Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Difference between viral and human genetic material

I have heard that there is a difference between viral and human genetic material. What is that difference? If I take my cells and take DNA out of them and insert only a small part of it having a ...
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82 views

Is “Fight or Flight” distance genetic

If you took a newborn animal and completely isolated it from its species, would it be capable of assuming a fight or flight distance preset by its species, due to their being no basis for what could ...
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115 views

what is knob heterochromatin?

I am reading a paper which discusses Maize Genome Structure. Descriptions of the structure is given in the papers introduction. I know about heterochromatin "heterochromatin stains intensely, ...
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180 views

Possible Genotypes of 4 Alleles of Adh

There are four alleles of Adh which are Adh-1, Adh-2, Adh-3 and Adh-4. Their respective frequencies are 0.11, 0.84, 0.01 and 0.04. What are the Hardy-Weinberg frequencies of the possible 10 ...
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Does a large effective population size result in faster decay of linkage disequilibrium (LD)?

I am thinking about an invasive species that was introduced into North America just a few (<20) generations ago. Using microsatellite genotypes (105 loci), I have identified almost no significant ...
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Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium after 5 Generations

1 There is a population not at HWE where red eye = $a^+$ (dominant) and white eyes = $a^-$. if $a^+/a^+ = 0.6$ $a^-/a^+ = 0.1$ $a^-/a^- = 0.3$ what are the frequencies of the $a^+$ and $a^-$ ...
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Are identical twins exactly the same?

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=identical-twins-genes-are-not-identical According to this article some identical twins show differences with respect to their copy number variants. ...
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Is there are practical lower limit to gene length in E. coli?

Question is rather self-explanatory. Putting aside other post-transcriptional factors like rate of degradation of transcript, what is the smallest gene ever reported to have successfully been ...
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What is Mendelian Randomization, and how is it used to infer causality in epidemiology?

Studies of human traits and diseases are inherently confined to observational studies, known as epidemiological studies. This can make it very hard to determine what actually causes a particular ...
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82 views

Do spouses begin to share genes over time?

I apologize if this hypothesis sounds strange by I was wondering if any research had been done on a phenomenon which I've seen and have corroborated with many other - the idea that over time spouses ...
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337 views

Genetics: pedigree following a rare trait autosomal recessive

I have two questions pertaining to this pedigree I believe it to be an autosomal recessive trait. The probability that individuals IV-1 and IV-2 would give rise to an affected individual would ...
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203 views

What hair color will result in someone inheriting both blond and ginger genes?

Both the genes for blond hair and ginger hair are recessive, so they need both parents to give the same gene for it to take affect. What happens when a person has 1 copy of a recessive gene and ...
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43 views

Function of ER in reviewing mutated proteins

At least in the case of Cystic Fibrosis it happens that a mutant protein (which could actually function!) is held in the ER because the ER detects it as misfolded. Does this happen in every type of ...
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Low complexity region and relaxed selection

I'm reading a text (Wagner, 2007) on identifying positive selection. In paper, the author says that low complexity regions are known to be associated with relaxed selection. I'm trying to understand ...
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872 views

What is the genetic basis of blood type (ABO) system?

What is the genetic basis of the A/B/B+/O/etc. blood type system? Are there definitive loci that correspond to each or can multiple different genotypes produce the same antigen profile? Also, is the ...
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84 views

Confusion related to the use of PCA to determine the background network

I was reading this paper related to use of gene expressions for predicting the drug response. I have this confusion, the paper has used PCA on the covariance matrix formed by the genes to get what is ...
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Are biological systems engineered? They are often reverse engineered at a molecular level!!

Understanding biological systems, molecular biologists need to “reverse engineer” them. Is this evidence that the systems were engineered to begin with?
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57 views

Is there any definition of complexity about gene and protein according their function?

Sorry for such a question,if it is too naive. Is there any definition of complexity about gene and protein according their function?If so,what is the relation between them?
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What determines the colors and patterns of a clam shell?

Earlier this week I was looking at some bivalve shells that had ornate patterns which ranged in color from a light orange-pink to a deep orange-red. Here is an image I found online that seems to be of ...
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86 views

Can retroviral delivery systems “overwrite” genes?

As the question states, what are the limits of retroviral genetic delivery systems? Are they limited to adding additional gene sequences to a cell, or can they actually overwrite specified segments ...
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174 views

When can a virus modify DNA in every cell of a living organism?

I've recently heard about experiments with brain tissue, where a virus is introduced in a rats brain, causing a "glow when electric charge is present" protein to be created. This protein then helps to ...
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358 views

Smallest unit on which selection can act

Traditionally, the individual was considered to be the smallest unit on which Natural Selection (NS) acts. Today, we usually consider the gene as being the unit of NS. Of course, we should also ...
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154 views

Is there variation of AT/CG ratio along species?

Chargaff's rules say that the number of Adenine of the number of Thymine in a genome are equal (nA=nT) and similarly nC=nG. This makes obvious sense knowing that C binds to G and A to T. But what ...
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What species have had their genomes sequenced/are being sequenced?

The human genome project released it's first complete genome nearly ten years ago. Since then many species have also been sequenced. I am trying to find a list of completed (and possibly ...
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101 views

How did the activities of protocells become inheritable?

I have learned that first a protocell came to exist and its characteristics came to be passed on by genetic material. So how come genes for all the activities come to incorporate into genetic ...
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39 views

How diverse are dogs in their traits other than appearance?

I've asked this question about dogs not so long ago, and the short answer was - dogs are the most diverse looking species of mammals because they got a small number of genes that have a big impact on ...
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Inheritance of Huntington's disease

People with Huntington's disease have HTT genes with more than 37 copies of CAG repeat. The risk of extra copies being generated is higher during sperm formation than during ovum formation. Why is it ...
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Suggestions for an experiment? [closed]

I would appreciate suggestions for my year-long AP Biology project. Such a project would consists of a standard experiment, to be done over the period of a year, so it would have >to be fairly ...
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Genetics - Is this hybridization possible?

Suppose you hybridize two plants - One has a red flower and a long stalk, the other has a pink flower and a short stalk. This resulted in these 4 type of plants, with ratio 1:1:1:1 Long stalk red ...
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Method to inject genes into cells

The famous Hershey and Chase Experiment uses phages to inject genes into cells. In the beginning, Professor Yamanaka injected 24 types of genes into cells to figure out which genes turn a cell into ...
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How can fruit flies and mice share the same gene that says to build an eye if they evolved separately?

I saw a documentary where they inserted the gene of a mouse that basically is the starting "build an eye" command into a fruit fly, and a fruit fly eye grew. My question is, if eyes of different types ...
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Have novel interactions or pathways been predicted by GRN or PPI data and later confirmed by experiment?

I've been learning about the gene regulatory network (GRN) and protein-protein interaction network (PPI) recently. I've found a huge amount of extremely interesting papers about how biological network ...
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825 views

What is genomic imprinting?

What is a genomic imprint? How does genomic imprinting take place? If I say that "this" allele is maternally imprinted does it mean that the allele of the gene is passed only by the mother? If a ...
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227 views

How to compare SNP from genotyping results for multiple people with a known phenotype?

I'm looking at different genotyping profiles available at opensnp.org and am trying to compare profiles for people with different phenotypes. For example, given 10 profiles of people who can roll ...
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Which part of a female mantises's DNA causes her to be a few times larger than a male mantis?

Which part of a female mantises's DNA causes her to be a few times larger than a male mantis? Do other species have that part of DNA?
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Determination of gene direction

I have one sequence that composed of sequences of three genes. I should determine the direction of each gene, but two of these genes are disrupted, and I can't determine the initial codon. Does anyone ...
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How does Artificial Selection work?

As far as I know for evolution to work mutations are necessary. Mutations are the raw material on which natural selection works. But mutations are always completely random and human beings have no ...
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Is there any other function of DNA?

We all know that DNA acts as a genetic molecule. Does DNA have any other function in the cell other than being a genetic material and carrier of information?
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What triggers DNA to produce proteins?

What is the trigger for DNA to produce proteins or RNA? I have found enough material to study the inner workings of the cell and DNA; but, I can't find an explanation of the mechanics the cell uses ...
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On the genetics behind caste marriages

I am in India where it is typically a custom to marry within one's caste. Basically the caste system originated with roots in people's professions - Each of priests, carpenters, troupers, etc had a ...
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Have there been attempts to identify Chomsky's “language mutation” in humans?

I'm not versed in either biology or linguistics so please forgive any naiveties I may commit. I've learned that Noam Chomsky thinks that language is a result of a single genetic mutation in humans. ...
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What is the Edward O. Wilson fuss about?

I have just read this article on E. O. Wilson and I don't understand what the difference is between what he is arguing and "standard" natural selection. I read "the extended phenotype" some years ago ...
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How common is bacterial mediated transformation? In plants? In animal cells?

The most common method to transform plants is by soaking plant tissue in cultures of agrobacteria (this is not their current classification) which transfer DNA into the plants. Is lateral gene ...
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237 views

What does phasing mean?

What does phasing mean in genetics/informatics? I've heard that a phased file is a file that has genes separated by chromosome, but can someone give a concrete definition of what phasing actually ...
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Prenatal Marketing

This is for a short story idea. Is it possible to modify the DNA of a child to make their metabolism more susceptible (physical response, addiction, etc) to a certain type of chemical i.e. a chemical ...
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94 views

What do you call the non-Wild Type allele?

Can I have a list of suggestions, such as the mutated allele, other allele, etc. ? Are there any blatantly missing ones on my short list?
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Are chromosomes from each parent split between gametes with equal probability (esp. in humans)?

I've recently read a little on Wikipedia about genetics, but I can't find a direct answer to this question. My rough understanding is this: Both males and females have pairs of chromosomes, one ...
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Sewall Wright for dunces

[This is one more post in my growing "X for dummies/idiots/morons/etc." series.] I've been enjoying Provine's The origins of theoretical population genetics for the last couple of days, but I must ...
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Can extinct animals be cloned?

Scientists have found mammoth blood, and are planning to clone a mammoth. How does one go from having its blood to a full blown living mammoth? Is it possible? Why does it matter if the blood is ...
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Smallest viable reproducing population

What is the smallest viable reproducing population, such as in a human population. By viable I mean a population which keeps genetic defects low (enough). A very strongly related question: what is ...