Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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How do two parents, recessive and dominant genes and two complimentary nucleotides end up in one DNA? [closed]

In the basic school, I was taught that half of genome is received from father and another half comes from mother in the form of double-helix DNA, whose first helix consists of dominant nucleotide ...
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If dog's DNA and human's DNA are almost same then can it be said that dogs evolved from humans? [closed]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IbY122CSC5w In this video it is said our DNA matches almost the dog's then it can be also said that dogs evolved from humans. Is it?
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Is the fixation rate always equal to the mutation rate for neutral alleles?

Background A classical result of population genetic is that the rate of fixation of netreual alleles is the mutation rate $\mu$. The reason is that each generation $PN_e\mu$ mutations enter the ...
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60 views

Virus-to-virus gene transfer via “sequences integrated into a common host organism”

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: In addition to direct HGT between organisms as depicted in Figure 1, forms of indirect HGT have been observed, which involve ...
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36 views

Calculating the recombination factor of four point genetic cross?

So, I'm trying to work out the recombination factor (RF) from this set of data: Which shows the 16 phenotypes of progeny of a cross of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. I know how to go about a three ...
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1answer
98 views

How do eukaryotes terminate transcription? (clarification on Campbell Biology)

I'm having trouble understanding how eukaryotes terminate transcription. Studying Campbell Biology (pg. 342, 10th ed.), I read: In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II transcribes the polyadenylation ...
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1answer
63 views

How does Cas9 interact with CRISPR?

I read that Cas9 protein along with guided RNA binds at a specific DNA fragment of foreign organism integrated in a host organism DNA. To make the host immune to virus infection Cas9 along with gRNA ...
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1answer
58 views

How to interpret the simple sequence repeat (SSR) on the coding sequence, but not the related protein sequence?

I have predicted some SSR repeat on the gene of interest using SSRLocator program, which the result creates a question for me. Please consider the below sequence, which is part of gene sequence of ...
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275 views

What is the biological significance of finding palindromes in DNA sequence?

I found a function called palindromes in Matlab that finds palindromes from DNA sequence. Now what is the biological intention behind incorporating this function? What the biological significance of ...
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43 views

How does intron retention make the alternative transcript non-coding?

I faced with a non-coding transcript that specified as one the isoform of BIN1. It sounds that this isoform generated as a result of alternative splicing with a intron retained; am I right? However, ...
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1answer
55 views

Disease causing variants and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

Is it true that many disease causing variants/mutations do not follow Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium? If so, then please elaborate on why this may be true (or not) and provide examples. I am interested ...
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1answer
49 views

Plasmid copy number and Rop protein

If i want to transform a bacteria (E. coli) with a particular plasmid (in my case pBR322) will the presence of the Rop gene affect the production of it ? Is it desirable to use a plasmid without that ...
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333 views

Why don't the apples seeds from grafted trees produce the same kind of apples?

As Wikipedia says: Grafting is a horticultural technique whereby tissues from one plant are inserted into those of another so that the two sets of vascular tissues may join together. In most ...
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1answer
90 views

Catenation and decatenation by DNA Gyrase

Decatenation is done for the replication of DNA and why is Catenation done and is it related to Crossing over
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1answer
146 views

Heterochromatin v Euchromatin. Which is more abundant?

So I was just reading that whether heterochromatin or euchromatin is more abundant in a particular human cell depends on how active that cell is. But considering that most of the 25,000 or so genes in ...
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95 views

Do transposons usually jump from one chromosome to another?

If it is usual occurrence, does it mean that my one gene can change its location from one chromosome to another?
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50 views

What is the result of modifying the reagents in the Sanger method?

If one of the dideoxynucleotides is omitted while using the Sanger method how would that affect the chain termination method of DNA sequencing?
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36 views

Genetics of epilepsy

Is epilepsy genetically inheritable? If yes, is it dominant?
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48 views

In what way is ADHD genetic? [closed]

According to Psychcentral depression, bipolar disorder, ADHD, schizophrenia and autism are traceable to the same inherited genetic variations According to AsapSCIENCE, depression could be genetic due ...
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1answer
28 views

A trivial question on the meaning of “relatives” in an article on horizontal gene transfer

Am I right in suggesting that by close relatives the author meant closely related species, or did he have individual organisms in mind? DETECTION OF HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER There are ...
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1answer
68 views

Recombination fraction( frequency) in Homozygotes

I have a question about the recombination frequency I hope you have time to answer. Background: If we look at homozygous individual A/A B/B which has been formed from the gametes AB and AB, this ...
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2answers
153 views

How does Cro protein expressed by lambda phage kill its host?

I read that the DNA segment of lambda phage integrated in host DNA could switch between lysogenic state where cI represses the expression of Cro and lytic state where Cro expression takes over and ...
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1answer
33 views

gene duplicated on genome but is different

I've been looking at a miRNA cluster on a genome and I found it three times. The first two are right next to each other and look exactly the same, the third sequences is on a different scaffold of the ...
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88 views

difference in genetic instuctions between male and female [duplicate]

I'm a computer science graduate so please bear with me the following computer program : mov ecx, -1 INC ecx consist of 2 instructions (mov,inc) each working on specific data , can genetics ...
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2answers
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It's right to say coding sequence is part of exon sequence?

Some basic ambiguities making me confused. I downloaded 5'UTR, CDS, 3'UTR, and exon sequences, separately from Biomart for a gene P4HA2 (Homo sapiens) and found some simple sequence repeat (SSR) on ...
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1answer
48 views

IBD-value in pedigree with inbreeding

I have a question about IBD. Please see the figure below. How many pairs of alleles are IBD for X and Y, or what is the IBD value for X and Y. Is it four (4)? I have seen it to be maximally 2, but ...
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63 views

How C. Elegans is used for siliencing genes

The experiment that is using C. Elegans to silence the Genes. I have a question about Why and how C. Elegans can use the DNA plasmid that is generated with the gene of interest in the bacteria by ...
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58 views

Overcoming Inbreeding Depression

When inbreeding depression occurs, a genetically unrelated individual is mated with the animal to introduce genetic variability and remove homozygosity. In this case either outbreeding or ...
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45 views

Why the length of UTR in the genomic sequence of gene X is too much longer than the same region in the corresponding Refseq mRNA sequences?

I'm browsing in the UCSC genome browser and found that the UTRs length of KIAA0040 gene in the genomic sequences is too much longer than the corresponding the Refseq mRNA sequence. In fact, the total ...
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Why are published chromosome counts for polyploids often incorrect by an integer multiplication factor of the original diploid like count?

Why are published chromosome counts (done using techniques such as root smashes) for polyploidy flowering plants often incorrect by a multiplication factor of 2 or 3 from the original diploid like ...
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186 views

In which phenomena does one gene pair hide the effect of other unit?

This question was asken in an exam, The answer they are saying is "Epistasis". But I think "Dominance" fits better, because it is not mentioned whether genes of same allele are to be considered or ...
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50 views

Nature of Dengue Fever Genetic Material

Once the genetic material for Dengue Fever is inserted into the human DNA, would the Dengue Fever molecular material be in the form of its own isolated DNA fragment or will it be inserted directly ...
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129 views

Evolution of a Population

Scientists observe a newly established population of sexually reproducing plants growing on the shore of a small island. An observable trait of the plant has two possible phenotypes. It is determined ...
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1answer
331 views

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Question

I have four questions concerning H-W Equilibrium: (i) In a population of mice, the presence of black spots is the result of a homozygous recessive condition. If the frequency of the allele for this ...
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39 views

Is it possible to amplify every single piece of DNA through PCR?

Is there a way to perform non-specific PCR amplification for the purpose of amplifying every piece of DNA present?
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202 views

Why does all life use the same macromolecules in their genetic code?

There is no biochemical constraint of any sort, so why doesn't some other code work? Why is it specifically RNA/DNA?
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Function and Mechanism of Height Genes

I have an inquiry regarding the exact function of height genes. To my knowledge, although they are heavily regulated by epigenetic factors, height genes can have either an "on" or an "off" allele, ...
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30 views

There are 6 classifications of CFTR mutations. Is a causal relationship to the sweat test known?

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene for the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The CFTR mutations are classified in 6 classes. The sweat test is ...
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Chromosome 17-Ancestry question

I did the 23andme genotyping and was going over my ancestry. I mostly have ancestors that came from the UK which dominates most of my chromosomes. However, just a little bit (~1.4%) of my DNA is ...
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1answer
122 views

Why do almost all SNPs have two alleles?

Reading the Wikipedia page for SNPs I find the sentence "Almost all common SNPs have only two alleles." This is consistent with terminology elsewhere, such as the therm "Minor allele frequency", which ...
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163 views

How much salt [NaCl] is too much in DNA precipitation?

In DNA extractions, how much is too much salt in a CTAB extraction buffer? Protocols hover around 2.5 molar; if you go over this (e.g. 25 molar), will you saturate your solution, and precipitate the ...
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68 views

How could one calculate the gene flow between two populations?

Imagine there are two populations X and Y, and for each population you have the genotypes of each individual in that population (e.g. Aa, AA, aa, etc.), but for multiple loci (e.g. AABb). How could ...
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2answers
234 views

What exactly is extreme heterozygosity and how does it work?

What does the concept of "extreme heterozygosity" mean? I first encountered this concept in "The Drunken Botanist". They describe that when planting a seed from, say, a 'red delicious' which was ...
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How can a chromosome translocation in somatic cells lead to disease?

Looking at this picture... ...I get the impression that the part of chromosome is attached to other chromosome, but it is not mutated. When we assume that all genes in the translocated part are ...
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1answer
157 views

Explanation about cytogenetic notation

What is the correct meaning of cytogenetic notation "inv(4)(p13q22)" ? Inversions at chromosome 4, at the p arm 13 is inverted AND at q arm 22 is inverted OR Inversions at chromosome 4, the ...
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48 views

Are genes uniformly dispersed throughout the genome?

I think that telomeres and centromeres are regions with a very low gene content (= regions that contain few genes). To the exception of telomeres and centromeres, are genes uniformly distributed ...
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1answer
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Fruit Fly Hybrids

I have a food waste bin in which I put fruit scraps. The fruits come from all over the world, mainly Europe though. I'm in the UK. I assume the fruit Fly eggs are already in the fruit, in which ...
3
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1answer
43 views

What is the C765-Gal4 driver? [closed]

What is a gene driver and what does C765 stand for? Is Gal4 a transcription factor? Source: "Dynamics of Dpp Signaling and Proliferation Control"
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1answer
34 views

How do catenanes form when DNA replicates?

So I am taking a course in DNA replication and repair. And we are talking about catenanes forming when DNA replicates (two circles of dsDNA interlinked) How is this possible?
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How many copies of a gene?

I am studying mathematical models of transcription and translation and I am wondering: In a particular genome, how many copies of a gene coding for one particular protein should one expect? Are they ...