Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Where do amino acids get attached to tRNA and where is it synthesized?

Some very basic parts of transcription/translation seem to be left out in various literature. I can't find the answer to this anywhere: How exactly is tRNA synthesized? I realize that mRNA is ...
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16 views

Solid mouse (C57BL/6) WT primers

I am trying to get a good pair (or better yet, library of pairs) of primers that give me one band in WT mice (C57BL/6). Do you know where I could find such a thing? Alternatively, I thought of just ...
9
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1answer
119 views

Circadian Clock During a Flight

I am interested to know how does our Circadian Clock respond (and its resultant changes if any) when we are traveling across Time Zones? UPDATE 24th April I am reopening this question as the ...
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1answer
37 views

Epistasis Across Chromosomes and Individuals 'Homozygous for Interactions'

Apologies for any failures in nomenclature. I'm a mathematician who is making a foray into genetics for a masters thesis. Specifically, I'm generating artificial diploid genetic sequence data and ...
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127 views

Are there any mutagens that can undo the mutations they cause?

I was reading a section from my textbook about tautomeric shifts, and it seems to suggest that there are some mutagens that can be directly responsible for the phenomenon. The section is mainly ...
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1answer
100 views

Understanding recombination scoring in family pedigrees

I am having some problems understanding recombination, and I am not sure what element I am missing here. This figure is an example from my text book. The pedigree belongs to a family with an autosomal ...
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1answer
39 views

Are there mechanisms that limit the amounts of time conjugation and F-plasmid transfer can happen? If yes, what are they?

Not all bacteria have acquired F-plasmids through conjugation. Some of the mechanisms for this are unsuccesful conjugation events (mechanical disruption), no transfer due to integration in bacterial ...
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2answers
44 views

RNA polymerase question

In this question we are examining a bacterial RNA polymerase that elongates at 20 codons per second. Question 1: How long will this RNA polymerase take to transcribe the Lac Z gene at 3510 base pairs? ...
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3answers
188 views

Splice in with CRISPR/Cas

I need to splice a gene into a human cell genome, with highest rate possible. I mean, doesn't really matter where the gene enters, nor does it matter if some cells die as a result of this. CRISPR ...
9
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1answer
126 views

Why does polyploidy give an evolutionary advantage?

I would like to know what advantages polyploidy holds. I have come across a few examples during my research of polyploidy, for example human adults' hearts contain 27% diploid, 71% tetraploid and 2% ...
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1answer
106 views

Why don't all bacteria have F-plasmids by now?

Some bacteria can undergo gene transfer by conjugation. Conjugation is a form of horizontal gene transfer, meaning from one (unrelated) bacterium to another (in contrast to vertical gene transfer, ...
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1answer
38 views

Why does allele linkage cause disproportionate phenotypic ratios? [closed]

I was learning about allele linkage in Biology class and I got confused by the resultant phenotypic ratios. Say you have a dihybrid cross BbGg x BbGg. The Punnett square would look like the ...
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1answer
33 views

Understanding conclusions that functional regions are under negative selection?

I am reading in notes for a comparative annotation lecture that : all DNA is subject to mutations most functional regions are under negative selection (ie., mutations are often deleterious) The ...
3
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1answer
305 views

Possible genotypes for blood types?

If I am blood type B, what are all the possible genotypes that could be expressed by my parents? I think it might be 16 but I was reading online and saw this: Similarly, someone who is blood type ...
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2answers
40 views

Can a woman possessing 1 mutated allele show attenuated color-vision deficiency?

Women possess two X chromosomes. However, during development, when the embryo has about 32 - 64 cells, one of these chromosomes is randomly inactivated (in each cell) by an lncRNA named Xist. As a ...
3
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1answer
43 views

How to determine genotype?

In humans, the ability or inability to roll the tongue is a single gene trait. The allele for tongue rolling (R) is dominant to the allele for not being able to roll the tongue (r). Whether ...
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1answer
32 views

Is there a genomic code for nucleosome positioning?

What does a genomic code for nucleosome positioning in eukaryotes actually mean? By the code is it right to think that specific DNA sequences favour nucleosomes and others don't? I see that there for ...
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2answers
50 views

Can molecular genetics make a boolean variable from a continuous variable?

In the same kind of idea than this question. Gene expression are regulated through complex interactions. The concentration of enhancers and repressors is an important aspect that dictate the level of ...
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1answer
30 views

Obvious phenotypic inheritance markers in humans

In humans, are there phenotypic markers that prove parenthood? For example, if mother and father have <trait characteristic> (let's say, specific ear lobe ...
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4answers
90 views

Why autosomal trisomy has more adverse effects than sex choromosome monosomy or trisomy?

Autosomal Trisomy syndromes are usually lethal but sex chromosome number related abnormalities do not lead to that much fatality. why?
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58 views

Barr body Giemsa staining

Why not all the female cheek cells show Barr Bodies when stained with Giemsa stain?? only 30 to 40 % female cells showed Barr Bodies . Why?
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2answers
56 views

C. elegans are either male or hermaphrodites, but why aren't there any females?

From my understanding C. elegans are mainly hermaphrodites but are occasionally males to increase genetic variation. Why is it that random females aren't born instead to achieve he same goal (genetic ...
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0answers
18 views

Is (are) there any crucial gene(s) for the formation of flower in flowering plants? [closed]

I am interested in qualitative (flowers of some plants have petal or sepal, but some plants have not) and quantitative (number of flowers of plants) differences between flowers of different plants. ...
4
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2answers
56 views

How can (or did) Deinococcus radiodurans continue to evolve after developing resistance to mutation?

Deinococcus radiodurans has a remarkable ability to resist damage to its DNA due to radiation, dehydration or (to my knowledge) any other source. It keeps multiple copies of its genome and has a ...
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1answer
96 views

What are genome wide functional linkages?

There are two types of interaction classifications used to describe Protein-protein interactions, namely physical and functional. Whilst physical interactions are obvious in nature and methodological ...
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2answers
303 views

Do transcription factors bind to both strands of DNA?

Do transcription factors (or generally proteins) bind to only single strand of DNA or both strands? Since it can have non covalent bonds to both strands in theory. I would like to know the mechanism. ...
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1answer
65 views

Do DNA repressors exist?

I know about enhancers and the mechanism that lead them to increase the gene expression of their targets but I was wondering if similarly DNA repressors exist. I know about protein repressors but I am ...
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1answer
67 views

“Enhancers” of enhancers?

I am looking for examples (if any) of genomic regions which regulates the activity of enhancers, either augmenting or reducing it. Essentially some kind of enhancers (or repressors) of enhancers to ...
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1answer
55 views

Incubation time of Antarctic Phosphatase in lab [closed]

Antarctic Phosphatase is used to catalyze the removal of 5' phosphate from DNA. If I'm using it in the lab on a sample of 1-5 micrograms of digested DNA, how would I figure out how long to incubate ...
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1answer
78 views

Doubt on genomic code for nucleosome positioning?

I was reading "A genomic code for nucleosome positioning" (by Eran Segal et al). And I am having 2 doubts. The figure(b) in this image from the paper shows the graph of fraction (3-bp moving ...
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1answer
67 views

DNA sequencing problem

First off, let me start by outlining the problem: Your laboratory has established a technique for examining DNA replication in a cellular extract. To the cellular protein extract, you add ...
5
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1answer
112 views

Can human mRNA be translated in vitro by prokaryotes?

As the genetic code is universal, can mRNA from a human cell be correctly translated by a prokaryote in a in vitro translation system?
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1answer
24 views

Introducing novel genes to an adult multicellular organism?

Is it possible to introduce a novel gene into the genome of every cell (or at least most cells) of an adult multicellular organism? How would this be done? Thanks, CDB
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1answer
232 views

Are gene variants at different loci also called alleles?

I think the title says it. I always read that alleles are gene variants at a given locus, which confuses me. Thanks!
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35 views

Why do restriction-modification systems work?

Some RM systems (restriction-modification systems) are plasmid-borne and are transferred through bacterial conjugation. As you all know, there are two genes in an RM system, the gene that codes for ...
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88 views

Genotype to phenotype map and the G-matrix

Suppose I have a genotype-phenotype map defined by the matrix $\mathbf{Z}$:         The scalars $G,P$ represent the number of genotypes and traits, respectively. ...
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43 views

How does de-myelination occur in multiple sclerosis?

From what I understand, only the oligodendrocytes are affected in multiple sclerosis, and they are attacked by T cells which cross the blood-brain barrier. This leads me to two questions: How is the ...
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1answer
38 views

Two mice heterozygote and black are reproduced. Find the probability of getting the filium dark and heterozygote [closed]

Well, here's what I did: P: Aa*Aa F1: 1/4 AA, 1/2 Aa, 1/4 aa, SO the answer is 1/2, but out teacher did this: AA(1) Aa(2) aa(1) and she said we divide the number of filium for the phenotypes ...
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1answer
101 views

Why do people with Down syndrome get fewer cancers?

I'm coming across some conflicting information regarding the correlation between cancer incidents and trisomy 21. I read a report from nature that discusses how Downs are only a tenth as likely to ...
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44 views

Layman definition of genetic polymorphism?

I am reading an article about Genetic Polymorphism and there are lines in the article about genetic polymophism that I don't quite understand like. In this area,there are six different chemotypes ...
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2answers
204 views

explanation of meaning of high-throughput

Almost all of the papers about bioinformatics, I faced with the high-throughput word, but I could not find any explanation about it (I think it is so easy to understand and thats why anyone explains ...
4
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1answer
58 views

Fixation rate at neutral loci

It is a classical result that the expected time for a neutral mutation to occur and to get fixed is $2 N \mu \frac{1}{2N} = \mu$, where $N$ is the population size and $\mu$ is the neutral mutation ...
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23 views

Find the probability of Filium (child) that are dark (and) heterozygote [duplicate]

Two mice are crossed and both are dark and heterozygote. Find the probability of their filium(children) dark (and) heterozygote in F1. Here's what our teacher explained: I don't understand. I ...
2
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1answer
24 views

Are there multiple meanings to “clone” as in “clone a gene”?

I originally thought that cloning a gene meant to put it into bacteria and have them express it. But sometimes I see it used and it seems like it's just a synonym for "identify the sequence and/or ...
0
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1answer
38 views

Two heterozygote mice for skin color are reproduced. Find the probability that in 3 children 2 will be dark and one white

Two heterozygote mice for skin color are reproduced. Black is dominant to white color. Find the probability that in 3 children 2 will be dark and one white. How did you do the ordering. Well I found ...
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9 views

Plants and animals ability to survive polypoidy conditions [duplicate]

In mammals the condition polyploidy produce something euphemistically termed "general developmental disruption" ,practically speaking this means system meltdown which happens very quickly. There is ...
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1answer
115 views

How are 23 chromosomes in human sperm chosen?

I'm not biologist and I have just a basic knowledge. I've been thinking for a long time about the following question: How does the body choose which 23 chromosomes should be active in human sperm and ...
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66 views

What are the white spots?

What are these white spots? It's like Braille writing or something. How is the appearance encoded in the plant? (which I think is a Pine, though I am not sure).
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2answers
76 views

What are the major causes of mutations in DNA?

I know that point mutations can change the base sequence of a gene by altering a specific codon that codes for a particular amino acid. Are these mutations purely random events that occur when DNA is ...
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81 views

How does the size of insert affects the rate of Homologous Recombination in yeast?

When performing genetic knockouts in yeast using homologous recombination to replace a target gene sequence via a vector DNA, does the region between the flanking regions in the vector have to be the ...