Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
2answers
109 views

What are non-heritable changes to genomes?

I am told that mutations are heritable changes to the genome. So this begs the question - what are non-heritable changes to genome?
0
votes
1answer
55 views

What impacts penetrance of Huntington's disease?

From Principles of Life by H. Craig Heller, David E. Sadava, Mary V. Price: From what I understand, Huntington's disease exhibits varying degrees of penetrance depending on how many times the ...
3
votes
1answer
96 views

XXY (Klinefelter's) & Trisomy 21 & X-inactivation

I read that X-inactivation doesn't tend to happen in males, but then when someone is XXY, they are a male because of the Y. However these individuals tend to live. So does that mean that ...
5
votes
2answers
116 views

Functions of the CFTR gene?

I am a senior in high school and I am studying cystic fibrosis. I don't quite get the function of the CFTR gene as this is my first time dealing with this type of heavy scientific info. I had ...
6
votes
1answer
68 views

How exactly can dsRNA be introduced to a cell?

Is it just by viruses or are there other means by which it gets into cells, such as plasmid uptake?
3
votes
1answer
37 views

If hermaphrodite C. elegans can reproduce with females?

C. elegans can self fertilize, or they can mate with males. But are they able to mate with females? Or is there some kind of morphological barrier that prevents that?
4
votes
1answer
74 views

Redundancy of the genetic code

One particular codon codes only for one amino acid, but an amino acid can be coded for by several different codons. Now according to the genetic code, the codon UUU ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Earliest and latest onset of Huntington's Disease(Chorea)?

Huntington's disease can hit at any age, although it tends to hit middleaged people most often. What is the youngest and oldest person that has exhibited Huntington's? Clarification: By oldest I mean ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

DNA methylation on the forward vs reverse strand?

I'm wondering if there are meant to be differences in DNA methylation between the forward and the reverse strand of the gene? I'm wondering because in primer design for bisulfite pyrosequencing one ...
2
votes
2answers
172 views

Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium after 5 Generations

1 There is a population not at HWE where red eye = $a^+$ (dominant) and white eyes = $a^-$. if $a^+/a^+ = 0.6$ $a^-/a^+ = 0.1$ $a^-/a^- = 0.3$ what are the frequencies of the $a^+$ and $a^-$ ...
4
votes
1answer
83 views

Are all functions of a human cell known? [closed]

Please bear with me as I'm intruding into your world from a computer science background. In programming, once you have created a program, you know all functions of that program. Thus, 100% knowledge ...
1
vote
2answers
74 views

What kind of technology is required for plant seed DNA printing? [closed]

I'm a programmer so I have little knowledge in the field of biology. However I have an interest in plants, GMOs and DNA (in terms of programming). So, I want to know what kind of technology is ...
2
votes
2answers
96 views

How does non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) work?

I was reading about non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in my molecular biology of the gene textbook but the explanation provided in the text was rather vague to me, and I was not able to understand it ...
1
vote
0answers
65 views

Can sealed epiphyseal growth plates theoretically be restored via epigenetic or genetic methods?

I know that epiphyseal growth plates seal up once people become young adults and that it is currently impossible to restore them to actively produce new bone growth but, is it theoretically possible ...
0
votes
2answers
1k views

Is it possible for a child to grow taller than their tallest parent?

I have heard that off spring can't grow taller than either of their parents but I've also heard that sometimes some gene activation can skip generations. Is it possible for a child to grow taller than ...
2
votes
1answer
170 views

What is the result of meiosis?

Is the result of meiosis ONLY the sex gametes (male and female) which later meet to form a somatic cell? Sometimes I feel as if my book is hinting towards meiosis is the process where sperm cells meet ...
1
vote
2answers
56 views

Incomplete Dominance and Probability

I have a follow-up question about an in-lecture question (this is not a homework question). As you can see I have already answered the question and the question is closed to further submissions. ...
3
votes
3answers
193 views

Why has grey hair evolved?

A vast majority of humans get at least some grey hair as they age. As far as I know this applies to both genders and all races. Presumably this means that at least some grey haired humans have ...
2
votes
1answer
94 views

Why do our epiphyseal plates close up in our late teens or early twenties?

What causes our epiphyseal plates close up in our late teens or early twenties? I realize that one's genetics plays the main role in this. I assume there is a gene that controls the epiphyseal plates ...
0
votes
2answers
70 views

Chromatids in metaphase?

Please see the following picture: In my book, the author claims that these chromosomes are in metaphase (a metaphase stopped by cholchicin). I don't understand why they don't have two ...
3
votes
0answers
75 views

At what rate do chromosomal rearrangements occur?

How often does chromosomal rearrangements occur? i.e. what is the rate of chromosomal rearrangements? I am interested about these kind of chromosomal rearrangements that are passed on to the ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

How to identify genes?

You and me are different at DNA level. My eye color gene is different from yours. So, my DNA is different from yours. How can a scientist identify a certain gene in a chromosome (and its function) if ...
0
votes
0answers
71 views

How TCGA CNV values are calculated?

When I download CNV SNP array data for ovarian cancer from TCGA data portal, I see some very small numbers like -5, -6 in the "Segment_Mean" column of the segmentation data files. I am very new to ...
1
vote
1answer
112 views

What is the difference between a fixed substitution and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)?

I recently read a report that stated "We found 430 fixed substitutions […], with an additional 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) fixed within individual patients." What is the difference ...
12
votes
2answers
5k views

Do white Australians have a distinct look?

Background I've heard from many people working in tourism or similar industries that, white Australians can be recognized as Australian solely by their facial features. Being Australian myself I've ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

What is the difference between a DPY-10, DPY-11, and DPY-13?

My TA mentioned these three mutations of C. elegans since we started working with the worms but seems to skip over what the differences are...
3
votes
2answers
543 views

How to calculate relatedness in haplodiploid organisms (mainly full sisters and full brothers)?

I have tried to calculate the relatedness for haplodiploid organisms, but cannot understand the calculations behind full sister and full brother. (taken from Wikipedia: haplodiploidy I have managed ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

Are there anatomical differences between male and female mammal brains before action of hormones?

is there any evidences of these differences during development stages prior to hormone driven sexual differentiation? mice studies ?
7
votes
1answer
310 views

Fisher's Geometric Model for Dummies

Fisher's geometric model is still today one of the most important and fundamental model in evolutionary biology but it seems to me that most student in evolutionary biology don't really understand it ...
4
votes
1answer
53 views

Definition of “structural underdominance”?

In Stathos and Fishman (2014), the authors refer to the concept of structural underdominance. The first time they mention it is in the first paragraph of the second page (left column) and the term is ...
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Mutation-drift equilibrium and among loci variance in heterozygosity

At mutation-drift balance, the increased heterozygosity brought by new mutations is exactly equal to the loss of heterozygosity due to genetic drift. At equilibrium, the expected heterozygosity for a ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

Can two Hfr strains of E. coli conjugate?

Genetics textbooks (and some internet searching) yield abundant examples of Hfr strains conjugating with F- cells, but these sources are surprisingly silent regarding the results of an Hfr ...
1
vote
0answers
73 views

An unknown band appearing in my gel electrophoresis

I am having trouble understanding what is the source of band "2" in the following gel-electrophoresis: In this experiment, we took an E.coli transformant colony and ran its nucleic acids in the ...
3
votes
2answers
64 views

Why aren't introns found on the ends of pre-RNA?

We recently learned in genetics class that exons always cap the ends of nascent RNA. I have been trying to figure out the reason why introns can't instead be found on the ends instead of exons. The ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Influence of temperature on protein binding and decay rates

For computer modeling purposes, I am looking for some referenced quantitative measurements of the effect(s) of temperature on the dynamic of biochemical reactions. Question In particular, my ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

What is the point of DNA sequencing?

This is a very very basic question. I've looked at methods such as chromosome sequencing and shotgun sequencing. Wikipedia says that: ...
3
votes
1answer
63 views

Why do we use DNA sequencing methods such as shotgun?

I am learning about DNA cloning for the first time. What I understand is that, in order to clone DNA, we break-up the original gene into shreds. Then try to piece it back together. Why exactly do we ...
5
votes
1answer
40 views

Components of the concept of Developmental Noise?

Developmental noise is a concept that correspond to the amount of possible phenotypic variance of a given genotype in a given environment. Intrinsic noise (aka Cellular noise) is a component of ...
7
votes
3answers
6k views

Does our DNA change during our lives?

As far as I know, DNA is the construction protocol of all organisms on Earth. Does it change when influenced by time and environment (physical laws)? As parents with schizophrenia are more likely to ...
4
votes
1answer
73 views

Influence of temperature on transcription, protein binding and decay rates

I am the kind of biologist who doesn't know much about molecular genetics and about the dynamic of biochemical reactions. Question My question concerns the influence of temperature on the dynamic of ...
1
vote
2answers
85 views

Is the mutation rate in organisms in general consistent over the genome?

Coming from computer science with an interest in genetic programming (a process emulating evolution) I'm curious about whether the rate of mutation is homogeneous across the whole genome, or if some ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Is epilepsy more heritable from maternal side?

I am thinking if paternal or maternal genetic line is the risk factor. Mitochondrial DNA is coming from maternal line. I do not know the pathogenesis of epilepsy so well that I could answer my ...
4
votes
4answers
113 views

Collective name for the X- and Z-chromosomes

Chromosomes are grouped as sex chromosomes or autosomes, with the X, Y, Z and W all falling in to the former category. The Z and X are present both in the homogametic and heterogametic sexes, and the ...
7
votes
2answers
99 views

(How) can a pink grasshopper exist?

I saw this foto on Reddit recently: Is this possible? How can a grasshopper become like this? Is this just natural genetic mutation?
6
votes
1answer
304 views

Microsatellite shifts (peak calling) GeneMapper! Thesis help!

I'm a masters student attempting to conduct a parentage analysis on a population of fish for my thesis. My advisor and post-docs haven't been very helpful, so I need some help! I have dinucleotide ...
7
votes
1answer
62 views

Are recessive, deleterious alleles less common on the X chromosome than the autosomes in humans?

As there is a potential for them to be more readily purged in hemizygous males (and in cell lineages in females with the deleterious-allele-bearing chromosome activated), I would expect the frequency ...
1
vote
2answers
71 views

what is the modern, molecular explanation of independent assortment of alleles?

in case it isn't obvious i'll begin by stating that i'm a layman, trying to understand something about this subject from reading books. the books i've looked at so far give murky and confusing ...
6
votes
3answers
257 views

Can genes change as we age?

Let's say you're a 23 year old man who impregnates a woman. Will your genes be the same if you were to impregnate another woman at age 35? Will your genes in those 12 years have ...
5
votes
3answers
3k views

What are the advantages and disadvantages of using beta-galactosidase compared to luciferase as a reporter gene?

In the University labs, we have used Beta-galactosidase as a reporter gene to quantify the expression initiated by the stress-response promoter in yeast. This was done by exposing one of the two ...
2
votes
1answer
103 views

How do I interpret this graph regarding introduced genes and virus-infected cells?

This graph appeared in a practice test for the MCAT. I am trying to interpret it, but it confuses me a bit. On the x-axis we have some introduced genes, and on the y-axis we have % of cells ...