Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Understanding conclusions that functional regions are under negative selection?

I am reading in notes for a comparative annotation lecture that : all DNA is subject to mutations most functional regions are under negative selection (ie., mutations are often deleterious) The ...
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1answer
685 views

Possible genotypes for blood types?

If I am blood type B, what are all the possible genotypes that could be expressed by my parents? I think it might be 16 but I was reading online and saw this: Similarly, someone who is blood type ...
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Can a woman possessing 1 mutated allele show attenuated color-vision deficiency?

Women possess two X chromosomes. However, during development, when the embryo has about 32 - 64 cells, one of these chromosomes is randomly inactivated (in each cell) by an lncRNA named Xist. As a ...
3
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1answer
45 views

How to determine genotype?

In humans, the ability or inability to roll the tongue is a single gene trait. The allele for tongue rolling (R) is dominant to the allele for not being able to roll the tongue (r). Whether ...
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1answer
34 views

Is there a genomic code for nucleosome positioning?

What does a genomic code for nucleosome positioning in eukaryotes actually mean? By the code is it right to think that specific DNA sequences favour nucleosomes and others don't? I see that there for ...
6
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2answers
54 views

Can molecular genetics make a boolean variable from a continuous variable?

In the same kind of idea than this question. Gene expression are regulated through complex interactions. The concentration of enhancers and repressors is an important aspect that dictate the level of ...
3
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1answer
33 views

Obvious phenotypic inheritance markers in humans

In humans, are there phenotypic markers that prove parenthood? For example, if mother and father have <trait characteristic> (let's say, specific ear lobe ...
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4answers
105 views

Why autosomal trisomy has more adverse effects than sex choromosome monosomy or trisomy?

Autosomal Trisomy syndromes are usually lethal but sex chromosome number related abnormalities do not lead to that much fatality. why?
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100 views

Barr body Giemsa staining

Why not all the female cheek cells show Barr Bodies when stained with Giemsa stain?? only 30 to 40 % female cells showed Barr Bodies . Why?
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2answers
57 views

C. elegans are either male or hermaphrodites, but why aren't there any females?

From my understanding C. elegans are mainly hermaphrodites but are occasionally males to increase genetic variation. Why is it that random females aren't born instead to achieve he same goal (genetic ...
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0answers
19 views

Is (are) there any crucial gene(s) for the formation of flower in flowering plants? [closed]

I am interested in qualitative (flowers of some plants have petal or sepal, but some plants have not) and quantitative (number of flowers of plants) differences between flowers of different plants. ...
4
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2answers
60 views

How can (or did) Deinococcus radiodurans continue to evolve after developing resistance to mutation?

Deinococcus radiodurans has a remarkable ability to resist damage to its DNA due to radiation, dehydration or (to my knowledge) any other source. It keeps multiple copies of its genome and has a ...
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1answer
98 views

What are genome wide functional linkages?

There are two types of interaction classifications used to describe Protein-protein interactions, namely physical and functional. Whilst physical interactions are obvious in nature and methodological ...
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360 views

Do transcription factors bind to both strands of DNA?

Do transcription factors (or generally proteins) bind to only single strand of DNA or both strands? Since it can have non covalent bonds to both strands in theory. I would like to know the mechanism. ...
7
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1answer
67 views

Do DNA repressors exist?

I know about enhancers and the mechanism that lead them to increase the gene expression of their targets but I was wondering if similarly DNA repressors exist. I know about protein repressors but I am ...
6
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1answer
68 views

“Enhancers” of enhancers?

I am looking for examples (if any) of genomic regions which regulates the activity of enhancers, either augmenting or reducing it. Essentially some kind of enhancers (or repressors) of enhancers to ...
0
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1answer
62 views

Incubation time of Antarctic Phosphatase in lab [closed]

Antarctic Phosphatase is used to catalyze the removal of 5' phosphate from DNA. If I'm using it in the lab on a sample of 1-5 micrograms of digested DNA, how would I figure out how long to incubate ...
5
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1answer
82 views

Doubt on genomic code for nucleosome positioning?

I was reading "A genomic code for nucleosome positioning" (by Eran Segal et al). And I am having 2 doubts. The figure(b) in this image from the paper shows the graph of fraction (3-bp moving ...
4
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1answer
76 views

DNA sequencing problem

First off, let me start by outlining the problem: Your laboratory has established a technique for examining DNA replication in a cellular extract. To the cellular protein extract, you add ...
5
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1answer
117 views

Can human mRNA be translated in vitro by prokaryotes?

As the genetic code is universal, can mRNA from a human cell be correctly translated by a prokaryote in a in vitro translation system?
2
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1answer
25 views

Introducing novel genes to an adult multicellular organism?

Is it possible to introduce a novel gene into the genome of every cell (or at least most cells) of an adult multicellular organism? How would this be done? Thanks, CDB
6
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1answer
281 views

Are gene variants at different loci also called alleles?

I think the title says it. I always read that alleles are gene variants at a given locus, which confuses me. Thanks!
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36 views

Why do restriction-modification systems work?

Some RM systems (restriction-modification systems) are plasmid-borne and are transferred through bacterial conjugation. As you all know, there are two genes in an RM system, the gene that codes for ...
7
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1answer
95 views

Genotype to phenotype map and the G-matrix

Suppose I have a genotype-phenotype map defined by the matrix $\mathbf{Z}$:         The scalars $G,P$ represent the number of genotypes and traits, respectively. ...
5
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1answer
48 views

How does de-myelination occur in multiple sclerosis?

From what I understand, only the oligodendrocytes are affected in multiple sclerosis, and they are attacked by T cells which cross the blood-brain barrier. This leads me to two questions: How is the ...
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1answer
39 views

Two mice heterozygote and black are reproduced. Find the probability of getting the filium dark and heterozygote [closed]

Well, here's what I did: P: Aa*Aa F1: 1/4 AA, 1/2 Aa, 1/4 aa, SO the answer is 1/2, but out teacher did this: AA(1) Aa(2) aa(1) and she said we divide the number of filium for the phenotypes ...
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1answer
116 views

Why do people with Down syndrome get fewer cancers?

I'm coming across some conflicting information regarding the correlation between cancer incidents and trisomy 21. I read a report from nature that discusses how Downs are only a tenth as likely to ...
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53 views

Layman definition of genetic polymorphism?

I am reading an article about Genetic Polymorphism and there are lines in the article about genetic polymophism that I don't quite understand like. In this area,there are six different chemotypes ...
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2answers
276 views

explanation of meaning of high-throughput

Almost all of the papers about bioinformatics, I faced with the high-throughput word, but I could not find any explanation about it (I think it is so easy to understand and thats why anyone explains ...
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5answers
307 views

If a gene is located on the X chromosome, does that mean males are never heterozygous for these genes?

As said in the title I am a little confused on the idea of traits located on the sex chromosomes. The example we worked on in class was haemophilia, a recessive trait located on the X chromosome. Does ...
4
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1answer
62 views

Fixation rate at neutral loci

It is a classical result that the expected time for a neutral mutation to occur and to get fixed is $2 N \mu \frac{1}{2N} = \mu$, where $N$ is the population size and $\mu$ is the neutral mutation ...
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23 views

Find the probability of Filium (child) that are dark (and) heterozygote [duplicate]

Two mice are crossed and both are dark and heterozygote. Find the probability of their filium(children) dark (and) heterozygote in F1. Here's what our teacher explained: I don't understand. I ...
2
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1answer
24 views

Are there multiple meanings to “clone” as in “clone a gene”?

I originally thought that cloning a gene meant to put it into bacteria and have them express it. But sometimes I see it used and it seems like it's just a synonym for "identify the sequence and/or ...
0
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1answer
39 views

Two heterozygote mice for skin color are reproduced. Find the probability that in 3 children 2 will be dark and one white

Two heterozygote mice for skin color are reproduced. Black is dominant to white color. Find the probability that in 3 children 2 will be dark and one white. How did you do the ordering. Well I found ...
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Plants and animals ability to survive polypoidy conditions [duplicate]

In mammals the condition polyploidy produce something euphemistically termed "general developmental disruption" ,practically speaking this means system meltdown which happens very quickly. There is ...
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1answer
156 views

How are 23 chromosomes in human sperm chosen?

I'm not biologist and I have just a basic knowledge. I've been thinking for a long time about the following question: How does the body choose which 23 chromosomes should be active in human sperm and ...
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0answers
66 views

What are the white spots?

What are these white spots? It's like Braille writing or something. How is the appearance encoded in the plant? (which I think is a Pine, though I am not sure).
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2answers
90 views

What are the major causes of mutations in DNA?

I know that point mutations can change the base sequence of a gene by altering a specific codon that codes for a particular amino acid. Are these mutations purely random events that occur when DNA is ...
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2answers
108 views

How does the size of insert affects the rate of Homologous Recombination in yeast?

When performing genetic knockouts in yeast using homologous recombination to replace a target gene sequence via a vector DNA, does the region between the flanking regions in the vector have to be the ...
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137 views

A good textbook on GMO

I am interested in learning about GMO. The topic is so wrapped in controversy, that it's hard to find a good book that introduces the basic concepts involved. I went through various university ...
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3answers
364 views

Why crossing over don't happen in mitosis?

I mean if there would be crossing over in mitosis then there would various nature of somatic cells. May be that's the logic,but what is the mechanism?why there is no crossing over in mitosis? Does ...
0
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1answer
53 views

Core architecture of the body encoding [closed]

First of all, I am not a biology guy; I am in Computer Science. But, I have a strong interest in all the mysteries of nature, from universe to human body. So, I want to ask a question related to ...
4
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2answers
120 views

Lyonization vs Genetic Imprinting

Lyonization is the process in which there is inactivation of an X chromosome in females. This process is implicated in mosaic forms of turner's syndrome (in this case the altered ...
3
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2answers
67 views

Can genetically engineering the DNA of a human zygote, make it a twin of another human in entirety?

My question is simple. If I wanted to make an exact twin of an individual, will genetically engineering the DNA of the zygote to match with the individual suffice?
2
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1answer
473 views

Can DNA & RNA be considered as nature's programming language?

The final frontier of Biological Sciences could be considered understanding the effects of variation in the DNA (and RNA). If after fertilization the DNA of the zygote could be genetically ...
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1answer
43 views

What is the expected number of children that need to be born for every possible point mutation to occur once? [closed]

I'm reading The Perfect Health Diet, and in it the author says that the probability of a point mutation is (175/3*10^9) per new child. He then goes on to write: In the Paleolithic, with 100000 ...
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How does a baby retain a blood group different from it's mother, in her womb?

It's a well-established fact that blood group is decided by genotype. But, when a new child starts it's journey in the womb, then the mother's blood (along with it's agglutinins and agglutinogens) ...
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2answers
1k views

What is biological dark matter?

I recently stumbled upon the Biological Dark Matter wiki page. Its pretty light on details, but it appears to be genetic material found in humans that doesn't fall into currently classifications. ...
4
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1answer
171 views

Redheads and pain receptors

I remember reading this in a biology textbook, and decided to do a little digging. Redheads have a lower sensitivity to some pain and a higher sensitivity to other compared to people of other colored ...
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1answer
42 views

In insects, does the Alanine repeat occur on the homeodomain sequence of the abdomen or does it occur on a different sequence?

By "Alanine repeat", I am referring to the suppression of the formation of extra insect legs due to Ubx gene suppression through Distal-less repression.