Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Plasmid copy number and Rop protein

If i want to transform a bacteria (E. coli) with a particular plasmid (in my case pBR322) will the presence of the Rop gene affect the production of it ? Is it desirable to use a plasmid without that ...
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618 views

Why don't the apples seeds from grafted trees produce the same kind of apples?

As Wikipedia says: Grafting is a horticultural technique whereby tissues from one plant are inserted into those of another so that the two sets of vascular tissues may join together. In most ...
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116 views

Catenation and decatenation by DNA Gyrase

Decatenation is done for the replication of DNA and why is Catenation done and is it related to Crossing over
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210 views

Heterochromatin v Euchromatin. Which is more abundant?

So I was just reading that whether heterochromatin or euchromatin is more abundant in a particular human cell depends on how active that cell is. But considering that most of the 25,000 or so genes in ...
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Do transposons usually jump from one chromosome to another?

If it is usual occurrence, does it mean that my one gene can change its location from one chromosome to another?
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52 views

What is the result of modifying the reagents in the Sanger method?

If one of the dideoxynucleotides is omitted while using the Sanger method how would that affect the chain termination method of DNA sequencing?
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45 views

Genetics of epilepsy

Is epilepsy genetically inheritable? If yes, is it dominant?
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54 views

In what way is ADHD genetic? [closed]

According to Psychcentral depression, bipolar disorder, ADHD, schizophrenia and autism are traceable to the same inherited genetic variations According to AsapSCIENCE, depression could be genetic due ...
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31 views

A trivial question on the meaning of “relatives” in an article on horizontal gene transfer

Am I right in suggesting that by close relatives the author meant closely related species, or did he have individual organisms in mind? DETECTION OF HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER There are ...
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81 views

Recombination fraction( frequency) in Homozygotes

I have a question about the recombination frequency I hope you have time to answer. Background: If we look at homozygous individual A/A B/B which has been formed from the gametes AB and AB, this ...
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213 views

How does Cro protein expressed by lambda phage kill its host?

I read that the DNA segment of lambda phage integrated in host DNA could switch between lysogenic state where cI represses the expression of Cro and lytic state where Cro expression takes over and ...
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34 views

gene duplicated on genome but is different

I've been looking at a miRNA cluster on a genome and I found it three times. The first two are right next to each other and look exactly the same, the third sequences is on a different scaffold of the ...
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91 views

difference in genetic instuctions between male and female [duplicate]

I'm a computer science graduate so please bear with me the following computer program : mov ecx, -1 INC ecx consist of 2 instructions (mov,inc) each working on specific data , can genetics ...
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It's right to say coding sequence is part of exon sequence?

Some basic ambiguities making me confused. I downloaded 5'UTR, CDS, 3'UTR, and exon sequences, separately from Biomart for a gene P4HA2 (Homo sapiens) and found some simple sequence repeat (SSR) on ...
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57 views

IBD-value in pedigree with inbreeding

I have a question about IBD. Please see the figure below. How many pairs of alleles are IBD for X and Y, or what is the IBD value for X and Y. Is it four (4)? I have seen it to be maximally 2, but ...
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72 views

How C. Elegans is used for siliencing genes

The experiment that is using C. Elegans to silence the Genes. I have a question about Why and how C. Elegans can use the DNA plasmid that is generated with the gene of interest in the bacteria by ...
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76 views

Overcoming Inbreeding Depression

When inbreeding depression occurs, a genetically unrelated individual is mated with the animal to introduce genetic variability and remove homozygosity. In this case either outbreeding or ...
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53 views

Why the length of UTR in the genomic sequence of gene X is too much longer than the same region in the corresponding Refseq mRNA sequences?

I'm browsing in the UCSC genome browser and found that the UTRs length of KIAA0040 gene in the genomic sequences is too much longer than the corresponding the Refseq mRNA sequence. In fact, the total ...
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Why are published chromosome counts for polyploids often incorrect by an integer multiplication factor of the original diploid like count?

Why are published chromosome counts (done using techniques such as root smashes) for polyploidy flowering plants often incorrect by a multiplication factor of 2 or 3 from the original diploid like ...
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In which phenomena does one gene pair hide the effect of other unit?

This question was asken in an exam, The answer they are saying is "Epistasis". But I think "Dominance" fits better, because it is not mentioned whether genes of same allele are to be considered or ...
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74 views

Nature of Dengue Fever Genetic Material

Once the genetic material for Dengue Fever is inserted into the human DNA, would the Dengue Fever molecular material be in the form of its own isolated DNA fragment or will it be inserted directly ...
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140 views

Evolution of a Population

Scientists observe a newly established population of sexually reproducing plants growing on the shore of a small island. An observable trait of the plant has two possible phenotypes. It is determined ...
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363 views

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Question

I have four questions concerning H-W Equilibrium: (i) In a population of mice, the presence of black spots is the result of a homozygous recessive condition. If the frequency of the allele for this ...
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42 views

Is it possible to amplify every single piece of DNA through PCR?

Is there a way to perform non-specific PCR amplification for the purpose of amplifying every piece of DNA present?
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Why does all life use the same macromolecules in their genetic code?

There is no biochemical constraint of any sort, so why doesn't some other code work? Why is it specifically RNA/DNA?
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Function and Mechanism of Height Genes

I have an inquiry regarding the exact function of height genes. To my knowledge, although they are heavily regulated by epigenetic factors, height genes can have either an "on" or an "off" allele, ...
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There are 6 classifications of CFTR mutations. Is a causal relationship to the sweat test known?

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene for the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The CFTR mutations are classified in 6 classes. The sweat test is ...
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Chromosome 17-Ancestry question

I did the 23andme genotyping and was going over my ancestry. I mostly have ancestors that came from the UK which dominates most of my chromosomes. However, just a little bit (~1.4%) of my DNA is ...
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155 views

Why do almost all SNPs have two alleles?

Reading the Wikipedia page for SNPs I find the sentence "Almost all common SNPs have only two alleles." This is consistent with terminology elsewhere, such as the therm "Minor allele frequency", which ...
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How much salt [NaCl] is too much in DNA precipitation?

In DNA extractions, how much is too much salt in a CTAB extraction buffer? Protocols hover around 2.5 molar; if you go over this (e.g. 25 molar), will you saturate your solution, and precipitate the ...
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84 views

How could one calculate the gene flow between two populations?

Imagine there are two populations X and Y, and for each population you have the genotypes of each individual in that population (e.g. Aa, AA, aa, etc.), but for multiple loci (e.g. AABb). How could ...
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450 views

What exactly is extreme heterozygosity and how does it work?

What does the concept of "extreme heterozygosity" mean? I first encountered this concept in "The Drunken Botanist". They describe that when planting a seed from, say, a 'red delicious' which was ...
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How can a chromosome translocation in somatic cells lead to disease?

Looking at this picture... ...I get the impression that the part of chromosome is attached to other chromosome, but it is not mutated. When we assume that all genes in the translocated part are ...
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158 views

Explanation about cytogenetic notation

What is the correct meaning of cytogenetic notation "inv(4)(p13q22)" ? Inversions at chromosome 4, at the p arm 13 is inverted AND at q arm 22 is inverted OR Inversions at chromosome 4, the ...
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Are genes uniformly dispersed throughout the genome?

I think that telomeres and centromeres are regions with a very low gene content (= regions that contain few genes). To the exception of telomeres and centromeres, are genes uniformly distributed ...
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Fruit Fly Hybrids

I have a food waste bin in which I put fruit scraps. The fruits come from all over the world, mainly Europe though. I'm in the UK. I assume the fruit Fly eggs are already in the fruit, in which ...
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71 views

What is the C765-Gal4 driver? [closed]

What is a gene driver and what does C765 stand for? Is Gal4 a transcription factor? Source: "Dynamics of Dpp Signaling and Proliferation Control"
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How do catenanes form when DNA replicates?

So I am taking a course in DNA replication and repair. And we are talking about catenanes forming when DNA replicates (two circles of dsDNA interlinked) How is this possible?
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344 views

How many copies of a gene?

I am studying mathematical models of transcription and translation and I am wondering: In a particular genome, how many copies of a gene coding for one particular protein should one expect? Are they ...
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65 views

Are dogs affected by dwarfism?

My husband and I noticed a dog today that looked like a smaller version of a purebred Border Collie, although it didn't appear to be a puppy. It made us wonder if other animal species experience ...
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236 views

Why are female clones more often produced

As a student of biology when ever I come by artificial cloning, I always find examples of females being cloned - Dolly the sheep, CopyCat, Daisy, etc. The only male I could see was Fibro mouse and a ...
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71 views

What happens when a genome is shorter than the other? [closed]

Say there were 2 creatures of the same species. Creature 1 has a longer genome than creature 2, it may be just a few base pairs, but what would happen when the genes were crossed to create creature 3 ...
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Ancestral Allele and Hapmap

I notice on dbSNP rs6352 has an ancestral allele of G - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SNP/snp_ref.cgi?rs=rs6352 The hapmap in humans for this allele is very rare, the homozygous version practically not ...
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Within and Between Allelic Class Diversity

I am reading Charlesworth et al. 1997. They talk about diversity within and between allelic classes. Nucleotide diversities ($π$) at each neutral site were estimated from the mean of $2 \sum z_t ...
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Why are nitrogenous bases of DNA hydrophobic if they can hydrogen bond?

Why are nitrogenous bases of DNA hydrophobic if they can hydrogen bond? Is it that they are only relatively hydrophobic? This forum explains it but does not give an example of the structure.
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Genetic Diversity in Mitochondria

As I was studying for my GRE exam, I was reading on Mitochondria. I then remembered that they undergo replication similar to bacteria. So I googled for info and found on Wikipedia that there is a " ...
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286 views

Operators and Enhancers/Silencers

Wikipedia has two images, of a eukaryotic gene and of a prokaryotic gene. They show the difference that the prokaryotic gene also has an operator while the eukaryotic gene does not. Both also have ...
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111 views

Definition of “essentially diploid”

While researching the F12 cell culture medium (Ham, 1965), I came across the term "essentially diploid Chinese hamster ovary cells". The terms "subdiploid" and "near diploid" were also used to refer ...
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80 views

Can a same gene stretch from one chromosome to another separate chromosome?

Can a gene continue on from one chromosome to another separate chromosome? For example, can part of an eye colour gene be on one chromosome and the rest of it be on the next chromosome?
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How do sex biased genes evolve?

I am wondering how do genes become sex-biased? that is, how does a gene evolve expression which is regulated in a sex-specific manner (assuming no effect from sex-limited Y/W chromosomes). I ...