
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0answers
125 views

Best way to automatically link Gene Entrez ID with Gene Symbol in TCGA

I am trying to figure out how to link Gene Entrez ID with Gene Symbol, for TCGA dataset. So far, I have found this ftp directory with Gene info updated daily. But, for Entrez ID 728661, I have found ...
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1answer
263 views

Mapping a mutation to known SNP, 3' UTR, miR

I've parsed out a very large TCGA cancer ssm (single mutation file) file to give me the essential information. The ssm is in the following format: ...
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107 views

How TCGA CNV values are calculated?

When I download CNV SNP array data for ovarian cancer from TCGA data portal, I see some very small numbers like -5, -6 in the "Segment_Mean" column of the segmentation data files. I am very new to ...
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1answer
121 views

Circadian Clock During a Flight

I am interested to know how does our Circadian Clock respond (and its resultant changes if any) when we are traveling across Time Zones? UPDATE 24th April I am reopening this question as the ...
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0answers
40 views

Y Chromosome in Ovary Cancer Data

I have been analyzing TCGA Ovary Cancer data. In Somatic Mutation data, there is data of mutations in all the chromosomes (1-22 and X), but amazingly, I have found one (just one) row of Y Chromosome ...
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1answer
27 views

In human females one X chromosome is inactivated forming Barr Body. Then How exactly Haemophilia is dominant? check description for details

Suppose a female has one X chromosome normal and one chromosome with Haemophilic gene. Now suppose if the X chromosome which is normal is inactivated will the female show haemophilia?
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41 views

what is linkage disequilibrium supposed to measure?

During reading about genetics I came across with the term of linkage disequilibrium, and I do not really understand what it supposed to mean. What is linkage disequilibrium? My current understanding ...
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2answers
38 views

Help reading chromatogram

A genetic variation is found in this chromatogram: It says that the "reference sequence" is the top line and that I can use the general genetic code to find the reading frame. I can see that there ...
6
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2answers
140 views

GWAS: why is replication in another cohort so crucial?

Almost all the landmark GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) reviews agree that, for a GWAS finding to be valid, it needs to be replicated in an independent cohort. What exactly is the rationale ...
2
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1answer
47 views

“bead” on a string theory of genetics, source?

Thomas Hunt Morgan was a pioneer in genetics and proposed the now false model of genes being "beads" on a string. These beads being indivisible and responsible for a single phenotype, if I understand ...
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1answer
62 views

Is it possible to knock out a gene in adults?

gene knockout is mainly used in creating newborn animals... right? Well can you do it to already-adult animals or humans so that they themselves would experience change in their body and not just ...
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2answers
470 views

Did cats evolve from monkeys ? or vice versa?

Did cats evolve from monkeys ? or vice versa ? How similar are the genes of cats and monkeys ? What is the proof that they are related or that they are not related ? Most monkeys climb in trees and ...
10
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357 views

Are there differences in DNA between humans of today and humans from 2000 years ago?

Are there any significant differences in our genome compared to the genes of our ancestors from 1000-2000 years ago? And if there are significant differences, do they result in significant ...
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2answers
62 views

Do the eggs for larger litters come from the same meiosis events, or different ones?

There are some species of animals that give birth to more than one pup at a time. In these species, are the fertilized eggs all from one or a limited group of meiosis processes, or are they from ...
2
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1answer
26 views

How do I make conclusions from the autoradiograph of a Southern blot?

Here's another question taken from "Concepts of Genetics," Klug et al (10ed), revolving around a paternity test. PCR and a Southern blot were carried out in order to determine whether 3 chimpanzees ...
3
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1answer
33 views

Forensic genetics- why is mtDNA comparison sometimes better than nDNA comparison?

Why is (in forensic genetics) in some cases more appropriate comparison of nuclear DNA but in some other cases comparison of mitochondrial DNA? Is it because geneticists are sometimes unable to find ...
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Genetic Relationship Matrix

The classical definition of the Genetic Matrix G = ZZ'/2p(1-p) where Z = M - P where P = 2(p-0.5) I don't have a background in biology but understand Maths and ...
6
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1answer
68 views

“Enhancers” of enhancers?

I am looking for examples (if any) of genomic regions which regulates the activity of enhancers, either augmenting or reducing it. Essentially some kind of enhancers (or repressors) of enhancers to ...
4
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2answers
58 views

How can (or did) Deinococcus radiodurans continue to evolve after developing resistance to mutation?

Deinococcus radiodurans has a remarkable ability to resist damage to its DNA due to radiation, dehydration or (to my knowledge) any other source. It keeps multiple copies of its genome and has a ...
2
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1answer
23 views

Term for a leaf in a family tree

Imagine a family pedigree. Mathematically it is a graph, which consists of nodes and edges. Nodes being family members, and edges - their relationships. In a clinical setting, what is the proper ...
7
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1answer
90 views

Genotype to phenotype map and the G-matrix

Suppose I have a genotype-phenotype map defined by the matrix $\mathbf{Z}$:         The scalars $G,P$ represent the number of genotypes and traits, respectively. ...
2
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1answer
36 views

What governs the distribution of blood vessels?

Whenever someone is sick, doctor places 2 fingers on wrist & observes the heart-beat-rate by feeling pulses of a certain artery. To me it seems the distribution of blood vessels are pretty ...
0
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1answer
34 views

How to tell if a given gene is a tumor suppressor or oncogene?

This is a problem taken from "Concepts of Genetics", Klug et al, 10e. I'm given the following table about the mutations in the BRCA1 gene: $$\begin{array}{c|c|c|c|c} ...
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2answers
85 views

Definitions of robustness and canalization

The concepts of robustness and canalization are fashionable today in the biology literature. However, I am not sure of their definitions and I am not sure either that all authors actually use the same ...
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1answer
574 views

Why didn't a concept like “pointers” in Computer Science evolve in the genome?

I see that the genome contains large regions of repeating sequences called interspersed or dispersed elements. The long dispersed elements (LINES) such as LINE-1, can reach up to 6-8 kb in length. ...
2
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1answer
72 views

Are genotypes with the same two alleles equivalent even if the alleles come from different parents?

I am looking at the following question If $m$ alleles may occur at a given locus, how many distinct diploid genotypes are possible at that locus? The obvious answer is that there their is $m$ ...
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0answers
30 views

Do The Traces Genetic Diseases Remain in families?

I know that there are certain diseases that are predominant on genes. But, is there any sort of surety that if parents are suffering from a disorder then their offspring has to suffer from the same. ...
3
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1answer
66 views

Hardy-Weinberg Color-blind

In a city, 4% of male population have color blindness. How many of the female are (a) color blind carrier, (b) color blind? Suppose the city holds Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. My progress: 4% of male ...
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1answer
56 views

Horizontal Gene Transfer

I understand the different ways bacteria can undergo horizontal gene transfer (transformation, transduction (phages), conjugation (plasmids)). Is there an experimental method to tell how a specific ...