Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Are all genes transcribed in differentiated cells?

My textbook tells me that it’s specific transcription factors that allow for a different set of genes to be expressed in different cells (differential gene expression). My book gives the example of ...
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Are males taller than females?

Is there any scientific evidence that males are taller than females? And the reason why they are taller (please include genes or hormones that accounts for human growth and how they are affected in ...
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19 views

Molecules, Targets and Isoforms

I have a question. Given a molecule A and two isoforms of a gene X, Y, and the knowledge that A targets X. Can I infere from this anything about whether A targets Y? As a motivation think about ...
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134 views

An experiment to test if a bacterial resistance gene is on the plasmid or chromosome?

So I have an E.coli strain phenotypicall resistant to the antibiotics ampicillin and rifampicin. How do I test if the AmpR gene is carried on a plasmid and not on the chromosome? In summary, I ...
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Coefficient of Inbreeding - calculating for very large family tree

I have a very comprehensive family tree of many thousands of horses going back dozens of generations. I now wish to calculate the COI for every animal in the entire tree. I have seen that there are ...
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44 views

Cloning Ice Age Lion Cubs

It was just on the news that scientists discovered "Two cubs in Russia's Sakha Republic last August in a near-perfect state". And the South Koreans and Russians are attempting to clone these extinct ...
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Construct a restriction map of a linear fragment of DNA using the following data?

I've attempted to do the single digests, and the double digests, but cannot complete the map.... I've attached what I've done so far DNA Sizes of Fragments (bp) uncut DNA 900 DNA cut with EcoRI ...
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117 views

Is it possible to create a restriction map using python? [closed]

I have some fragments of DNA from single and double digests using three different restriction enzymes. I'm trying to construct a restriction map of a linear fragment of DNA. The map needs indicate the ...
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66 views

How can a mutator gene can cause a mutation when it is shut off? [closed]

defination of "Mutator" - a gene that increases the rate of mutation of one or more other genes. However, in the book "Molecular Biology of the Cell" (bruce alberts) it states that when a mutator is ...
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80 views

Is a bone marrow transplant limited by sex?

Can a female patient get transplanted with bone marrow of a male donor and vice versa?
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Can a Turner syndrome patient develop male characteristics artificially?

From an answer to the question Can stem cells from male convert to cells of female-only organs, and vice versa? Y chromosome is the sex determining chromosome with SRY gene that determines testes ...
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1answer
46 views

Creation of healthy genetically modified crops [closed]

GM crops are huge at the moment, and the noticeable 'counter movement' is for people to continue to purchase organic foods (please note I am specifically talking of GM crops and not meats, etc). The ...
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162 views

Why are mice with a single X chromosome and no Y chromosome males?

I was searching online and I read this article Mice can be male without Y chromosome and this is a part of it: The experiments demonstrate that there are multiple ways to make males, says Richard ...
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How do geneticists compute the percentage of DNA shared between species?

It's not exactly clear to me what is meant when people say that humans and bananas share 50% of their DNA.
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48 views

Pairwise sequence alignment in C++ (fastq et bam) [closed]

I am sorry I am a beginner in genetics and I have a problem about a homework project. I have 4 files: aln1.fastq aln2.fastq aln.bam aln.bam.bai "fastq" files contain information about sequences ...
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30 views

How can the following data regarding flower phenotypes be explained?

$$\begin{array}{c|c|c} \hline \text{Parents} & F_1 & F_2\\ \hline \text{Blue}\:\times \text{white} & \text{All blue} & \text{196 blue, 63 white} \\ \text{Blue}\:\times \text{pink} &...
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Mosaic segregation in C. elegans

How can mosaic segregation be used in C. elegans? Can it tell us where a given gene is expressed, or needs to be expressed for worm survival?
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Why is down syndrome more common than other trisomies? [duplicate]

Why is Down syndrome more common than say trisomy 18? Is chromosome 21 easier to replicate? Or is it because those babies are more viable?
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25 views

Can we study all the genes of one human being?

Considering the fact that a new-born child gets 23 chromosomes containing DNA and genes from each of his parents and then 23 chromosomes from those 46 chromosomes of the new-born child will be ...
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1answer
27 views

Irradiation positive effect on humans?

In research paper Euphytica 135: 187–204, 2004 it is written that: 434 mutant varieties of rice have been released with improved characters such as semi-dwarf height, early maturity, improved ...
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5-HTTLPR polymorphism and Depression

I am reading about the biology of depression and came across something I can't understand. Here is the thing: Lesch K-P, et al. (1996) say that people with short alleles of 5-HTTLPR are more prone to ...
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20 views

From DNA to final traits of microorganisms? [closed]

From the answer of this topic, could someone indicate me a book or article about how DNA set the phenotype of microorganisms? For example, showing how DNA changes the shape of such a cell or how DNA ...
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Is it possible that by mutation a human could see infrared or other 'colours'?

Incoming light reacts with the several types of cone cells in the eye. In humans, there are three types of cones sensitive to three different spectra, resulting in trichromatic color vision. Each ...
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44 views

Mitochondrial Genetic code

We know that the genetic code is universal. My query is why the mitochondrial genetic code is different from universal genetic code?
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Statistically, why is the number of mutated genes in eggs treated with chemical mutagenesis one?

Excerpted from the Guide to Research Techniques in Neuroscience [1]: In chemical mutagenesis, a scientist applies a mutagenizing chemical, such as ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) or N-ethyl-N-...
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23 views

What are in common between transcription factors?

In terms of their structures (primary to tertiary) and locations? Why do they have these commonalities? Or are any of these commonalities critical to their functions?
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Is Chargaff's rule really applicable?

Chargaff's rules states that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to ...
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42 views

Relationship of bases in a gene to amino acids

One of my study questions for a biology test was: A gene contains 1200 bases. How many codons will be on the mRNA immediately after transcription? My initial answer was 400 codons, because 1200 ...
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67 views

Basic Genotyping

As a disclaimer, I'm from a computer science / statistics background, working on some bioinformatics problems. I've got some genotyping data (VCF from Exome Sequencing), and I'm struggling to get my ...
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Hydrogen bonding and the blocking thereof in nucleic acids during nuclear processes

In transcription, RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA double helix and begins attaching RNA nucleotides to the template strand. In its wake, the DNA double helix closes back—this is only natural, seeing as ...
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59 views

Does DNA polymerase I require a $3^\prime$ end?

DNA polymerase III adds nucleotides in the $5^\prime \rightarrow 3^\prime$ direction because it can only add nucleotides to the $3^\prime$ end of the previous nucleotide. This is why it requires a ...
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63 views

Is complete genetic linkage possible?

Linkage is the tendency of genes on the same chromosome to remain together during the process of inheritance. Is it possible that two genes will remain linked generation after generation without any ...
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84 views

Are there examples of selection on males influencing female phenotypes?

I've been studying selection on female body color in a sexually dimorphic species and am intrigued by the possibility that selection on males, whether it be through sexual or natural selection, may ...
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20 views

Is it possible for two creature in the same order and have odd haploid chromosome species to reproduce

Take the degu and the rat for example. The degu has 29 chromosome pairs Rats have 21 chromosome pairs. They are only share the same order ( Rodentia ) Would it be possible for them to reproduce? ( ...
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What type of point mutation and chromosomal mutation cause Albinism in humans?

First of all, I know that OCA1 (Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 1) is autosomal recessive which means that both parents-who are unaffected-have to pass down one copy of a mutated gene in order to ...
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Why are there different species of bacteria?

The usual (high school or intro to bio) explanation for diversification of species comes from multicellular, usually sexually reproducing organisms, and seems to be closely tied to the biological ...
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110 views

Is eye colour of Drosophila a polygenic trait or an X-linked trait?

I have seen examples of various eye colours in Drosophila and they have been described both as "X-linked" and "polygenic". I thought these were mutually exclusive. Is Drosophila eye colour polygenic ...
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100 views

What is the probability of genetic reincarnation? [closed]

Parents pass on 23 chromosomes to their children, with a 50/50 chance for each chromosome. Considering that people of a families lived over millennia in the same region the abundance of some ...
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1answer
99 views

What's the mechanism or structure responsible for new species genetic code generation? [closed]

I always had this question in mind. I think, If humans find answer to it then we can trigger the next evolution of human specie. What is the mechanism or structure responsible for evolution ? I don't ...
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Follow-up to The Red Queen by Matt Ridley? [closed]

I just finished reading The Red Queen: Sex and the evolution of human nature by Matt Ridley. Since this book is over 20 years old, I was wondering if more recent research made part of the book ...
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1answer
34 views

Obtaining a mapping of RefSeq ACs to Uniprot ACs

I am trying to obtain a mapping for RefSeq Accession Numbers to Uniprot Accession Numbers. I can write a script to do this for a list of RefSeq ACs like this: ...
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What is the definition of a mutation?

There are two alleles that determine the sensitivity of a person to Coumadin (a medicine for blood thinners used to treat a stroke etc). Sometimes you encounter the terminology that one has a mutation ...
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Distinguishing Father from Brother

Given the (non-identical) DNA sequences of two men and the knowledge that the second man is either the father, brother, or son of the first man, is the DNA useful in determining which of these three ...
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42 views

What separates gene loci?

Introns are sections of noncoding DNA that separate exons within a gene locus. However, between different gene loci, I also would assume there to be noncoding regions of DNA. What are these regions ...
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Crossing over and exon shuffling?

Campbell Biology 10e, in discussing the functions of introns, writes: The presence of introns in a gene may facilitate the evolution of new and potentially beneficial proteins as a result of a ...
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How should one interpret heritability? Is it related to $R^2$?

From Wiki: Heritability estimates are often misinterpreted if it is not understood that they refer to the proportion of variation between individuals on a trait that is due to genetic factors. It ...
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270 views

Is the DNA different in each type of cell? What DNA is passed to offspring?

Our body contains many different types of cells and each of those cells have their own DNA (correct me if wrong) like skin cells their own DNA that makes them skin cells instead of muscle cells. So ...
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66 views

Solving a Pedigree Between Heterozygous Half-Cousins

A man who is a known heterozygous carrier of oculocutaneous albinism marries his half-cousin (they share one common grandparent) as shown in the pedigree below. This trait is transmitted as a fully ...
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88 views

What does characterization mean in a genomics context?

"The resulting libraries of gene sequences allow CDC and other laboratories to compare the genes of currently circulating influenza viruses with the genes of older influenza viruses and viruses ...
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XNAs as a Genetic material [closed]

I heard there is a new genetic material called XNAs.I wanted to know more about this.Does anyone about XNAs as genetic material?