Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Functioning of BRCA2

I know that BRCA2 interacts with RAD51 to repair DNA damage. But how exactly does it function ? What are the other proteins that interact with it ?
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Sexual Differentiation in Monoecious plants with unisexual flowers

In monoecious plants having unisexual flowers (eg Zea Mays, Ricinus Communis etc), there must be some mechanism as to produce two sexually distinct flowers from the same genotype. Since both the type ...
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Selection on linked loci in a diploid population

Let’s consider two linked loci $A$ and $B$ that are both bi-allelic. In consequence, we have four different possible haplotypes $A_1B_1$, $A_1B_2$, $A_2B_1$, $A_2B_2$, which frequencies are $X_1$, ...
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199 views

Examples of animals with different number of chromosomes that can interbreed?

When I was first started to write this question, I wanted to know how species evolve to have a different chromosomal arrangement, such as having two pairs of chromosomes instead of one? However, I ...
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Publicly available genotype data?

I am a statistician and I'd like to test my new method on biological data. For this I am looking for genotype data for a number of individuals. That is, I am looking for something like this: ...
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1answer
31 views

Drosophila Crosses

I have 2 transgenic lines of Drosophila. I would like to cross them and get both transgene in the same fly. To start this cross, does it matter which fly is female or male? Or as long as the female is ...
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2answers
284 views

Do recessive alleles really exist?

This question may seem illogical to some, but I seriously have this doubt. I searched google for some proofs but they were extremely complex and I couldn't understand anything. I was just wondering ...
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1answer
119 views

X Linked Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Problem

In a given population under Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, 40.0% of men have hemophilia. What is the probability that a random man and random woman will have a daughter with hemophilia? I think the ...
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0answers
16 views

Southern/Western blot analysis and pedigree diagram? Help needed. [duplicate]

Hello everyone. I urgently need help with this question please. I have filled in the blanks using the results in the figure provided in the sheet. However, for number (b) is a little hard to ...
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1answer
36 views

Gene Complementation Question

Hi everyone! Here is a diagram of a genetics complementation problem. My main concern is regarding number 3d. I'm assuming that in this case, it would be complementary interaction and thus ...
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1answer
35 views

How do mosquitoes maintain telomere length?

While the vast majority of eukaryotic organisms maintain their chromosome ends (telomeres) via telomerase, an enzyme system that generates short, tandem repeats on the ends of chromosomes, other ...
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227 views

How many transcription factors are there?

In molecular biology and genetics, a transcription factor is a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the flow (or transcription) of genetic information from DNA to ...
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41 views

Are recessive, deleterious alleles less common on the X chromosome than the autosomes in humans?

Because there's potential for them to be more readily purged in hemizygous males (and in cell lineages in females with the deleterious-allele-bearing chromosome activated), I would expect the ...
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1answer
21 views

Distribution of genotypes after adverse selection

I am doing some research into Mendelian genetics and came across this phrase called adverse selection. I found a few questions but I am unsure of the calculations. ...
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1answer
65 views

Genotypic distribution of a population with two characteristics and linkage

I am currently doing some research into distributions and probabilities with Mendellian genetics. I came across this problem that I cannot seem to wrap my head around. Given that the population has ...
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3answers
69 views

Quantitative Differences : DNA and Gene

After HGP, we are not having many databases which consist of several notepad files of ATCG.... Can we distinguish quantitatively a given A,T,C and G stretch as DNA or Gene?
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1answer
131 views

All flowering plants gives fruits. Why does jasmine flower plant not yield fruits?

My question is actually my long term doubt. I have seen most of the flowers turning into fruits. But why not this jasmine flower?
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2answers
172 views

Promoter in the lac operon

Here is the question: Suppose an experimenter becomes proficient with a technique that allows her to move DNA sequences within a prokaryotic genome. If she moves the promoter for the lac operon to ...
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1answer
65 views

Genetics independent assortment?

As indicated in this question, what do you think is is the best explanation for the observed progeny, is it because distance between genes affects recombination frequency? My main concern is ...
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1answer
107 views

What is the significance of and biological mechanisms demonstrated in lac operon?

I would appreciate it someone could explain clearly how the genes in the lac operon of E coli are activated to allow the bacteria to metabolize lactose? The part that I really don't understand is ...
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1answer
168 views

Why does the slope of parent-offspring regression equals the heritability in the narrow sense?

Background ---- Notations and assumptions ---- let $W_{ij}$ be the fitness associated to the genotype $AiAj$. $x$ is the frequency of the allele $A1$ in the population. The frequency of the allele ...
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33 views

Gene linkage/mapping

I need some help with this question in the image posted. As you can see in the instructions, I'm asked to map the genes. So the first thing I did is write out the alleles corresponding to each ...
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1answer
66 views

Gene pool simulation [closed]

this simulation, you sampled the gene pool without replaceing beads in the beakerafter you drew each one. Thus, f(A) and f(a) in the gene pool changed slightly after each bead was drawn. For example, ...
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1answer
38 views

calculate the number of heterozygotes [closed]

The ability to taste PTC is due to a single dominant allele "T". You sampled 215 evolution students, and determined that 150 could detect the bitter taste of PTC and 65 could not. Assuming this trait ...
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1answer
27 views

GULO only for mammals?

I am not a biology student, but just want to know if GULO gene are present only in mammals or all species possess it ? And is GULO gene active in human fetus?
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77 views

Hill-Roberston effects and effective population size

From this article, first page, middle of the second column: Even if harmful alleles do not become fixed, they can still reduce the efficacy of selection on neighbouring loci through a process ...
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1answer
25 views

What indices can we use to describe fitness landscapes?

We usually talk of smooth or rugged fitness landscape. Are there any (standard) indices to measure the "structure" of fitness landscapes? For example, one might consider the mean epistatic ...
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37 views

Best way to automatically link Gene Entrez ID with Gene Symbol in TCGA

I am trying to figure out how to link Gene Entrez ID with Gene Symbol, for TCGA dataset. So far, I have found this ftp directory with Gene info updated daily. But, for Entrez ID 728661, I have found ...
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Genetic Linkage/Mapping question Help

Hello everybody! I need some help with this question in the image posted. As you can see in the instructions, I'm asked to map the genes. So the first thing I did is write out the alleles ...
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1answer
23 views

What are good data on the Human Metabolic Model and where can I get them?

Trying to get a good SBML representation of the Human Metabolic Model for use in Flux Balance Analysis and drug targetting (i.e. gene knockout) simulations. What are good sources for these data? ...
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1answer
34 views

How usable is the Human Metabolic Model to predict biomass?

In order to use the Human Metabolic Model for Flux Balance Analysis of specific cancer cell lines, we would like to know what sort of flux values have been determined for the Human Metabolic Model. ...
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1answer
63 views

Do “transcription factor binding site” and “operator” mean the same thing?

Can the terms "transcription factor binding site" and "operator" be used interchangeably in all contexts when referring to a DNA sequence, e.g. regardless of a cell type, whether or not the binding ...
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1answer
45 views

Pseudosexual reproduction

Research projects with artificial life generally use creatures that are haploid. The offspring randomly inherit some genes from one parent, and some genes from the other parent. Q1: Are there any ...
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2answers
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Maintaining purebred pedigrees and how to lessen chance of getting disease?

Many breeds of dogs are known for a high incidence of genetic disorders. German shepherd and Saint Bernard dogs are predisposed to developing a crippling condition called hip dysplasia. Q: What ...
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Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection

Ronald Fisher discovered what he, with humility, called the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. This theorem says (in its modern terminology): The rate of increase in the mean fitness of any ...
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How many loci explain 50%, 80%, 99%, … of the total genetic variance in fitness?

Standard models in population genetics look up at the evolution of few loci which impact fitness. The variance in fitness is determined by the genetic variance and the environmental variance (and the ...
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Gene distance and Recombination Frequency: Mechanism

Why is the recombination frequency higher if the genes are farther apart?
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gamete frequency of recombination

A female genotype, shown as abc / +++ produces 100 meiotic tetrads. Among these, 68 showed no cross over (NCO) events; 20 showed single crossover (SCO1) between a and b; 10 showed single ...
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23 views

How do you amplify a specific AFLP marker?

I'm trying to clone a specific AFLP marker out of Medicago truncatula. I know the selective bases I need for the end of the primers. My problem is that all the AFLP cloning kits I have found are ...
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Referencing the homologous chromosomes

There exist a co-ordinate system from chromosomes like "12p11.3". In this system, first integer range from 1 to 23 i.e it takes homologous chromosomes as a pair. If we want to distinguish among ...
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Connection between genes and pathways

I am reading about a paper about inferencing pathway information in cancer cells. Authors refer to ERBB2 as a gene and a pathway. I don't have solid biology background. What exactly means when we ...
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2answers
113 views

Question about Autosomal Recessive Alleles

I had a homework question that I could not figure out. It states: A woman has cystic fibrosis in her family and did not want to have a child that suffered from the disease. She and her spouse ...
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2answers
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Removing a restriction site and introducing other at its place

What would you do if you want to remove an EcoRI restriction site and introduce BamHI restriction site at apprx. the same location ? One of the answers in my textbook was : To construct a DNA ...
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4answers
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Does a phenotype include the presence of a recessive gene

I am trying to understand what exactly a phenotype is to try and understand a genetics database. (Ie I don't really know very much about genetics at all) I've been reading through wikipedia on what a ...
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Why do we assume that the first humans were dark-skinned?

According to the article Dark skin and blue eyes: How Europeans once looked: It is widely accepted that Man's oldest common forefather was dark skinned, and that people became more pale as they ...
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1answer
74 views

Pedigree Diagram help

I am asked to fill the genotypes in the spaces provided but looks like I am aving a little bit of trouble. can anyone help? thanks in advance!
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1answer
84 views

PedigreeAnalysis Genetics [duplicate]

Hello! I need help with this exercise question. I am not really sure which pedigree diagram is autosomal and which is not. But, is question b 1/2. Can someone give an explanation? Thanks very much ...
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1answer
128 views

Genetic Epistasis Question

I need help with this practice question. I'm assuming that would a epsitatic recessive question since the parents are true breeding and then the ratio would be 9.3.4. But I am not so sure. Any ...
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1answer
75 views

Why is Turner syndrome rarer than Klinefelter syndrome?

Turner syndrome occurs in 1-1000 to 1-5000 females, and Klinefelter syndrome occurs in 1-500 to 1-1000 males. Why is Turner so rare even though they both are caused basically by the same mechanism?
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1answer
44 views

Determining whether X chromosome from sperm or egg

Is there any way of determining which X chromosome a female inherited from her father and which from her mom ?