Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Assuming if height was fully determined genetically, what would be the concordance between monozygotic pairs?

I fully understand the differences between monozygotic and dyzogtic twin pairings, but I wondered how I could put into words the reasons why the concordance would be very high. Derived from same ...
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Genetic mutations and new alleles

Amongst silent, nonsense and missense genetic mutations, is the latter the only one that leads to the creation of new alleles? If we define alleles as a specific form of a gene, and a gene as a ...
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38 views

What is a “homologous pair” of chromosomes in cross joining or cross over?

I never understand if the chromatids attached at the centromere is a homologous pair, or the male and female chromosomes?
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Why would lethal genes evolve?

I've been reading through 'The Selfish Gene' by Dawkins. At a few places in the book he states that incest is damaging because it would give a very high chance of lethal recessive genes becoming ...
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How to search for all human diseases associated with a inversion on chromosome 22?

Is there any way to search for all diseases that associated with inversions on chr22? I found some online research databases like OMIM and disgenet but I don't know the correct nomenclature on how to ...
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DNA. mRNA, tRNA [closed]

Can someone explain to me how transcription and translation works, especially the part about codes. And does amino acids has code or is it the tRNA?
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What's the exact meaning of and how to derive the coefficient of the path from sire to offspring?

According to Wright's Coefficients of Inbreeding and Relationship, the coefficient of the path from sire to offspring is given as $p_{o \cdot s}=\frac{1}{2}\frac{\sqrt{1+F_s}}{\sqrt{1+F_o}}$ But ...
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55 views

CRISPR/Cas for editing the human genome [closed]

I know, that the CRISP/Cas approach for "cutting" the human genome is not completely suitable if we can't say not suitable at all. Because we have many repeats and this approach can bring to our ...
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43 views

Deducing amino acid sequence from a DNA sequence

The suggested answer to the question is the following: "M L S C D K S D Stop". I do not understand how they get that result. The question is as follows: An RNA polymerase transcribes the following ...
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Breeding Southern Right Whales Genetics

I don't know much about biology. I just like watching David Attenborough videos and this made me curious. I just watched this video about breeding Southern Right Whales, and these two quotes puzzled ...
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146 views

How genetically similar are worker ants from the same colony?

I've been reading https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant and it says If the egg is fertilised, the progeny will be female diploid; if not, it will be male haploid. Since the males have only one set ...
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Dominant model Disease SNP

Say that you have genotyped a SNP in a case control setting, and get the following result AA AB BB Cases 17 51 29 Controls 39 44 20 where A ...
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What the gene variation detection result can tell us about a cancer [duplicate]

We do a research on a particular cancer, now we have a result of the gene variation detection . What next steps do we need to do? we don't have a clear picture about this. Can you give us some ...
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How do biologists quantify “gene expression” in experiments?

I've read papers which contain statements such as "control of gene expression is critical in biological processes". How exactly does one quantify "gene expression"? Isn't gene expression an umbrella ...
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52 views

Why does meiotic recombination disrupt the independent assortment of genes on the same chromosome?

There are many sources that say that genes that are "linked" by being on the same chromosome assort with each other -- that when an allele is passed on that the gamete containing said allele will also ...
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Population size and genetic drift - What are the evidences?

Wright-Fisher model From the Wright-Fisher model of genetic drift, the random sampling of allele from one generation to the next is taken from a binomial distribution with parameters $2N$ and $p$, ...
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Methods for varying insert size in E. coli clones

I'm writing my master's thesis proposal, and I need to improve the solution-behavior of some truncated protein domains which have previously shown poor solubility when expressed in E. coli. To ...
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42 views

What further research can the result of gene variation detection be used for [closed]

We do a research on a particular cancer (for e.g. breast cancer). Now, we have a result for the gene variation detection (VCF file). What next steps do we need to do? We don't have a clear picture ...
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64 views

Which strand of a gene specifies a protein? [closed]

A gene is a segment of DNA (I hope double stranded) and each strand when transcribed form a mRNA and after being translated a protein. As from each gene there are two proteins that are being formed. ...
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Can I figure out the identity of my grandparent from this information? [closed]

I know all my family up to my grandparents, with the exception of the grandfather on my mother's side. At the time my mother was conceived, my grandmother was having an affair so no one in my family ...
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Can the restless leg syndrome may have been caused due to natural selection? [closed]

Disclaimer: I don't know how much restless the leg has to be, in order to be considered a syndrome. RLS runs not only in my family but also several people in the locality. My hypothesis is that RLS ...
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62 views

Directed evolution: Point mutation vs Insertion-Deletion vs Shuffling

When attempting enzyme function improvement via Directed Evolution I can see three different strategies to generating variation for the gene sequence: Point mutations Insertion / Deletions Shuffling ...
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Is there a way to identify a species of tree?

My family has been passing down seeds from a lemon tree for about 3 generations now, There is some controversy about its origin or species. The lemons look like tangerines and when cut the pulp is ...
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How many people in the world have bad eyesight?

I was watching this ted.ed episode and heard it was around 500,000 but that didn't sound right-- does anyone know?
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A doubt on Introgression

Wikipedia says that Introgression, also known as introgressive hybridization, in genetics is the movement of a gene (gene flow) from one species into the gene pool of another by the repeated ...
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How can a haploid plant be bisexual?

According to Wikipedia: Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half. This process occurs in all sexually reproducing single-celled and multicellular ...
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Relationship of the DNA of a eukaryotic gene to the 5'-UTR of its mRNA

In eukaryote pre-mRNA I am having a little trouble grasping exactly what the 5 prime untranslated region is defined as. It seems that it could be defined as the difference in pre-mRNA between the ...
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Infer gene frequency within a species over time

I was reading Karlsson et al. (2014) and I came into this: A selected variant that increases rapidly in frequency in the past ~250,000 years can be detected as an unusual reduction in genetic ...
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Measuring tumor heterogeneity [closed]

I would like to ask if there's any method (established or not) in order to quantify heterogeneity found in mutations occuring in primary neoplasms and metastatic lesions (either common or private) and ...
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What is the difference between multiple allelism and polymorphism?

Multiple allelism is defined as "the existence of more than two alleles of the same gene within a population." Polymorphism is "the occurrence of more than two distinct phenotypes of a trait in a ...
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28 views

How do genetic logic gates work?

Recently researchers at MIT have developed genetic logic gates which can be built into programs. How do these "genetic logic gates" work? "The language is based on Verilog, which is commonly used to ...
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Pink Grasshoppers

The area I found this grasshopper was Canyon Country, California, USA In a desert/field area. I have been reading up on grasshoppers because I recently came into possession of a pink grasshopper (It ...
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56 views

Data on Gene Position in Human Genome

I am trying to get some data on gene position in the human genome and I need some help What I tried I downloaded ...
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DNA replication : binding

Regarding an activator, does the C amp cap complex, bind to the coding strand, the template strand, or both?
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No. of genes in chromosomes. phenotype

Why do cells need all the genes of all the 22 pairs (excluding the 2 X- or Y-chromosomes) of autosomes in every somatic cell, when each and every cell which is specialised for its function does not ...
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Heritability of trait stronger from one sex over another?

Given a trait that can be expressed (and measured) in both parents (e.g weight, height, strength, speed), are there ever traits in the child that correlate better with one sex parent than the other? ...
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mutant and variant differentiation

Can anyone clearly differentiate between a variant and a mutant in genetics. I am confusing these terms a bit, as the evolutionary aspect also comes to my mind.
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How to safely conserve my current DNA methylation marks?

I read the Wikipedia article on DNA methylation Let's say I want to extract and then stock my current DNA methylation marks somewhere so that I can use it safely 20 years in the future for a medical ...
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Are alleles equally sized?

If alleles occur at the same locus on a chromosome, does that mean they are of the same size? I was under the impression that they were, but I saw a gel electrophoresis testing different alleles of ...
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Is $F_{ST}$ a probability and a correlation coefficient?

$F_{ST}$ is one of the most famous and most important statistics of all of evolutionary biology. Yet, many people misunderstand it or misuse the classical results from the literature on $F_{ST}$ (...
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Is it possible to have different genes in different parts of our body?

I want to understand genetic mutation specially in the context of multicellular organisms like humans. I studied biology only till high school and I can’t fully understand wikipedia pages on this ...
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Do any gaps in DNA during cell division (meiosis in particular) lead to crossover?

I have some gaps in the knowledge abour crossover. I know, that crossover is connected with reparation process. I'd like to know if all gaps in chromosomes lead to crossover (reparation based on 2d ...
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Grouping OMIM disease codes

I have ~100 sets of genes, and each set includes between 2 and 70 genes. I'd like to perform an enrichment analysis on each of these sets to test if they're enriched for OMIM disease labels. However, ...
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Do plants have distinctive DNA genomes from each other like humans do?

Can exact same species of plant have a distinct genome from others of same exact species growing nearby or in a different place/country etc. ? Can a leaf be traced to the the exact plant based on DNA ...
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Are identical twins clones? [closed]

Identical twins have the same genetic make up but they differ in development so are they in a way clones?
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Can difference in the expression potential of alleles lead to dominance?

Several hour ago I was in thoughts what allele dominance really means on molecular level. As we know from basic genetics, if the organism had Aa type of some gene ...
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What is the best test for SNV clustering?

I am looking for a method to cluster single nucleotide polymorphisms based on clinicopathologic data (mainly receptor immunoistochemistry). So far, I've came up with only two that handle dummy ...
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Predicting alternative transcript sequence and probability from a single SNV

I am currently studying a small number of non coding SNPs in terms of their contribution to the cancer phenotype. All are obtained from massive parallel sequencing on a specific gene panel, utilizing ...
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50 views

Trouble understanding overlapping genes.

I read the wikipedia passage on overlapping genes. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overlapping_gene The Tandem overlaps they speak of make sense to me, as I understand that their are different reading ...
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Synthesis of an additional DNA in Pachytene and Zygotene [closed]

I've read, that in Pachytene and Zygotene additional DNA material is synthesized, about 0,3, 0,1% respectively. Why is it so?