Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Creation of healthy genetically modified crops [closed]

GM crops are huge at the moment, and the noticeable 'counter movement' is for people to continue to purchase organic foods (please note I am specifically talking of GM crops and not meats, etc). The ...
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How do geneticists compute the percentage of DNA shared between species?

It's not exactly clear to me what is meant when people say that humans and bananas share 50% of their DNA.
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Pairwise sequence alignment in C++ (fastq et bam) [closed]

I am sorry I am a beginner in genetics and I have a problem about a homework project. I have 4 files: aln1.fastq aln2.fastq aln.bam aln.bam.bai "fastq" files contain information about sequences ...
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How was gene therapy able to cure diseases through the transformation of actively dividing cells?

I thought that gene therapy, when performed on target cells that regenerate themselves constantly, can be effective for a limited time only. I.e., the effect gradually wears off after a while, ...
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Where should I start looking for an online gene library?

Is there an online library that includes all known genes in stored in their nucleotide form of all living organisms? I'm presuming that such a database doesn't exist. So to kick of my search, how ...
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5-HTTLPR polymorphism and Depression

I am reading about the biology of depression and came across something I can't understand. Here is the thing: Lesch K-P, et al. (1996) say that people with short alleles of 5-HTTLPR are more prone to ...
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387 views

Why a striped baby is not the result of a white and a black parent?

Someone asked me: If a striped cat is the result of a white and a black cat, why the result of a white woman and a black man is not a striped child? I know the answer. I also know that the ...
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46 views

Genetic coding question, amino acid to base relationship

I'm studying for a test and I am confused by these problems/statements. How many amino acids will 18 bases code for? Answer: 6. I got this right. If a certain complete protein has 33 amino acids ...
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Mosaic segregation in C. elegans

How can mosaic segregation be used in C. elegans? Can it tell us where a given gene is expressed, or needs to be expressed for worm survival?
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Why is down syndrome more common than other trisomies? [duplicate]

Why is Down syndrome more common than say trisomy 18? Is chromosome 21 easier to replicate? Or is it because those babies are more viable?
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Diffusion approximation to genetic drift

I am reading from the classical textbook Principles of Population Genetics, Hartl and Clark (pdf here). Introduction Let $f(p,x,t)$ denote the distribution of allele frequency $x$ at time $t$ ...
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Can we study all the genes of one human being?

Considering the fact that a new-born child gets 23 chromosomes containing DNA and genes from each of his parents and then 23 chromosomes from those 46 chromosomes of the new-born child will be ...
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26 views

Irradiation positive effect on humans?

In research paper Euphytica 135: 187–204, 2004 it is written that: 434 mutant varieties of rice have been released with improved characters such as semi-dwarf height, early maturity, improved ...
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35 views

BWA-MEM single strand or doublestrand alignment

In whole genome secondary analysis does BWA-MEM use a double stranded fasta reference or are reads aligned to only one, single stranded fasta reference?
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Does DNA polymerase I require a $3^\prime$ end?

DNA polymerase III adds nucleotides in the $5^\prime \rightarrow 3^\prime$ direction because it can only add nucleotides to the $3^\prime$ end of the previous nucleotide. This is why it requires a ...
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Hydrogen bonding and the blocking thereof in nucleic acids during nuclear processes

In transcription, RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA double helix and begins attaching RNA nucleotides to the template strand. In its wake, the DNA double helix closes back—this is only natural, seeing as ...
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From DNA to final traits of microorganisms? [closed]

From the answer of this topic, could someone indicate me a book or article about how DNA set the phenotype of microorganisms? For example, showing how DNA changes the shape of such a cell or how DNA ...
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Is it possible that by mutation a human could see infrared or other 'colours'?

Incoming light reacts with the several types of cone cells in the eye. In humans, there are three types of cones sensitive to three different spectra, resulting in trichromatic color vision. Each ...
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Statistically, why is the number of mutated genes in eggs treated with chemical mutagenesis one?

Excerpted from the Guide to Research Techniques in Neuroscience [1]: In chemical mutagenesis, a scientist applies a mutagenizing chemical, such as ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) or ...
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Mitochondrial Genetic code

We know that the genetic code is universal. My query is why the mitochondrial genetic code is different from universal genetic code?
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What are in common between transcription factors?

In terms of their structures (primary to tertiary) and locations? Why do they have these commonalities? Or are any of these commonalities critical to their functions?
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Is Chargaff's rule really applicable?

Chargaff's rules states that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal ...
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40 views

Relationship of bases in a gene to amino acids

One of my study questions for a biology test was: A gene contains 1200 bases. How many codons will be on the mRNA immediately after transcription? My initial answer was 400 codons, because 1200 ...
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Is it possible for a child to grow taller than their tallest parent?

I have heard that offspring can't grow taller than either of their parents but I've also heard that sometimes some gene activation can skip generations. Is it possible for a child to grow taller than ...
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Is eye colour of Drosophila a polygenic trait or an X-linked trait?

I have seen examples of various eye colours in Drosophila and they have been described both as "X-linked" and "polygenic". I thought these were mutually exclusive. Is Drosophila eye colour polygenic ...
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Is complete genetic linkage possible?

Linkage is the tendency of genes on the same chromosome to remain together during the process of inheritance. Is it possible that two genes will remain linked generation after generation without any ...
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Inheritance patterns in individuals with triploidy

If you search on the genetics of Down's Syndrome, you'll find plenty of results explaining the genetic mechanisms which can result in triploidy. However, I can't find any information on the ...
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Are there examples of selection on males influencing female phenotypes?

I've been studying selection on female body color in a sexually dimorphic species and am intrigued by the possibility that selection on males, whether it be through sexual or natural selection, may ...
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Is it possible for two creature in the same order and have odd haploid chromosome species to reproduce

Take the degu and the rat for example. The degu has 29 chromosome pairs Rats have 21 chromosome pairs. They are only share the same order ( Rodentia ) Would it be possible for them to reproduce? ( ...
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Why are there different species of bacteria?

The usual (high school or intro to bio) explanation for diversification of species comes from multicellular, usually sexually reproducing organisms, and seems to be closely tied to the biological ...
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97 views

What's the mechanism or structure responsible for new species genetic code generation? [closed]

I always had this question in mind. I think, If humans find answer to it then we can trigger the next evolution of human specie. What is the mechanism or structure responsible for evolution ? I don't ...
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81 views

What type of point mutation and chromosomal mutation cause Albinism in humans?

First of all, I know that OCA1 (Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 1) is autosomal recessive which means that both parents-who are unaffected-have to pass down one copy of a mutated gene in order to ...
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What is the probability of genetic reincarnation? [closed]

Parents pass on 23 chromosomes to their children, with a 50/50 chance for each chromosome. Considering that people of a families lived over millennia in the same region the abundance of some ...
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655 views

Genetic linkage greater than 50 centimorgans

Classically, the linkage between two loci can be measured in centimorgans (cM), which represents the percent chance that these two loci will recombine an odd number of times (generating a recombinant ...
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Is the DNA different in each type of cell? What DNA is passed to offspring?

Our body contains many different types of cells and each of those cells have their own DNA (correct me if wrong) like skin cells their own DNA that makes them skin cells instead of muscle cells. So ...
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Follow-up to The Red Queen by Matt Ridley? [closed]

I just finished reading The Red Queen: Sex and the evolution of human nature by Matt Ridley. Since this book is over 20 years old, I was wondering if more recent research made part of the book ...
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Gene centromere distance in yeast tetrads

I'm not getting the formula for calculating distance between a centromere and a gene in a Neurospora tetrad. Formula: Distance(gene to centromere)= 100 * 0.5(tetrads showing MII segregation)/(total ...
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What is the definition of a mutation?

There are two alleles that determine the sensitivity of a person to Coumadin (a medicine for blood thinners used to treat a stroke etc). Sometimes you encounter the terminology that one has a mutation ...
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Crossing over and exon shuffling?

Campbell Biology 10e, in discussing the functions of introns, writes: The presence of introns in a gene may facilitate the evolution of new and potentially beneficial proteins as a result of a ...
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Distinguishing Father from Brother

Given the (non-identical) DNA sequences of two men and the knowledge that the second man is either the father, brother, or son of the first man, is the DNA useful in determining which of these three ...
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Solving a Pedigree Between Heterozygous Half-Cousins

A man who is a known heterozygous carrier of oculocutaneous albinism marries his half-cousin (they share one common grandparent) as shown in the pedigree below. This trait is transmitted as a fully ...
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How should one interpret heritability? Is it related to $R^2$?

From Wiki: Heritability estimates are often misinterpreted if it is not understood that they refer to the proportion of variation between individuals on a trait that is due to genetic factors. It ...
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XNAs as a Genetic material [closed]

I heard there is a new genetic material called XNAs.I wanted to know more about this.Does anyone about XNAs as genetic material?
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Is the relative amount off junk DNA a measure of an organisms complexity? [closed]

A rice plant contains as much active DNA (protein coding) as a human being. Can this be a sign that the more junk DNA the nucleus of a cell contains, the more complex the organism is that develops?
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Amplified Fragment Lenth Polymorphism (AFLP) primers

I am trying to blast AFLP primer sequences to the genome to find the locations of the AFLP markers. However, I can't seem to find full alignments for the primers on the genome. For example, in the ...
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76 views

Explain allelic complementation at molecular level

I know that Allelic complementation is a phenomenon where two recessive loss-of-function allele generate a functional gene product by compensating each others' defect. But I don't get how do they ...
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Can heritability be deduced from a correlation coefficient?

I am trying to understand the concept of heritability and from what I can gather, the heritability of a factor (say birth weight) must be closely related to the correlation coefficient of that factor ...
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Was the frequency of mutations more during primitive earth due to radioactivity?

Primitive earth was more radioactive (or was it really?) according to radiometric analysis of C14 which suddenly appeared at 4250 million years in the Hadeon eon. Is it possible that ancient high ...
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39 views

Are scientist able to correct mutiple gene defect in our body by using CRISPR

Are scientist able to correct mutiple gene defect in whole body by using CRISPR recently? AS i know, it is in a beginning stage
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Why does the proportion of transposable elements vary so much across species?

Intuitively, transposable elements (TEs) are harmful as they may cause genome instability. However, some people argue that TEs are also sources of variations, especially regulatory sequences[1]. If ...