Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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A basic example of the interactions of 2 or more non-identical alleles leading to an advantageous outcome for an individual organism

Could someone help me out with a basic example of the interactions of 2 or more non-identical alleles leading to an advantageous outcome for an individual organism? Based on empirical research OR on a ...
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36 views

What is mRNA expression level?

I cannot find clear explanation of what is mRNA expression level, and how to measure it. I would appreciate if someone explained it or gave a reference. Thanks!
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46 views

Is it possible for a human and another ape species to reproduce? [duplicate]

Is it possible for a human and another species to reproduce?
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132 views

recombination frequency problem

Three loci C, D and E are located on the same chromosome in this order. We found that the frequency of recombinants between C and D is 10% and that between D and E it is 20%. Assuming that ...
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39 views

How is the number of histones being related to the number of chromosomes [closed]

Please name me at least one reason. I am referring to rats and to humans, as well.
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103 views

Rh factor and dominance of gene

"Formation of Rh antigen is controlled by dominant gene(R) and its absence by recipient gene(r).People having this antigen with genotype (RR or Rr) are called Rh positive and those whose blood ...
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mouse gene translated to human gene

I have a list of mouse genes, but all our analysis happens for human genes. Is that possible to translate these mouse genes to human genes? and is there any tool that can help me on this? I am ...
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58 views

Linkage distance calculation

What is the map unit distance between L and S allele ? My working : If we take the normal ratio :9:3:3:1 , first one should be 9/16 = 0.5625 and then subtract 0.51 from it, we get 0.0525, ...
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107 views

Gene transfer between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria?

How does transfer of genetic material occur between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria?
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124 views

How can synonymous mutations lead to cancerous or tumorous phenotypes?

After analyzing DNA sequences of an oncogene from many human cancer patients, you found that synonymous substitutions occur in a specific codon of this oncogene. Assuming that these synonymous ...
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258 views

Causes of monozygotic twins

Twins could be monzygotic i.e. identical twins and dizygotic i.e. non-identical twins.Well, monozygotic twins occur when a single egg is fertilized to form a zygote which later divide into separate ...
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40 views

Epistasis when interacting loci are codons within a single gene

There is epistasis when the effect on the phenotype of one gene is influenced by one or more other genes (called modifiers). Is there a similar concept when the effect on the phenotype of one site ...
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81 views

Activation Of Embryonic Genome

Embryonic gene activation is a process by which the embryo begins to transcribe its newly formed genome.As the embryonic gene activation occurs during early stages the paternal genome may not have any ...
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88 views

How Much Longer For The Gene For Blue Eyes?

In the year 1900 roughly 50% of the people in the United States were homozygous for the gene for blue eyes. By 1950 the number had dropped down to 30%. Just now, (2013) barely 12% of the people living ...
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58 views

bioinformatics /genomics [closed]

i am looking for likely truncation sites to prove recombination in sequences. i have 4 sequences. i believe one to be the "real sequence" and the other 3 to be recombinants caused by cleavage possibly ...
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94 views

How much does a biological experiment to validate a gene function cost?

I am computer scientist working on machine learning methods applied to predicting missing Gene Ontology annotations. In many papers, I wrote that my computational methods are very useful to suggest ...
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4answers
243 views

How come most animals never seem to evolve over millenia?

People often say, including those with extensive knowledge in biology, that a certain species of animal will evolve in one way or another: 1.From changing environments. 2.Mutations. 3.Possibly even ...
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120 views

What type of mutation causes Progeria?

I'm doing my High School biology final on Progeria, and am wondering what type of mutation causes this disease. I know that the LMNA gene codes for the "prelamin A" protein, and that protein contains ...
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119 views

What is the most genetically simple organism except viruses?

What is the most genetically simple organism (except viruses) on this planet? By simple I mean the least number of genes.
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85 views

Identifying the inheritance pattern

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43 views

Question about DU variant and HIV

I'm A- DU variant and was told that the DU variant is what makes RH negatives resistant to toxoplasmosis and that not all RH negatives have the DU variant so not all are resistant to toxoplasmosis. I ...
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160 views

Double mutant analysis with null mutants

My professor was talking about double mutant analysis with null mutants, and how double mutant analysis won't work with hypomorphs. I really don't understand the concept of double mutant analysis. ...
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79 views

Definition of species - location of gene

I know that species have been classified on basis of reproduction , DNA similarity , niche, etc. Has there been a classification based on locus of genes ? What are the drawbacks/shortcomings of ...
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161 views

Why and how does complexity usually tends to increase through time?

The question of complexity is classic in the very first lectures of evolutionary biology where the teacher usually tries to tell the students that complexity does not necessary increases and that ...
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87 views

How HIV Affects and Its Treatment using Combination Therapy

Can someone please help me with the following questions. I've written my specific questions right after the text question. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus. Its genome is a single ...
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2answers
122 views

How does the colinearity of the HOX genes determine the body plan of an organism?

I was recently reading about colinearity in the HOX genes that give an organism its high-level body plan (where the order of the HOX genes on the chromosome follow the head-to-tail order of body ...
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162 views

Is tongue rolling genetic?

Is the ability to roll your tongue or not truly inherited or genetic? What I have gathered from school has been contradicting with evidence I found elsewhere.
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54 views

Could someone clearly define what a gene variant is with an example

Could someone clearly define what a gene variant is with an example. I am totally confusing myself with SNPs, alleles, variants and how the major and minor allele are defined. A clear example with ...
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The reason for using “blast” cell for expression data [duplicate]

What's the reason why researchers usually use cell lines from "blast cells" (so, immature, like lymphoblastoid cells) for measuring gene expression data? Is that they are growing up, which would make ...
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98 views

Does conjugation support gene selection?

I have already posted this on chat but haven't got any response. A recent question on group selection stimulated me to ask this here. QUESTIONS: Why should bacteria conjugate? If we consider that a ...
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108 views

Are these cats calico?

Calico cats are cats that have 3 fur colors and are always female or males two X chromosomes. I've seen many cats that will have 2 fur colors (one of them is usually white) and another, third, color ...
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167 views

Is the SRY gene the sole responsible of biological male sex?

It's very well known that the Y chromosome is what determines maleness, but more specifically this seems to happen thanks to the SRY gene located on it. Some individuals have an XX karyotype, but ...
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112 views

Do genes play a role in the athleticism and shape of a person?

I am an Indian with a small thin stature with some deposition of fat around my belly.I was wondering if genes play a role in fat deposition in the body for Indian, Chinese, European or African people. ...
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501 views

Are Italians genetically separated from other Europeans?

I was reading this Wikipedia article about the genetic history of Italy, and I found it interesting. There are however a few things that puzzle me, because they seem to contradict each other. For ...
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436 views

What is the difference between SNP and STR?

I thought that these were just different format of the same data. But it seems there isn't a way to convert SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data to STR (short tandem repeat) data. Am I right? ...
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59 views

Telomeres in cloning experiments

In whole animal cloning ( eg. Dolly ) the nucleus is taken from a somatic cell. So isn't shortening of telomeres a problem ?
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261 views

Recombination frequency, linked genes, and independent assortment

Gene R is genetically linked to gene T with a recombination frequency of 0.3. Gene T and gene X assort independently from each other. Your colleague tells you that gene T and gene X reside on the same ...
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Are Asians more genetically homogenous than other races?

I've heard that Asians (I'm not entirely sure which subgroup was being referred to) tend to be more genetically homogenous than other races, with people of African lineage being on the other end of ...
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Do men have a higher genetic variance than women?

I've heard that with the distribution of our genetic code women have less variation on the bell curve than men. Is there any basis for this? It was my understanding that women have more genetic ...
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127 views

Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium problem

In a small tribal population, the frequencies of two alleles A and a at a particular locus were 0.3 and 0.7, respectively. However, not all the individuals with genotype aa could live up to the ...
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79 views

Can a plant be programmed to produce any arbitrary object?

I'm wondering if a plant can be programmed (by modifying its genes) to grow into any shape that it's programming instructs. I understand that a plants genes are its instructions of how to convert the ...
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95 views

explanation of conjugation experiment in bacteria

In this paper (On the expression of a structural gene) I am confused about what is being plotted in Figure 6. The x-axis contains the fraction of radioactive day and y-axis contains the enzyme ...
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Why is the 4.4 kb band barely visible in this HindIII digest of lambda DNA?

Why is the 4.4 kb band barely visible? Also, what is the mass (ng) of DNA in band X if lane S contains 250 ng of digested lambda phage DNA?
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149 views

What is the genetic IQ?

I have asked Helmuth Nyborg how it is possible that average western IQ is going down and keeps growing at the same time, as he claimed in ...
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54 views

Is the book “Bioinformatics for Geneticists” outdated?

I am going to be working with genetics data in my organization's data warehouse next year and helping our biotechnology department. I work in academic research, but I have very little genomics ...
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35 views

What do genotoxic scoring (Sa) values mean?

The genotoxic scoring is an estimator of genotoxic potency whose values range from 100 to -100. What is the interpretation of those different positive and negative values? (for instance ethanol Sa= ...
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69 views

Is the poly(A) tail added while transcription is still underway?

I read in Campbell that ....splicing and poly A tail addition may also occur while transcription is still under way. How can the poly(A) tail be added while transcription is still going on?
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1k views

Why is the function of lacA (encoding thiogalactoside transacetylase) not clearly understood?

It's almost half a century since the lac operon was discovered but isn't it weird that the precise role of transacetylase isn't clearly understood ? Here a wikipedia article with a link to a journal ...
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256 views

Why were dinosaurs not as smart as we are?

According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dinosaur, Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for 135 million years. They had a lot of time to evolve. My question is: why were dinosaurs not ...
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Correlation between genome size and mutation rate?

Martin Nowak in his book "Evolutionary Dynamics" talks about a given correlation between genome size and mutation rate. What correlation does exactly exist between these two concepts? Is it a ...