Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Genotype-Phenotype databases?

Beyond the Stanford HIV database, what other databases out there provide a dataset linking virus/bacterial genotype to quantitative phenotype? I'm looking for high quality datasets to test machine ...
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recombination between DNA segments question

In the diagram shown above, segments A and C are copies of a repeated DNA sequence, flanking a unique stretch shown as B. A and C are in an inverted orientation relative to each other, as indicated ...
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mutations induced by transposons

Question: In contrast to chemically-induced mutations, mutations induced by transposons are more likely to ... be lethal de dominant be stable revert to wild types be a gain of function The ...
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Why do males have more birth defects? [closed]

I taught in elementary school for 20 years and noticed that males were far more likely to be classified as handicapped than females. More males than females die at birth and are more likely to have ...
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Is intelligence (or mental ability) genetically transferred (inherited characteristic) from the parent to the offspring or is it an acquired trait?

The question is simple- whether our mental ability i.e. ability to acquire and store knowledge and comprehend and analyse the stored bits, an inherited trait (i.e. genetically transmitted from the ...
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Abbreviations for molecules: What are CheW, CheA, CheY?

I've encountered the abbreviations such as "CheW" and "CheA" for certain organic molecules. For example: Proteins associating with the Tar complex include the autophosphorylating protein kinase ...
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Genetics of Hybrids

I'm working on this problem, but I'm not sure I've done it correctly. My initial thought was that the answer was $D$, but I don't see anything in the above graph that indicated the Hybrid species ...
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Are progenies factually half-clones of the parents?

Given that a "clone" (if anything, in the context of human cloning) is taken to be, as far as I have understood, a specimen possessing the same genome as his "father/mother", aren't all "non-cloned" ...
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Why are hybrid offspring mostly sterile? [closed]

Hybrid infertility is a common trait in cross-species offspring. Most are sterile, as they do not produce viable gametes. Examples of this can include Ligers and Mules. Could modern advancement in ...
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Serotonin activity with short 5-HTT promotor region and depression

So after reading a few studies (1,2) it seems that a shorter promotor region for the serotonin transport protein may be associated with increased likelihood of developing depression after stressful ...
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How to write 100% phenotype ratio? [closed]

I am not quite sure how to write 100% out come for the phenotype ratio after using "Punnett Square". The result from the each alleles, the dominant allele completely(100%) took over the recessive ...
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How does the sticky ends of foreign gene bind with its counterpart in the plasmid DNA if positions are not matching?

Consider a foreign gene with recognition sequence as GAATTC for EcoR1. Now suppose that it is being cut at two palindromic sequence to form sticky ends. Here the sticky ends are formed such that ...
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What is meant by “the degree to which a gene is expressed” in an individual?

Here is an excerpt from a text that I was reading, Here is an example of microarray data. The idea is to take a group of different individuals and for each of them, you measure how much they ...
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Why do my 23andme results only show me as 8.2% Scandinavian? [closed]

I just got my 23andme results back. My paternal grandfather was full Swedish. Shouldn't that make me 25% Swedish? 23andme tells me I'm only 8.2% Scandinavian. Or maybe my father inherited less than ...
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Rates of evolution of mitochondrial genes

I am interested in knowing the rates of evolution of different mitochondrial genes (in base pairs per million years) across different taxa. Has there been any publications along these lines ?
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Do the effect of inbreeding depression disappear after the first generation of outbreeding?

An animal that is the result of generations of inbreeding tends to have lower fitness. (More diseases etc.) This is usually explained by harmful but recessive mutations that exist in all populations, ...
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Chance of passing a risk allele to child?

Our genetics professor has posted up working for previous examination answers, but I am unsure that one of his answers is correct. My answer is close but may just be due to co-incidence. Question: ...
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Genetic mapping problem

A prototrophic Hfr strain of E. coli with the genotype trp+ purB- pyrC+ is conjugated with an F- strain with the genotype trp- purB+ pyrC- . The trp gene is known to enter last. The following numbers ...
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684 views

Why is an HIV infection considered “incurable”?

My biology teacher told me that if one caught HIV, they cannot be cured because it was near to impossible to be completely virus-free. She said this was because HIV keeps on changing its glycoprotein ...
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Why is an A-U bond less stable than an A-T bond?

I have encountered the following fact many times, but have not yet encountered a possible explanation for it. Will you please help me understand the molecular mechanism by which the bond between ...
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Meaning of “pure” in “pure plant DNA” (horizontally transferred to bacteria in soil conditions)

The abstract of Transformation of Acinetobacter baylyi in non-sterile soil using recombinant plant nuclear DNA, by Simpson et al., 2007: To provide estimates of horizontal gene transfer from ...
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Effect of a doubling of the start codon in a gene

I am learning about frame shift mutations. Frame shifts can occur due to a nucleotide deletion. Suppose that due to a frame shift, because of a deletion somewhere upstream from the original start ...
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478 views

Why does supercoiled DNA run faster?

The DNA exists in linear and cirular forms. The latter form has interesting feature called Supercoiling. The more number of writhe makes it more supercoiled because of which it gets more compact. ...
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meaning of “initial gene constructions” vs. “under the control of plant promoters” in an article on GM plants

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: Antibiotic resistance genes have been introduced to GM plants either as part of the bacterial cloning vectors used for the ...
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Will someone with a double mutation in the allosomes be normal?

Normally a female human has an X allosome from her father and an X allosome form her mother. What if an double mutation happened, which causes that someone has two X allosomes form her mother and no ...
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meaning of “usually greater than 200 base pairs”

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: Homologous recombination. All cellular organisms have molecular functions dedicated to recognizing and recombining DNA ...
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how do I find the number of bp in chromosome 3 by knowing number of bp in chromosome 1?

If i have a number of bp in chromosome 1 for example(298,295,559 bp) can I use this number to find the number of bp in chromosome 3.
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Why are multiple copies of the 35S enhancer used for overexpression in plants?

I know that the CaMV 35S promoter is widely used for transgenic plants, and I also know that it can be used as an enhancer element for overexpression. I noticed that it is always used as a ...
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“structural and regulatory elements of genes” [closed]

Can anyone please explain a little about these two elements of genes? My main problem is with "which ‘switch on’ instructions". genes have structural elements (which code for a particular protein) ...
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How do two parents, recessive and dominant genes and two complimentary nucleotides end up in one DNA? [closed]

In the basic school, I was taught that half of genome is received from father and another half comes from mother in the form of double-helix DNA, whose first helix consists of dominant nucleotide ...
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If dog's DNA and human's DNA are almost same then can it be said that dogs evolved from humans? [closed]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IbY122CSC5w In this video it is said our DNA matches almost the dog's then it can be also said that dogs evolved from humans. Is it?
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Is the fixation rate always equal to the mutation rate for neutral alleles?

Background A classical result of population genetic is that the rate of fixation of netreual alleles is the mutation rate $\mu$. The reason is that each generation $PN_e\mu$ mutations enter the ...
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Virus-to-virus gene transfer via “sequences integrated into a common host organism”

From "Risks from GMOs due to Horizontal Gene Transfer", by Paul Keese: In addition to direct HGT between organisms as depicted in Figure 1, forms of indirect HGT have been observed, which involve ...
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Calculating the recombination factor of four point genetic cross?

So, I'm trying to work out the recombination factor (RF) from this set of data: Which shows the 16 phenotypes of progeny of a cross of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. I know how to go about a three ...
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How do eukaryotes terminate transcription? (clarification on Campbell Biology)

I'm having trouble understanding how eukaryotes terminate transcription. Studying Campbell Biology (pg. 342, 10th ed.), I read: In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase II transcribes the polyadenylation ...
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How does Cas9 interact with CRISPR?

I read that Cas9 protein along with guided RNA binds at a specific DNA fragment of foreign organism integrated in a host organism DNA. To make the host immune to virus infection Cas9 along with gRNA ...
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How to interpret the simple sequence repeat (SSR) on the coding sequence, but not the related protein sequence?

I have predicted some SSR repeat on the gene of interest using SSRLocator program, which the result creates a question for me. Please consider the below sequence, which is part of gene sequence of ...
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What is the biological significance of finding palindromes in DNA sequence?

I found a function called palindromes in Matlab that finds palindromes from DNA sequence. Now what is the biological intention behind incorporating this function? What the biological significance of ...
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How does intron retention make the alternative transcript non-coding?

I faced with a non-coding transcript that specified as one the isoform of BIN1. It sounds that this isoform generated as a result of alternative splicing with a intron retained; am I right? However, ...
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Disease causing variants and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

Is it true that many disease causing variants/mutations do not follow Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium? If so, then please elaborate on why this may be true (or not) and provide examples. I am interested ...
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Plasmid copy number and Rop protein

If i want to transform a bacteria (E. coli) with a particular plasmid (in my case pBR322) will the presence of the Rop gene affect the production of it ? Is it desirable to use a plasmid without that ...
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Why don't the apples seeds from grafted trees produce the same kind of apples?

As Wikipedia says: Grafting is a horticultural technique whereby tissues from one plant are inserted into those of another so that the two sets of vascular tissues may join together. In most ...
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Catenation and decatenation by DNA Gyrase

Decatenation is done for the replication of DNA and why is Catenation done and is it related to Crossing over
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Heterochromatin v Euchromatin. Which is more abundant?

So I was just reading that whether heterochromatin or euchromatin is more abundant in a particular human cell depends on how active that cell is. But considering that most of the 25,000 or so genes in ...
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Do transposons usually jump from one chromosome to another?

If it is usual occurrence, does it mean that my one gene can change its location from one chromosome to another?
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What is the result of modifying the reagents in the Sanger method?

If one of the dideoxynucleotides is omitted while using the Sanger method how would that affect the chain termination method of DNA sequencing?
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Genetics of epilepsy

Is epilepsy genetically inheritable? If yes, is it dominant?
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In what way is ADHD genetic? [closed]

According to Psychcentral depression, bipolar disorder, ADHD, schizophrenia and autism are traceable to the same inherited genetic variations According to AsapSCIENCE, depression could be genetic due ...
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A trivial question on the meaning of “relatives” in an article on horizontal gene transfer

Am I right in suggesting that by close relatives the author meant closely related species, or did he have individual organisms in mind? DETECTION OF HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER There are ...
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Recombination fraction( frequency) in Homozygotes

I have a question about the recombination frequency I hope you have time to answer. Background: If we look at homozygous individual A/A B/B which has been formed from the gametes AB and AB, this ...