Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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What are some (bioinformatic) methods to characterize potentially novel gene transcripts?

I am working with a few novel transcripts of genes- before I confirm their existence experimentally, I would like to perform some bioinformatic analysis. I have already considered coding potential, ...
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125 views

phylogenetic analysis of gene enrichment?

Are there any tools to do phylogenetic analysis of gene enrichment? This is, I have a list of genes from an experiment performed in several species, with a z-score that can be described as ...
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621 views

GWAS: why is replication in another cohort so crucial?

Almost all the landmark GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) reviews agree that, for a GWAS finding to be valid, it needs to be replicated in an independent cohort. What exactly is the rationale ...
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76 views

SNPs and locations

I am new to reading raw DNA. When comparing two people's raw data, why does one person have a different SNP than the other, at the same location, on specific chromosome? But on a different chromosome ...
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11k views

What's the difference between shotgun sequencing and clone based sequencing?

Whilst I appreciate this is a large topic, what are the main differences between shotgun sequencing and clone based sequencing?
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1k views

How to map the Gene name to its Gene Symbol?

I am learning in Gene data lately so I apologize for the silly questions in advance. I read a paper for a cancer on human which found some important genes. For example, the paper listed one of genes ...
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270 views

What is the relative power of GWAS studies in different species?

I would like to know of any publication studying the relative power of GWAS studies in different species. For example, I've seen reports that say genotyping and GWAS in dog breeds is much more ...
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124 views

Within and Between Allelic Class Diversity

I am reading Charlesworth et al. 1997. They talk about diversity within and between allelic classes. Nucleotide diversities ($π$) at each neutral site were estimated from the mean of $2 \sum z_t ...
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141 views

Can plants live forever? [duplicate]

I know that some plants die for old age like a lettuce. But there are trees like Baobabs or larger Ficus in the tropics of whom we don't know their age. And trees like spruce reaching 9950 years old, ...
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183 views

Why do we still have genetic disorders that show anticipation?

Anticipation whereby symptoms of genetic disorders occur earlier and with more severity as it is passed from one generation to the next. So wouldn't these inherited diseases over a few hundred ...
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112 views

How are Genetic Circuits Modelled?

I've read a recent Nature Methods paper by Moon T.S. et al, in which a synthetic genetic circuit consisting of layered logic gates was created. For example, the paper, a circuit is modelled in Figure ...
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1answer
150 views

Are there any mutagens that can undo the mutations they cause?

I was reading a section from my textbook about tautomeric shifts, and it seems to suggest that there are some mutagens that can be directly responsible for the phenomenon. The section is mainly ...
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144 views

Hill-Roberston effects and effective population size

From this article, first page, middle of the second column: Even if harmful alleles do not become fixed, they can still reduce the efficacy of selection on neighbouring loci through a process ...
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235 views

Are all chromosomes equally susceptible to mutation?

The humans have been around for a few million years, other organisms longer yet. Changes that occur in the genome and propagate (may) eventually throw a new species ... or atleast branch off the old ...
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201 views

What is the difference between xDNA and yDNA?

Wikipedia states that: xDNA contains expanded bases, in which a benzene ring has been added, which may pair with canon bases, resulting in four possible base-pairs (8 bases:xA-T,xT-A,xC-G,xG-C, 16 ...
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328 views

Have there been attempts to identify Chomsky's “language mutation” in humans?

I'm not versed in either biology or linguistics so please forgive any naiveties I may commit. I've learned that Noam Chomsky thinks that language is a result of a single genetic mutation in humans. ...
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225 views

Effect of single-gene overexpression in the cell's response

Which are the factors that modify the overall gene differential expression by introducing a vector for single-gene overexpression? If you overexpress a gene for a protein involved in signal ...
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112 views

Please explain this disrepancy about ageing

We read that ageing is related to cell death when we run out of telomeres at the end of our DNA molecules. Humans live roughly for 70 years - the traditional three-score years and ten. This compares ...
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1answer
541 views

Are gene variants at different loci also called alleles?

I think the title says it. I always read that alleles are gene variants at a given locus, which confuses me. Thanks!
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76 views

How well supported is the hypothesis that aging is mainly caused by the number of mutations in tissues?

I heard the hypothesis, that the (main) reason of aging is the increasing number of mutations in body tissues. The higher the number of mutations is, the older tissue is. Is this true? And how well ...
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138 views

Bicoid regulation of hunchback

I'm learning about development via the example of Drosophila embryogenesis. I understand that bicoid regulates hunchback, among other genes. My question whether the regulation is direct or indirect? ...
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52 views

Are there mechanisms that limit the amounts of time conjugation and F-plasmid transfer can happen? If yes, what are they?

Not all bacteria have acquired F-plasmids through conjugation. Some of the mechanisms for this are unsuccesful conjugation events (mechanical disruption), no transfer due to integration in bacterial ...
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73 views

“Enhancers” of enhancers?

I am looking for examples (if any) of genomic regions which regulates the activity of enhancers, either augmenting or reducing it. Essentially some kind of enhancers (or repressors) of enhancers to ...
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242 views

What percentage of the (additive or not) genetic variance is explained by the 'n'- most important loci?

Standard models in population genetics look up at the evolution of few loci which impact fitness. The variance in fitness is determined by the genetic variance and the environmental variance (and the ...
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Can a woman possessing 1 mutated allele show attenuated color-vision deficiency?

Women possess two X chromosomes. However, during development, when the embryo has about 32 - 64 cells, one of these chromosomes is randomly inactivated (in each cell) by an lncRNA named Xist. As a ...
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Evolutionarily speaking, why do humans have 46 chromosomes

In humans, each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. Monkeys, chimpanzees, and Apes have 24 pairs (twenty-four pairs), for a total of 48. What caused humans to have 46? ...
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4k views

How does Artificial Selection work?

As far as I know for evolution to work mutations are necessary. Mutations are the raw material on which natural selection works. But mutations are always completely random and human beings have no ...
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667 views

A free book/resource for learning genetics?

I took an undergrad class in genetics. I felt it was not too intensive and I do not feel prepared for grad school (if I can manage to get in.) Does anyone know of a preferably free resource for ...
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255 views

Why don't flies avoid the motorway?

Flies have a short lifespan, therefore evolution should technically happen over a shorter period of time (years). Flies die all the time from getting hit by cars on the motorway. Those flies that ...
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169 views

How to identify genes required for biofilm formation

This is just a homework question: Q: Let’s assume that there is an unknown set of E. coli genes that are required for biofilm formation. Describe a genetic experiment you could perform to try to ...
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158 views

Can genetically modified genes jump to bacteria in the eater's intestine?

The Guardian ran an article a while back talking about GM gene's jumping to bacteria in an eater's intestine. Has other research confirmed this phenomenon?
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378 views

Functions of the CFTR gene?

I am a senior in high school and I am studying cystic fibrosis. I don't quite get the function of the CFTR gene as this is my first time dealing with this type of heavy scientific info. I had ...
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506 views

Why has grey hair evolved?

A vast majority of humans get at least some grey hair as they age. As far as I know this applies to both genders and all races. Presumably this means that at least some grey haired humans have ...
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1k views

What do the signs +/+ +/- mean in this image?

I don't understand what this graph is supposed to explain, especially what the signs +/+ or -/- mean. I just know it characterises some rats.
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163 views

How is gene expression estimated?

I'm reading this fantastic article on estimating body time: Molecular-timetable methods for detection of body time and rhythm disorders from single-time-point genome-wide expression profiles and one ...
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104 views

What are the different ways an exon gets spliced?

Exons are produced by more than one mechanism, e.g. splicing out introns after transcription, if I remember correctly. Please list all mechanisms.
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537 views

Where do amino acids get attached to tRNA and where is it synthesized?

Some very basic parts of transcription/translation seem to be left out in various literature. I can't find the answer to this anywhere: How exactly is tRNA synthesized? I realize that mRNA is ...
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119 views

What is an operon?

What is an operon in a eukaryotic cell, and how does it regulate the expression of genes? I've already read Wikipedia, but it is not enough clear to me. Unfortunately my knowledge in genetics are very ...
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1k views

Why is the DNA codon table “equal” to the RNA codon table

Before anything else please pay attention of the double quotes on the "equal" in the title - I know they are not equal, but you will understand in a bit. If I look at the DNA codon table here or in ...
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Are Asians more genetically homogenous than other races?

I've heard that Asians (I'm not entirely sure which subgroup was being referred to) tend to be more genetically homogenous than other races, with people of African lineage being on the other end of ...
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194 views

Plasmid in the nucleus and gene expression

If we insert a plasmid into a human nucleus that contains exact copy of gene and all relevant promoters to produce some human protein, will the cell create functional protein from that plasmid only ...
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304 views
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13k views

Why do ladybugs have a different number of points on their backs

Everytime I see a ladybug I ask myself this question. Why does every ladybug have a different amount of points on its back? Is it because of its age? Or because of its genes? Is it inheritable?
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210 views

How does a new species survive without suffering inbreeding?

Just what the title states. The thought came from reading When has an organism evolved enough to be called a new species? I'm probably wrong but I understand new species happen sporadically rather ...
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278 views

Can extinct animals be cloned?

Scientists have found mammoth blood, and are planning to clone a mammoth. How does one go from having its blood to a full blown living mammoth? Is it possible? Why does it matter if the blood is ...
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169 views

Lac operon: How can lactose enter the cell in the absence of lactose permease?

My textbook states that lactose permease...transports lactose into the cell and When lactose is added to the growth medium, the lactose molecules bind to the other site on the repressor ...
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85 views

How can a chromosome translocation in somatic cells lead to disease?

Looking at this picture... ...I get the impression that the part of chromosome is attached to other chromosome, but it is not mutated. When we assume that all genes in the translocated part are ...
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150 views

Why are female clones more often produced

As a student of biology when ever I come by artificial cloning, I always find examples of females being cloned - Dolly the sheep, CopyCat, Daisy, etc. The only male I could see was Fibro mouse and a ...
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690 views

Genetic carrier Pedigree of Recessive Traits

A human male and female couple with normal colored ears discover that, in both of their families, their fathers (who have normal ears) each had siblings with red ears. Red ears is a rare autosomal ...
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1answer
2k views

What is the distinction between F' plasmid and R plasmid?

Is there a difference between an F' plasmid that has taken up a chromosomal gene that conveys antibiotic resistance, and an R plasmid? Is a bacterium containing an R plasmid and yet lacking an F+ ...