Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Problem on Probabilty of a restriction enzyme cutting a random DNA sequence

I think its a silly question to ask here. When I came to this site all I could see were the questions which asked detailed explanation behind a phenomenon and reasoning was there at first place. I am ...
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How long does it take for a genetic trait to dissipate if its no longer selected for?

Have their been any studies or experiments done that provide insight into the persistence of genetic traits if an environmental shift suddenly causes that trait to be neutrally selected for? Does it ...
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What is the reason for having an extra recognition site for a restriction enzyme?

Can the size of a supercoiled plasmid DNA be determined by using standard DNA size fragment electrophoresed in parallel? 2. An unknown DNA molecule was cleaved using several restriction enzymes ...
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Gene silencing in C. elegans

I am trying to silence the tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase) gene in C. elegans using the pLT63 plasmid to check if that particular gene has anything to do with the pharyneal pumping or not. Am I using ...
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207 views

Why are female not competitive for reproduction like males?

I have wondered if competition for mate among males and the race among sperm cells would result in healthy offspring, why no such mechanisms exist among females and egg cells? (Even females are ...
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Color blind animals [duplicate]

So I was reading some bio books and I came upon the fact that dogs and some other animals were color blind, and so I am wondering how do we know. Did we take apart there eye or sequence some of their ...
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Why to use transgenic mice in ALS models?

In ALS mice model with mutant SOD1 - there are use of transgenic mice, with insert of human mutant SOD1. Why is that? Why not to mutate directly mice SOD1 ? In transgenic mice, after few generations ...
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Trisomy 21 and Down syndrome

Can Down syndrome occur without trisomy 21 in the karyotype of an individual? Or vice versa can a person have trisomy 21 while unaffected by Down syndrome?
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Calculating the frequency of a recessive allele in case of three segregating alleles

Is it correct to say: A. f(A) = p; f(a) = q B. p = f(AA) + ½ f(Aa)=$\sqrt{f(AA)}$? Also, For a gene locus segregating more than two alleles, the frequency of each allele is the frequency of ...
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QTL mapping in Drosophila

I have already googled it before but yet unsuccessful in finding the whole topic with intuition. Please help. A guide to an associated book would be greatly valued.
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Are there any arguments against the Onion Test

Are there are any sound arguments (that are simply explained) against the Onion test (http://www.genomicron.evolverzone.com/2007/04/onion-test/)? Which in turn could contribute to the argument that ...
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29 views

how does one apply for masters in genetics abroad? [closed]

Please can some one give me step wise instructions for applying for a masters degree in genetics or biological sciences?
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Producing a genetically modified animal with cell walls [closed]

I'm curious if there has been any genetic experiments transferring cell wall producing genes into the genome of a animal model organism such as the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) or a larger ...
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Is this a simple Hardy-Weinberg problem?

Phenylketonuria is a severe developmental disability due to a rare autosomal recessive allele. Approximately 1 in every 10,000 newborns suffer from this disease. Calculate the frequency of the allele ...
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Genotype-Phenotype databases?

Beyond the Stanford HIV database, what other databases out there provide a dataset linking virus/bacterial genotype to quantitative phenotype? I'm looking for high quality datasets to test machine ...
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27 views

recombination between DNA segments question

In the diagram shown above, segments A and C are copies of a repeated DNA sequence, flanking a unique stretch shown as B. A and C are in an inverted orientation relative to each other, as indicated ...
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51 views

mutations induced by transposons

Question: In contrast to chemically-induced mutations, mutations induced by transposons are more likely to ... be lethal de dominant be stable revert to wild types be a gain of function The ...
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67 views

Why do males have more birth defects? [closed]

I taught in elementary school for 20 years and noticed that males were far more likely to be classified as handicapped than females. More males than females die at birth and are more likely to have ...
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73 views

Is intelligence (or mental ability) genetically transferred (inherited characteristic) from the parent to the offspring or is it an acquired trait?

The question is simple- whether our mental ability i.e. ability to acquire and store knowledge and comprehend and analyse the stored bits, an inherited trait (i.e. genetically transmitted from the ...
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Abbreviations for molecules: What are CheW, CheA, CheY?

I've encountered the abbreviations such as "CheW" and "CheA" for certain organic molecules. For example: Proteins associating with the Tar complex include the autophosphorylating protein kinase ...
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28 views

Genetics of Hybrids

I'm working on this problem, but I'm not sure I've done it correctly. My initial thought was that the answer was $D$, but I don't see anything in the above graph that indicated the Hybrid species ...
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Are progenies factually half-clones of the parents?

Given that a "clone" (if anything, in the context of human cloning) is taken to be, as far as I have understood, a specimen possessing the same genome as his "father/mother", aren't all "non-cloned" ...
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108 views

Why are hybrid offspring mostly sterile? [closed]

Hybrid infertility is a common trait in cross-species offspring. Most are sterile, as they do not produce viable gametes. Examples of this can include Ligers and Mules. Could modern advancement in ...
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Serotonin activity with short 5-HTT promotor region and depression

So after reading a few studies (1,2) it seems that a shorter promotor region for the serotonin transport protein may be associated with increased likelihood of developing depression after stressful ...
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356 views

How to write 100% phenotype ratio? [closed]

I am not quite sure how to write 100% out come for the phenotype ratio after using "Punnett Square". The result from the each alleles, the dominant allele completely(100%) took over the recessive ...
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How does the sticky ends of foreign gene bind with its counterpart in the plasmid DNA if positions are not matching?

Consider a foreign gene with recognition sequence as GAATTC for EcoR1. Now suppose that it is being cut at two palindromic sequence to form sticky ends. Here the sticky ends are formed such that ...
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What is meant by “the degree to which a gene is expressed” in an individual?

Here is an excerpt from a text that I was reading, Here is an example of microarray data. The idea is to take a group of different individuals and for each of them, you measure how much they ...
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Why do my 23andme results only show me as 8.2% Scandinavian? [closed]

I just got my 23andme results back. My paternal grandfather was full Swedish. Shouldn't that make me 25% Swedish? 23andme tells me I'm only 8.2% Scandinavian. Or maybe my father inherited less than ...
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Rates of evolution of mitochondrial genes

I am interested in knowing the rates of evolution of different mitochondrial genes (in base pairs per million years) across different taxa. Has there been any publications along these lines ?
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Do the effect of inbreeding depression disappear after the first generation of outbreeding?

An animal that is the result of generations of inbreeding tends to have lower fitness. (More diseases etc.) This is usually explained by harmful but recessive mutations that exist in all populations, ...
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Chance of passing a risk allele to child?

Our genetics professor has posted up working for previous examination answers, but I am unsure that one of his answers is correct. My answer is close but may just be due to co-incidence. Question: ...
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51 views

Genetic mapping problem

A prototrophic Hfr strain of E. coli with the genotype trp+ purB- pyrC+ is conjugated with an F- strain with the genotype trp- purB+ pyrC- . The trp gene is known to enter last. The following numbers ...
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247 views

Why is an HIV infection considered “incurable”?

My biology teacher told me that if one caught HIV, they cannot be cured because it was near to impossible to be completely virus-free. She said this was because HIV keeps on changing its glycoprotein ...
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Why is A-U bond less stable than A-T bond?

I have encountered the following fact many times, but have not yet encountered a possible explanation for it. Will you please help me understand the molecular mechanism by which the bond between ...
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Meaning of “pure” in “pure plant DNA” (horizontally transferred to bacteria in soil conditions)

The abstract of Transformation of Acinetobacter baylyi in non-sterile soil using recombinant plant nuclear DNA, by Simpson et al., 2007: To provide estimates of horizontal gene transfer from ...
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Effect of a doubling of the start codon in a gene

I am learning about frame shift mutations. Frame shifts can occur due to a nucleotide deletion. Suppose that due to a frame shift, because of a deletion somewhere upstream from the original start ...
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183 views

Why does supercoiled DNA run faster?

The DNA exists in linear and cirular forms. The latter form has interesting feature called Supercoiling. The more number of writhe makes it more supercoiled because of which it gets more compact. ...
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meaning of “initial gene constructions” vs. “under the control of plant promoters” in an article on GM plants

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: Antibiotic resistance genes have been introduced to GM plants either as part of the bacterial cloning vectors used for the ...
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Will someone with a double mutation in the allosomes be normal?

Normally a female human has an X allosome from her father and an X allosome form her mother. What if an double mutation happened, which causes that someone has two X allosomes form her mother and no ...
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meaning of “usually greater than 200 base pairs”

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: Homologous recombination. All cellular organisms have molecular functions dedicated to recognizing and recombining DNA ...
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how do I find the number of bp in chromosome 3 by knowing number of bp in chromosome 1?

If i have a number of bp in chromosome 1 for example(298,295,559 bp) can I use this number to find the number of bp in chromosome 3.
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Why are multiple copies of the 35S enhancer used for overexpression in plants?

I know that the CaMV 35S promoter is widely used for transgenic plants, and I also know that it can be used as an enhancer element for overexpression. I noticed that it is always used as a ...
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“structural and regulatory elements of genes” [closed]

Can anyone please explain a little about these two elements of genes? My main problem is with "which ‘switch on’ instructions". genes have structural elements (which code for a particular protein) ...
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363 views

How do two parents, recessive and dominant genes and two complimentary nucleotides end up in one DNA? [closed]

In the basic school, I was taught that half of genome is received from father and another half comes from mother in the form of double-helix DNA, whose first helix consists of dominant nucleotide ...
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If dog's DNA and human's DNA are almost same then can it be said that dogs evolved from humans? [closed]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IbY122CSC5w In this video it is said our DNA matches almost the dog's then it can be also said that dogs evolved from humans. Is it?
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Is the fixation rate always equal to the mutation rate for neutral alleles?

Background A classical result of population genetic is that the rate of fixation of netreual alleles is the mutation rate $\mu$. The reason is that each generation $PN_e\mu$ mutations enter the ...
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Virus-to-virus gene transfer via “sequences integrated into a common host organism”

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: In addition to direct HGT between organisms as depicted in Figure 1, forms of indirect HGT have been observed, which involve ...
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Calculating the recombination factor of four point genetic cross?

So, I'm trying to work out the recombination factor (RF) from this set of data: Which shows the 16 phenotypes of progeny of a cross of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. I know how to go about a three ...
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How do eukaryotes terminate transcription? (clarification on Campbell Biology)

I'm having trouble understanding how eukaryotes terminate transcription. Studying Campbell Biology (pg. 342, 10th ed.), I read: In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II transcribes the polyadenylation ...
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How does Cas9 interact with CRISPR?

I read that Cas9 protein along with guided RNA binds at a specific DNA fragment of foreign organism integrated in a host organism DNA. To make the host immune to virus infection Cas9 along with gRNA ...