Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Where do amino acids get attached to tRNA and where is it synthesized?

Some very basic parts of transcription/translation seem to be left out in various literature. I can't find the answer to this anywhere: How exactly is tRNA synthesized? I realize that mRNA is ...
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0answers
16 views

Solid mouse (C57BL/6) WT primers

I am trying to get a good pair (or better yet, library of pairs) of primers that give me one band in WT mice (C57BL/6). Do you know where I could find such a thing? Alternatively, I thought of just ...
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5answers
2k views

Why do men have nipples?

I'd be tempted to call nipples in men vestigial, but that suggests they have no modern function. They do have a function, of course, but only in women. So why do men (and all male mammals) have them? ...
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3answers
197 views

Splice in with CRISPR/Cas

I need to splice a gene into a human cell genome, with highest rate possible. I mean, doesn't really matter where the gene enters, nor does it matter if some cells die as a result of this. CRISPR ...
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2answers
368 views

X Linked Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium Problem

In a given population under Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, 40.0% of men have hemophilia. What is the probability that a random man and random woman will have a daughter with haemophilia? I think the ...
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1answer
44 views

Epistasis Across Chromosomes and Individuals 'Homozygous for Interactions'

Apologies for any failures in nomenclature. I'm a mathematician who is making a foray into genetics for a masters thesis. Specifically, I'm generating artificial diploid genetic sequence data and ...
5
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1answer
43 views

How does de-myelination occur in multiple sclerosis?

From what I understand, only the oligodendrocytes are affected in multiple sclerosis, and they are attacked by T cells which cross the blood-brain barrier. This leads me to two questions: How is the ...
5
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1answer
62 views

Is probability for double crossing over included in distance cM? [task]

We got this task: There are 3 genes (acb) on one chromosome (linked inheritance). Distance a-c = 12cM, a-b=16cM. Probability for double crossing-over (CO) is 0,6%. Find ratio of genotypes of ...
5
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1answer
106 views

Understanding recombination scoring in family pedigrees

I am having some problems understanding recombination, and I am not sure what element I am missing here. This figure is an example from my text book. The pedigree belongs to a family with an autosomal ...
5
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1answer
128 views

Are there any mutagens that can undo the mutations they cause?

I was reading a section from my textbook about tautomeric shifts, and it seems to suggest that there are some mutagens that can be directly responsible for the phenomenon. The section is mainly ...
3
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1answer
478 views

Possible genotypes for blood types?

If I am blood type B, what are all the possible genotypes that could be expressed by my parents? I think it might be 16 but I was reading online and saw this: Similarly, someone who is blood type ...
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0answers
33 views

Genetically improved *Leucaena leucocephala* seeds

I am looking for fast growing Leucaena leucocephala seeds. Now, I am cultivating Leucaena leucocephala which can grow 6 meters in a year. But I am looking for a genetically improved seed which can ...
9
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1answer
130 views

Why does polyploidy give an evolutionary advantage?

I would like to know what advantages polyploidy holds. I have come across a few examples during my research of polyploidy, for example human adults' hearts contain 27% diploid, 71% tetraploid and 2% ...
3
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2answers
50 views

RNA polymerase question

In this question we are examining a bacterial RNA polymerase that elongates at 20 codons per second. Question 1: How long will this RNA polymerase take to transcribe the Lac Z gene at 3510 base pairs? ...
2
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1answer
33 views

Understanding conclusions that functional regions are under negative selection?

I am reading in notes for a comparative annotation lecture that : all DNA is subject to mutations most functional regions are under negative selection (ie., mutations are often deleterious) The ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Why does allele linkage cause disproportionate phenotypic ratios? [closed]

I was learning about allele linkage in Biology class and I got confused by the resultant phenotypic ratios. Say you have a dihybrid cross BbGg x BbGg. The Punnett square would look like the ...
4
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1answer
119 views

Why don't all bacteria have F-plasmids by now?

Some bacteria can undergo gene transfer by conjugation. Conjugation is a form of horizontal gene transfer, meaning from one (unrelated) bacterium to another (in contrast to vertical gene transfer, ...
3
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1answer
43 views

How to determine genotype?

In humans, the ability or inability to roll the tongue is a single gene trait. The allele for tongue rolling (R) is dominant to the allele for not being able to roll the tongue (r). Whether ...
4
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1answer
32 views

Is there a genomic code for nucleosome positioning?

What does a genomic code for nucleosome positioning in eukaryotes actually mean? By the code is it right to think that specific DNA sequences favour nucleosomes and others don't? I see that there for ...
3
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1answer
31 views

Obvious phenotypic inheritance markers in humans

In humans, are there phenotypic markers that prove parenthood? For example, if mother and father have <trait characteristic> (let's say, specific ear lobe ...
6
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2answers
52 views

Can molecular genetics make a boolean variable from a continuous variable?

In the same kind of idea than this question. Gene expression are regulated through complex interactions. The concentration of enhancers and repressors is an important aspect that dictate the level of ...
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0answers
75 views

Barr body Giemsa staining

Why not all the female cheek cells show Barr Bodies when stained with Giemsa stain?? only 30 to 40 % female cells showed Barr Bodies . Why?
2
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2answers
57 views

C. elegans are either male or hermaphrodites, but why aren't there any females?

From my understanding C. elegans are mainly hermaphrodites but are occasionally males to increase genetic variation. Why is it that random females aren't born instead to achieve he same goal (genetic ...
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1answer
96 views

What are genome wide functional linkages?

There are two types of interaction classifications used to describe Protein-protein interactions, namely physical and functional. Whilst physical interactions are obvious in nature and methodological ...
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2answers
324 views

Do transcription factors bind to both strands of DNA?

Do transcription factors (or generally proteins) bind to only single strand of DNA or both strands? Since it can have non covalent bonds to both strands in theory. I would like to know the mechanism. ...
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3answers
936 views

Book recommendation on population/evolutionary genetics?

I have recently been involved in collaborations that require me to model the population genetics of eukaryotic populations. I fear I may either be "re-inventing the wheel" or making conceptual ...
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0answers
18 views

Is (are) there any crucial gene(s) for the formation of flower in flowering plants? [closed]

I am interested in qualitative (flowers of some plants have petal or sepal, but some plants have not) and quantitative (number of flowers of plants) differences between flowers of different plants. ...
7
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1answer
67 views

Do DNA repressors exist?

I know about enhancers and the mechanism that lead them to increase the gene expression of their targets but I was wondering if similarly DNA repressors exist. I know about protein repressors but I am ...
4
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1answer
60 views

Fixation rate at neutral loci

It is a classical result that the expected time for a neutral mutation to occur and to get fixed is $2 N \mu \frac{1}{2N} = \mu$, where $N$ is the population size and $\mu$ is the neutral mutation ...
5
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1answer
80 views

Doubt on genomic code for nucleosome positioning?

I was reading "A genomic code for nucleosome positioning" (by Eran Segal et al). And I am having 2 doubts. The figure(b) in this image from the paper shows the graph of fraction (3-bp moving ...
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3answers
4k views

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using beta-galactosidase compared to luciferase as a reporter gene?

In the University labs, we have used Beta-galactosidase as a reporter gene to quantify the expression initiated by the stress-response promoter in yeast. This was done by exposing one of the two ...
0
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1answer
57 views

Incubation time of Antarctic Phosphatase in lab [closed]

Antarctic Phosphatase is used to catalyze the removal of 5' phosphate from DNA. If I'm using it in the lab on a sample of 1-5 micrograms of digested DNA, how would I figure out how long to incubate ...
4
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1answer
72 views

DNA sequencing problem

First off, let me start by outlining the problem: Your laboratory has established a technique for examining DNA replication in a cellular extract. To the cellular protein extract, you add ...
6
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1answer
250 views

Are gene variants at different loci also called alleles?

I think the title says it. I always read that alleles are gene variants at a given locus, which confuses me. Thanks!
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1answer
114 views

Can human mRNA be translated in vitro by prokaryotes?

As the genetic code is universal, can mRNA from a human cell be correctly translated by a prokaryote in a in vitro translation system?
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1answer
24 views

Introducing novel genes to an adult multicellular organism?

Is it possible to introduce a novel gene into the genome of every cell (or at least most cells) of an adult multicellular organism? How would this be done? Thanks, CDB
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35 views

Why do restriction-modification systems work?

Some RM systems (restriction-modification systems) are plasmid-borne and are transferred through bacterial conjugation. As you all know, there are two genes in an RM system, the gene that codes for ...
3
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2answers
1k views

How to calculate relatedness in haplodiploid organisms (mainly full sisters and full brothers)?

I have tried to calculate the relatedness for haplodiploid organisms, but cannot understand the calculations behind full sister and full brother. (taken from Wikipedia: haplodiploidy I have managed ...
10
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1answer
111 views

Why do people with Down syndrome get fewer cancers?

I'm coming across some conflicting information regarding the correlation between cancer incidents and trisomy 21. I read a report from nature that discusses how Downs are only a tenth as likely to ...
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1answer
39 views

Two mice heterozygote and black are reproduced. Find the probability of getting the filium dark and heterozygote [closed]

Well, here's what I did: P: Aa*Aa F1: 1/4 AA, 1/2 Aa, 1/4 aa, SO the answer is 1/2, but out teacher did this: AA(1) Aa(2) aa(1) and she said we divide the number of filium for the phenotypes ...
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1answer
70 views

What is the nature of plasmids? [closed]

What are the plasmids composed of? Are they composed of genomic or non-genomic DNA? I guess the answer is "genomic DNA" but I'm not sure.
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224 views

explanation of meaning of high-throughput

Almost all of the papers about bioinformatics, I faced with the high-throughput word, but I could not find any explanation about it (I think it is so easy to understand and thats why anyone explains ...
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45 views

Layman definition of genetic polymorphism?

I am reading an article about Genetic Polymorphism and there are lines in the article about genetic polymophism that I don't quite understand like. In this area,there are six different chemotypes ...
2
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1answer
457 views

Can DNA & RNA be considered as nature's programming language?

The final frontier of Biological Sciences could be considered understanding the effects of variation in the DNA (and RNA). If after fertilization the DNA of the zygote could be genetically ...
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0answers
23 views

Find the probability of Filium (child) that are dark (and) heterozygote [duplicate]

Two mice are crossed and both are dark and heterozygote. Find the probability of their filium(children) dark (and) heterozygote in F1. Here's what our teacher explained: I don't understand. I ...
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1answer
135 views

How are 23 chromosomes in human sperm chosen?

I'm not biologist and I have just a basic knowledge. I've been thinking for a long time about the following question: How does the body choose which 23 chromosomes should be active in human sperm and ...
2
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1answer
24 views

Are there multiple meanings to “clone” as in “clone a gene”?

I originally thought that cloning a gene meant to put it into bacteria and have them express it. But sometimes I see it used and it seems like it's just a synonym for "identify the sequence and/or ...
4
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0answers
48 views

Mechanisms of genotype*sex interactions [closed]

I'm looking for suggestions of the mechanistic level at which genotype*sex interactions can occur. These give different phenotypes from the same genotype dependent on the sex they are expressed in. ...
0
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1answer
39 views

Two heterozygote mice for skin color are reproduced. Find the probability that in 3 children 2 will be dark and one white

Two heterozygote mice for skin color are reproduced. Black is dominant to white color. Find the probability that in 3 children 2 will be dark and one white. How did you do the ordering. Well I found ...
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9 views

Plants and animals ability to survive polypoidy conditions [duplicate]

In mammals the condition polyploidy produce something euphemistically termed "general developmental disruption" ,practically speaking this means system meltdown which happens very quickly. There is ...